Chem notes week 6
Chem notes week 6 CHEM-10055-003-201580
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hanna Notetaker on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM-10055-003-201580 at Kent State University taught by Bansidhar Datta (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see MOLECULES OF LIFE in Chemistry at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Chemistry Week 6 TYPES OF MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS Ax4 tetrahedral Ax3 triangular planar Ax2 linear LEWIS DOT STRUCTURE Shows atoms bonding and lone their pairs Each line represents a bond one pair sharing electrons Non bonding electrons written as lone pairs dots Example C02 looks like C saturation carbon compounds classified as saturated or unsaturated Saturated compound is bonded to maximum atoms NO DOUBLE BONDS saturated hydrogens of carbons x 2 2 C5 H 12 52 2 12 ELECTRON EGATIVITY Strength of attraction an atom has for electrons Determines the strengths of bonds that can be formed Can determine stability 0 N F Cl are very electronegative elements 1 NON POLAR COVALENT BOND If two atoms have similar electronegativity electrons are shared evenly nonpolar Example C 25 H 21 2 POLAR COVALENT BOND If there is a difference between 05 and 19 its unbalanced and polar Example C O 15 is between 5 10 so its polar 3 IONIC BOND Large difference in 2 atoms greater than 19 ionic bond formed Example Li and Cl Li 10 CI 35 35 10 25 25 is greater than 19 ionic bond Orbital Hybridization Remember molecules are 3D Carbon can bond to diff of atoms bc it is able to form multiple bonds Idea of multiple bonds orbital hybridization orbital hybridization valence electrons used in bonding number of columns from left to right tells the of valence electrons electrons used in bonding can come from S or P blocks the electrons are traveling in different shaped rings around the atom VSPER THEORY 3D predicts geometryshapes of molecules A molecule X surrounding atoms TYPES OF MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS Ax4 tetrahedral Ax3 triangular planar Ax2 linear Tetrahedral Shape when carbon bonds with 4 different atoms sp3 hybridization its dividing its electron 4 ways SINGLE BONDS ls and 3p electrons are smeared together angles of 1095 ex NH3 Trigonal planar Carbon has a DOUBLE BOND so its dividing its electrons 3 ways sz hybridization ls and 2p used Angles of 120 degrees Example C2H4 0 Linear Shape Carbon makes a triple bond sharing its electrons with 2 atom Has 2 double double bonds 0R triple and single bond Sp hybridization ls 1p Angles of 180 Saturated linear hydrocarbon CnH2n2 n carbons nonpolar example if C is 9 H 20 9x218 18 2 20 example butane C4H10 Unsaturated Linear Hydrocarbon CnHzn nonpolar example propane C3H6 Unsaturated Linear CnHZnZ nonpolar Example CZHZ Methane CH4 391 H ID H 2D H H C H H 3D H tetrahedra Ethane C2H5 2D H I O I 391 H Propane C3H5 Butane C4H10 Prefixes for carbon compounds 1 C meth 2 C eth 3 C prop 4 C but 5 C pent 6 C hex 7 C hept 8 C oct 9 C non 10 C dec Blood pH 74 Buffers regulation of pH keep pH on buffer Open system buffers outside of the cell open to environment helps maintain coZ bloodstream open to environment 0 acidosis too much coZ hard to breathe more acidic o alkalosis not enough coZ excessive breathing hyperventilation o alkalitic less coZ in blood fever Closed system buffers Inside of cell HPO4239H2PO439 Helps regulate enzyme functions Hydrocarbons molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen 0 The more carbons longer chain of C the molecule contains the less polar it is and more balanced C amp H make non polar molecules The more oxygen s shorter C chain the molecule contains The more polar the molecule will be less balanced O amp N make polar molecules Hydrocarbon C H2 02 3nll2n2 functional groups atom or group of atoms that determine the characteristics or chemical behavior of the structure 0 Alcohols polar carboxylic acids polar aldehydes polar ketones polar Ethers non polar ALCOHOLS Formula CnH2nZO Suffix ol 0 Polar OH replaces H examples methanol ethanol propanol butanol Methanol 39T39 H c o H H o Mane 9 Mano o 1 hydrogen of carbons 4 is replaced by an OH group it becomes Manol carbon has only 3 H bonds left and one OH bond C OH 0 CH4 9 CH3 OH o Tetrahedral 1095 O Ethanol T T H C C O H OH 1 J o Ethane 9 ethanol 0 CH3 CH3 CzHa o CH3CH20H o C C OH 0 Tetrahedral1095 Propanol 39 39 39 HCIDCIDCOH H H H Propane 9 propanol CH3CH2CHZOH C C C OH 3 carbon pro chain with alcohol OH tetrahedral 1095 00000 Butanol o butane 9 butanol O CH3CH2CH2CH3 C4H10 ETHERS Formula CnH2nZO Oxygen holds chain together Start w carbon 2 C O C Examples di methyl ether methyl ethyl ether diethyl ether Dimethyl Ether O CH30 CH3 0 Tetrahedral1095 o Nonpolar 0 Two 1 carbon groups dimethyl bonded by 0 Methyl Ethyl Ether O 0 one Carbon meth bonded to 2 carbons eth Diethyl Ether O 0 Two carbons bonded to two carbon 10 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS Polar 0 Formula CnHZnO Carbon bonded to oxygen and hydroxide Oxidation adding oxygen Examples methanoic acid and acetic acid Functional group is always at the end of carbon chain Methanoic Acid CH4 9 CH3CH20H 9 CH3COOH Methane 9 Methanol 9 Methanoic Acid formic acid Triangular quot39 120 Acetic Acid Ethane 9 ethanol 9 Acetic Acid C2H6 9 CH3CH20H 9 CH3COOH Polar Triangular Example vinegar OOOOO ALDEHYDES 0 Formula CnHZnO 11 0 Last carbon is double bonded to oxygen 0 Functional group is always at end if carbon chain 0 Example formaldehyde acetaldehyde Formaldehyde CH49 CH30H 9 HCHO 9 HCOOH Acetaldehyde o CH3COOH o C2H69 CH3CH20H9 CH3COOH KETONES R C R1 0 3 carbons formula CnHZnO functional group in middle no hydrogen carbon attached to 2 alkylR groups and an double bonded to oxygen example 0 CH3COCH3 dimethyl ketone 2 di one carbon groups meth ketone 000000 12 AMINES 000000 R NHZ Saturated nitrogen atoms attached to a carbon chain Suffix amine polar Ammonia derivatives Classified as 0 Primary 1 N attached to 1 group I R NH2 0 Secondary 2 N attached to 2 groups 0 Tertiary 3 N attached to 3 groups Examples methyl amine ethyl amine propyl amine Methyl amine CH3 NH2 If R group CH3 Dimethyl Amine CH3CH3NH Secondary amine tri methyl Amine CH3CH3CH3N tertiary amine Ethyl Amine CH3CH2NH2 If R group CH3CH2 Propyl Amine CH3CH2CH2NH2 If R CH3CH2 CH2 13
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