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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rogers Schinner on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC225 at Duquesne University taught by MartinPacker in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/221277/psyc225-duquesne-university in Psychlogy at Duquesne University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
The Pizza Problem Apizza parlor is offering ve different kinds of pizza toppings extra cheese olives sausages green peppers and mushrooms Customers can order from 1 to 5 toppings on their pizza How many different kinds of pizza does this restaurant offer The Pizza Problem I what kind of representations I what order of combinations I what strategy for generating I what level of reasoning I sense of certainty I correct answer Strategies 0 quot pi a int u an orderly pattern ortne pattern changes The subject cannotbe sure when nersne srrn l r more The endpointlacks certainty ora sense of necessity This is a canmele apemnamz strategy notafmmal apemnanal strategy o qutapositionstrateg Tine subjectmes to come up wth an orderly pattern butrsnt sure how to do rt The pattern is something like doing the l m that rk showing awareness thatrlnere 15 a system This is a rmnnrmml strategyquot between concrete and formal operations Intersection strategy The subject systematically generates allpossible two or reerlb ping pizzas in order and feels certain wnen nesne has found all othem wthOuLhang to check for duplicates or missing pizzas This is a farmal apemnam strategy Scoring criteria I Include the subject s work 1 if missing I Document their approach to solving the problem representation order correct certain 4 if missing I Analyze the strategy used 2 if missing I Inferthe subject s level of reasoning 1 if missing I A detailed description of the method is unnecessary The Start of Adolescence 0 O 00 0 Week 13 33 00 Overview of Chapter 16 v 0 Research on Adolescent Thought 0 Thinking about the Moral Issues 0 Integration of the Self 0 Self and Society New Quality of Mind Ability to think systematically logically and hypothetically 0 Literature art and religion take on new meanings 0 Fascination with abstract ideas Research on Adolescent Thought 0 Formal Operations coo 0 Features of Formal Operational 3 Thought 0 Hypothetical reasoning While a younger child would make a decision without first contempla ing the range of possibili ies adolescents can generate and mentally test hypotheses and can also think about situations that are contrary to fact 0 Metacognitive thinking 0 Thinking about one s own hinking becomes more complex can also think more deeply about others points of view Features of Formal Operational Thought 0 Thinking about the future O While a younger child is likely to focus only on having a good time right now adolescents are better able to plan ahead 0 Thinking about conventional limits 0 Adolescents rethink fundamental issues of social relations morality politics and religion leads to idealism and a search for heroes Formal Operations 0 Ability to think systematically about all lo ical relations within a pro lem joined with a keen interest in abstract ideas and in the process of thinking itself I 0 Examples 7 0 Thinking about politics and law in terms of abstract principles capable of seeing the bene cial rather than just the punitive side of laws 0 Interested in universal ethical principles and critical of adults hypocrisies m mammal mm mum 9 Piaget s combinationof variables problem p D 624 Formal Operational Thought 0 Another version of the task to test combinatorial logic is the sandwich problem The researcher gives the children a set of four sandwich ingredients bread meat cheese and lettuce and asks them how many different kinds of sandwiches they could make with those ingredients 0 A young teenager attempts but fails the sandwich problem a test of the combinatorial logic aspect of formal operational thought Formal Operational Tho 16 year old Formal Operational Thought 0 An older teenager attacks the sandwich problem using diagrams and lists to ensure that she is covering all possible combinations of ingredients Formal Operational Th ught 1 year d A combinationofvariables task involving an everyday situatio l rnhlcm l k up Hilli1liilllit39l Hum i ii ii irli l l H um lull iiil lri39m ikuul i39iil ii w lili iiu mum l39uxil mu I gulJrliiL rim Muiiilulul iiwiimhm m ai l mum l tin i iimuui i7 0 Underlies deductive reasoning eg Men are mortal Fred is a man so Fred is mortal 0 Begins to appear around 6th grade ages 1112 0 There is a great deal of variation in when and