World History II Mussolini and Hitler Notes
World History II Mussolini and Hitler Notes HIST 1020
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becky Stinchcomb on Monday March 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
Hist1020 March 10 2016 Mussolini and Hitler and the Road to World War II How does the Treaty of Versailles pave the way for a Second World War Quick aside Communism vs Socialism Socialism a step on the road to communism socialism needs leadership Communism the nal step A communal society 0 In the USSR leaders used the two interchangeably for this course you can too Treaty of Versailles The quotArchitects of Peacequot at Versailles 1919 gt quotThe Big Fourquot 0 David Lloyd George GB Vittorio Orlando Italy Georges Clemenceau France Woodrow Wilson US Vittorio Orlando was the prime minister of Italy When ltaly switched sides Britain and France promised land gt Treaty of London 1915 Europe 1914 Europe 1919 Italy felt betrayed King Victor Emmanuel III was seen a weak leader ln debt from the war 460000 ltalians died ghting on the winning side High unemployment Benito Mussolini Fought in World War I Joined the Italian socialist party Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party For supporting war For disagreeing with fundamental ideas of socialism Mussolini creates the Fascist Party 1921 Promised to rebuild Italy and recreate the Roman Empire What is Fascism Far right wing ideology Strong authoritarian leader Revolution and violence for their own sake Anti conservative anti liberal anti communist Socialism vs Fascism We declare war against socialism not because it is socialism but because it has opposed nationalismquot Mussolini Blackshirts Mussolini s soldiers Wore black to signify the color of death Benito Mussolini with Blackshirts Mussolini Gains Control of Government In 1921 Mussolini and 34 of his associates were elected to the Italian Parliament 1922 March on Rome In October 1922 30000 fascists marches on Rome demanding King Victor Emmannuel III to give Mussolini power Mussolini in Power King Victor Emmanuel lll invited Mussolini to become Prime Minister of Italy l1 Duce By 1925 Mussolini has essentially taken over Italy and created a fascist state The king is still the king but he held very little power Meanwhile in Germany Treaty of Versailles Article 231 War Guilt Clause Article 232 War Reparations Germany after WWI Kaiser Wilhelm ll ees Germany to the Netherlands abdicating his throne As ofJanuary 1920 Germany is without a leader The Allies help set up an intern government The Weimar Republic The rst democracy in Germany gt The Reichstag German parliament The president would be elected every seven years Real power rested in the hands of the Chancellor who was the head of the party with the most seats in the Reichstag The Rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism In the 19205 Hitler a former German soldier became leader of the Nationalist Socialist German Workers Party or Nazis Ignore the word socialist this is a fascist group Brownshirts Storm troopers Beer Hall Putsch In 1923 Hitler miscalculated his strength and organized an attempt at taking power quotMein Kampfquot Outlined the ideas of fascism Hitler wrote that Germany needed to destroy the French Nation and conquer Russia The book sold distributed 10 million copies between 1925 1934 Hitler continues to gain power Germany 1933 1939 January 30 1933 Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany February 28 1933 German government takes away freedom of speech assembly press and privacy arresting anyone who spoke out against the Nazis March 22 1933 rst concentration camp opens at Dachau Germany Dachau Dachau was built because prisons were over owing Nazis didn t have money to build more prisons so they built work camps SS troops used Dachau for work in the death camps Reichstag Fire 1933 Hitler used the attempt to burn the Reichstag by a communist as an excuse to convince the Reichstag to pass legislation known as the Enabling Acts The Enabling Act Banned all political parties Germany was declared a one party state Jews were not allowed to be in civil service professions Local and state governments were staffed by Nazi members The SS The SS were Hitler s private bodyguards and were led by Heinrich Himmler They arrested and killed anyone who challenged Hitler Hitler Secures Absolute Power When the president of Germany died in 1934 Hitler s cabinet passed a law proclaiming the presidency to him rather than holding elections The military swore an oath to Hitler not the state Political cartoon that read they all salute with two hands nowquot July 1934 Hitler Youth For all Germans under the age of eighteen Nuremburg Laws September 15 1935 A citizen is one who is considered to be pure blood per the government You must be born in Germany and your parents and grandparents must be pure blood also You must be faithful to the government The state decides who will receive the certi cate of citizenship Only citizens receive rights and protection Marriages between citizens and non citizens are forbidden These new laws made the JEWS NON CITIZENS 1936 Olympics Nazi Olympics Summer 1936 Olympic games take place in Berlin lnaugurating a new Olympic ritual a lone runner arrived bearing a torch carried by relay from the site of the ancient games in Olympia Greece The perfect opportunity for the Nazis to prove to the world the reality of the Master Race Jesse Owens Jesse Owens the fastest human beingquot captured four gold medals and became the hero of the Olympics After the Games William Shirer writes how lavish and well put together the Olympics hosted by the Nazis were Hitler comments that he is sure that the Olympics will continue to take place in Germany after that point for the rest of existence The Road to war Rome Berlin Axis 1936 Anti Comintern Pact 1936 quotgood friends in three countriesquot Lebensraum Conceptions and policies of a form of settler colonialism connected with agrarianism that existed in Germany from the 1890s to the 1940s Hitler and the Rhineland Chamberlain and Appeasement Munich Agreement 1938 Permitted Nazi Germany s annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country s borders mainly inhabited by German speakers for which a new territorial designation quotSudetenlandquot was coined Nazi Soviet Non Aggression Pact August 1939 NO military action for the next ten years September 1 1939 Hitler invades Poland