under what circumstances it is displayed A deductive reasoning oroblem SIDE Lnd3 15 years nl age Each of the above cards has information about a person sitting at a iable One side of each card gives the person39s age and the other sldc If the L LI 392 says what lhcy are drinking Here ls the mic IF A PERSON IS DRINKING BEER THEN THE PERSON MUSF BE OVER 2 I le Ihe cards or card that you must turn over to nd out whether the mie is being bmkm SIDE Z Percent of Students in Piagetian Stages Fchrimcm 1 Ovarian er al l987 9n 39 h iperlmem 2 apartments 30 chscntsmdy E 2 r of g formal v5 reasoning as g indicated by g responses to a 39 deductive reasoning problems 0 4391 l 8 911 lol 2 l m n 1 n x 0mm I 7 00 7 2A a gt E 90 a as g 50 u 3 7D 7 ZAearlyconcrcw c so 50 33 late formal 40 3A age lvearsl Key Aspects of Formal Ops 0 hypothetical thinking the ability to reason about abstract hypothetical even contrary tofactquot possibilities 0 systematic thinking the ability to reason carefully through a sequence of steps without skipping a step 0 combinatorial logic the ability to generate all possible combinations of variables in order to solve a problem Criticisms of Piaget 0 Formal operational thought develops more slowly than Piaget claimed with some teens not showing formal thought until late adolescence 0 Adolescents and adults in agricultural societies do not seem to show formal thought so it may require education in science and math 0 Even adolescents who can demonstrate formal thought on science problems may not be able to apply those reasoning tools to 00 0 009 00 Adolescent Egocentrism 0 An adolescent s belief that their own psychological experiences are unique 0 Also makes some teens believe that they are immune to common dangers that apply to ordinary mortals leading them to engage in risky behaviors such as drinking and driving or unprotected sex What Piaget ignored 0 Formal operational thinking cannot be achieved by the individual alone The adolescent must participate in particular kinds of social institution if they are to become capable of this kind of systematic theoretical reasoning Onepage paper 39 0 This table shows the characteristics of the classic high school cliques 0 Describe the social organization of your high school Crowd Differences in Mean Scores on Outcome Measures Outcome Total Jock Popular Druggie Outcast Brain Normal Floater Outsider GPA 306 326 318 282 287 361 319 313 265 Importance of schooling 386 422 395 334 384 423 410 402 342 Drug use 133 143 261 128 111 127 134 202 162 Minor delinquency 141 133 134 177 131 115 121 129 164 i A Puberty 0 Growth Spurt con 0 Brain Development Sexual Development Timing of Puberty Puberty 339 0 The series of biological developments that transforms individuals from a state of physical immaturity into one in which they are biologically capable of sexual reproduction Puberty 0 Cascade of biochemical events that begins around the end of the first decade of life 39 Alters body size shape and functioning Growth Spurt 0 Homo sapens is only primate to experience a growth spurt following childhood a key indicator of the onset of puberty Faster growth than at any time since infancy 5 0 During 23 years boys may grow 9 inches taller girls 67 inches taller By end of growth spurt reach 98 of adult height Progression Legs 9 trunk 9 chest and shoulders head Boys lose body fat and are stronger than girls by he end of puberty girls however are healthier end up living longer and are better able to tolerate longterm stress I Brain Development Although the brain attains 90 of its adut weight by the age of5 and grows very little in size during adolescence recent longitudinal studies point to complex my changes in its organiza ion and function at pubeny These images are composites derived from brain scans of normally developing children and adolescents a and adolescents and adults b The red areas indicate where there is both an increase in the size of the brain and a decrease in gray matter Note that there are substantially more areas of red in the adolescent and adult image most of which are concentrated in the frontal area of the brain associated with complex cognitive processes Sexual Development 3 0 Changes in the primary sex organs those directly involved in reproduction Appearance of secondary sex characteristics the anatomical and physiological signs that outwardly distinguish males from females O Appearance of underarm and pubic hair facial hair M voice changes M muscles develop M breasts and mammary glands develop F hips and pelvic inlet widen F do not reach adult size until 18 years of age which makes childbirth difficult and potentially dangerous for young adolescent females Inglm i crab dl can lers Sexual Development Am Appears V Facial lmlr Acm39 appears 39 v we Musculauw Axillary hair ddquotMOPS ppenrs quot Adrenal t enlarges Jmkng lls 1 t 1 39 rum deepens u kx lary 111quot x l appears eulmges Melisu uam u itegl us l mm my l 41mm 39li suummnc l i l l l l r mm Body rumours m ilu ed I l L I Timing of Puberty 0 V de individual variations although girls on the average begin somewhat earlier 0 Adolescent females who experience high levels of family stress go through menarche earlier while those who participate in high levels of physical exercise reach it later 39 Age of menarche has been declining in most industrialized countries since 1840s Fifty years ago maximum height for USA male reached at age 26 now at age 18 Sequence of Events at Puberty Fermies Males Halli spun95Am39 nghx rpm HHl ml lcnan lw I M l llHHi Him Bieasl TNis vans um l illllc lmlx 2147 Pnlnr hair ITIlIi l l 1 l l y y l l l l y l l s 9 iii 11 l2 13 ll 15 16 l a 9 11 11 l 3 I4 is 16 17 Age years Age veal rs Puberty last approximately 4 years Finland U n itcd Status 155 a 150 a E 155 2 Age of menarche 39El 15 a has been 2 145 declining in both 3 140 I I aand E n industrialized lt 135 countries during the past 150 years 121 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 Years What is Adolescence Length of Time Between Puberty Sexual Activity and Marriage my women Hm Aiulun39hu l K IMriagc bu u m 20 30 Age yeam 1938 wulllcn Hrs Melhlrchc blurring hith lo 20 Bu 3 Q uzn I988 men First Humnurch inlurLUll39gtt Mam130 I wars 39 El ll 20 30 Aguyual l 0 O 0 00 O OI Adolescence Is 39 0 the gap de ned by culture between the time when an individual achieves the biological capacity for reproduction and the time when they are judged to have the social capacity for reproduction Adolescence 0 From Latin adelesco to grow up 0 Gap that separates the onset of sexual maturity from the social changes that confer adult status eg right to marry without parental consent or to run for elective office 0 Lasts 79 years in most industrialized societies 0 Atime in which 0 Social relations are being restructured 0 Increased independence from parents 0 Profound changes in the way they think about themselves and the world Rites of Passage 0 Puberty 12 y 0 Bar Mitzvah Bat Mitzvah 13 y 0 Quincea eras 15 y 0 Drivers License 16 y 0 Eligible to Vote 18 y 0 Legal drinking 21 y 0 Graduate college 24 y Thinking about Moral Issues 0 An Important Concern in 009 096 Adolescence 100 coco 0 0 0 00 006 00 no 9 I 39nking about Moral Issues 0 What is right What is wrong What principles should I based my behavior on and use to judge the behavior of others How do balance my responsibilities to others against my own personal rights What does it mean to be a moral person in a world where immoral behavior is so prevalent Why is our society is organized as it is What might be done to improve society and myself 0 0 The Heinz Dilemma g In Europe a woman was near death from 339 cancer One drug might save her a form 0 radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered The druggist was charging 2000 ten times what the drug cost him to make The sick woman39s husband Heinz went to everyone he knew to borrow the money but he could get together only about half of what it cost He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later But the druggist said no The husband got desparate and broke into the man39s store to steal the drug for his wife Should the husband have done that Why Some possible answers 3 0 No he ll be put in jail 0 Yes he will be miserable without his wife 0 No his reputation will be ruined 0 Yes he loves his wife 0 No stealing is against the law 0 Yes he offered all the money he had 0 Yes the druggist is being selfish 0 Yes saving a life is more important than obeying the law Some possible considerations 0 Heinz happiness 0 Consequences such as punishment 0 What others will think 0 The law 0 Duty to his wife 0 Abstract principles importance of life Stage I Heteronomous morality Percent Mean pe rce ntage of moral reasoning of US citizens at each of Kohlberg s stages by 0 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 25 28 30 32 34 36 age39gmup Agetyeans Distribution of moral judgment scores for a sample of 16yearolds Young women s scores are lower than young men s F quot scores Number of cases Mam judgment scare Two Different Mora Voices mmmmme WWWMWW WWWWMWWMWM mmmmmmwm mm mmmmmmmm mmeMa WMWWWWWWd aw mmmwmmm WMWWWWWWWW WWWWMM BioSociaBehavioraShift 39 Adoescence m CI CD 2 o mmmeMM mmWWM m
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