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Physiology of Exercise

by: Miguel Bartell

Physiology of Exercise EXSS 3805

Miguel Bartell
GPA 3.91


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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miguel Bartell on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EXSS 3805 at East Carolina University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see /class/221302/exss-3805-east-carolina-university in EXERCISE AND SPORT SCIENCE at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 10/11/15
Exam 1 1 Iquot S P Equot 9 Exam 2 8 5 EXSS 3805 Final Muscle bertypes a Type l slow twitch 50 b Type Ila fast twitch 25 c Type llx fast twitch 25 Contractions a Eccentric force from lengthening the muscle b Concentric force from shortening the musde c Isometric force from muscle length being unchanged Energy Systems a ATPPCr fastest ATP production shortest duration at which ATP can be produced last about 1 2 minutes b Glycolytic moderate rate of ATP production 315 minutes Squot Oxidative occurs in the mitochondria slowest rate of production longest duration includes Krebs cycle and ETC endurance activities Energy system substrate a CHO 41 kcalg 13 at rest used most in intense exercise b Fat 94kcalg23 at rest c Protein 41 kcalg converted to FFA during starvation Important enzymes a ATPase breaks down ATP to ADP and Pi and energy b Creatine Kinase breaks apart PCr c PFK rate limiting enzyme of glycolisis Betaoxidation FFA turned into Aoetyl CoA then goes to Krebs to make 35 ATP a Glycolysis process by which muscles break down sugars glucose b Krebs Cycle where pyruvic acid 9 acetylCoA produoes 2 ATP regulated by CH amp SDH c ETC OZ combines with H to form H20 creates 34 ATP Ways to regulate SV a Frank Starling greater lling l SV more blood in ventricle EDS l SV b Ventricular Contractility l SNS nerve activity l SV J ESV I SV What determines fiber type type of motor neuron What is SV The volume of blood pumped from one ventricle of the heart with each beat a Q The volume of blood pumped from one ventricle of the heart with each minute Mix Path of blood through the heart LA Mitral Bicuspid Valve LVAortic Valve Aorta Body Vena Cava RA Tricuspid Valve RV Pulmonary Artery Pulmonary Vein Lungs Pulmonary Vein Decreasesin ESV as exercise intensityincreases are caused by increased contractility How does one estimate maximal HR HRmax 220age What happens to pulmonary ventilation in respome to exercise a It increases in the form of hypeNentiIation to remove CO2 in orderto maintain pH 15 Electrical conduction system of the heart a P Wave aeria depolarization b QRS complex ventricular depolarization c TWave ventricular repolarization Isovolumlc relaxa on Ejection Rapid In ow Isovolumic Diaslasis conlraclion F 39 Aln39al sysole Aonic alve 120 120 100 Opens a Aorlic pressure I 30 E Press 60 E 60 mmHg 390 40 g closes 20 Ailial pressure 0 0 a 130 Mural Venlriculal pressure 120 g Venlrrcular volume LV g Vol 80 g m gt 40 Eleclrocardiogram ECG 84 S1 52 3 ANW IVHWWBW Phonocammgmm sounds I I I I l I39 391 0 04 08 Ssmle DiasIole systole Time sec Pathway of intrinsic conduction system a SA node AV node AV bundle perkinje fibers 16 Define a SBP Systoic blood pressure highest pressure in vascular system due to cardiac contraction b DBP Diastolic blood pressure lowest blood pressure in vascular system when heart is relaxed c MAP Mean Arterial Pressure MAP 23 DBP 13 SBP orQXTPR d TPR is the sum ofthe resistance of all peripheral vasculature in the systemic circulation TPR Mean Arterial Pressure Mean Venous Pressure Cardiac Output RAPQ e What happens as exercise intensity increases i Endurance Exercise MAP increase 1 SBP increase i 2 DBP no change iii TPR iv Resistanceexercise 1 SBP increase v MAP increase 2 DBP increase vi TPR 17 What happens to P02 and PCOZ in tissues blood and lungs during exercise a Alveoli P02 is greater and PCOZ is lower due to hypeNentiIation b Arteries P02 is the same as at rest so that arterial oxygenation is maintained c Muscles P02 is lower an PCO2 is higher Exam 3 18 19 Whatis Doms Pain and stiffness felt in musdes several hours to days after exercise Whatis the human mechanical efficiency 21 23 during exercise and 40 at rest 21 Whatis cardiac drift a Gradual increase in HR in response to decrease in SV thus no change in Q 22 Define a Continuous training continuous paoe uses oxidative system long and slow good for maintaining aerobic endurance Interval training repeated bouts of moderate to high intensity with interspersed rest 939 or reduced intensity exercise 23 Plyometrics exercise that employs the stretchshortening cyde a Free weights barbells or dumbbells used for training where the resistance remains constant throughout the dynamic range of motion b Variable resistance machine a device that decrease resistance at the weakest point in the range of motion and increases it at the strongest points c How to train to optimize strength Power 14 rep high resistanoe emphasis on speed Strength 35 reps high resistanoe ii39 Endurance 20 reps at low resistance i lt Hypertrophy 8l2 reps moderate resistanoe 24 Early strength gains due to neural adaptations 25 Longterm strength gains due to muscle fiber hypertrophy 26 Neural mechanisms associated with strength gains Increased recruitment of motor units Synchronicity of motor unit recruitment is improved Morphological changes in the neuromuscularjunction Increased frequency of discharge from the amotor neuron Decrease in autogenic inhibition inhibitory mechanisms Thompzrgn Reduction in the coactivation of antagonist musdes g Neural adaptations always accompany strength gains 27 Glycogen sparing increased relianoe on fats for energy production during endurance activity rather than stores of glycogen a Causes increased oxidative enzymes and aerobic training Exam 4 28 Bene ts of ingesting fluids during exercise a It reduces the risk of dehydration and provides partial energy supplement 29 Ergogenic aids substances that enhances performance 3 Hormonal anabolic steroids personality changes liver damage CVD testicular atrophy testosterone hGH acromegaly bigger internal organs muscle and joint weakness diabetes hypertension heart disease b Physiological bood doping erythropoietin EPO like blood doping bicarbonate raises pH increase performances for anaerobic activities cause bloating GI cramping diarrhea c Pharmacological amphetamines CNS stimulant death CA nervousness insomnia caffeine CNS stimulant nervousness headache insomnia GI problems dehydration tremors quotF for competition involves a reduction in overall workload due to lower volumes but with increased intensity a This rest allows for body selfrepair and restoration ofenergy reserves glycogen to prepare for improved performance b 31 At puberty a Boys I FFM FM and l testosterone b Girls J FFM 4 FM and l estrogen 32 Physiological adaptations to anaerobic training in children a l resting concentration of ATP Pcr and glycogen b l PFK c 4 LA threshold capadty to handle LA 33 Body composition assessment methods a Densitometry under water or hydrostatic weighing gold standard i Density body massbody volume water displacement body volume DualEnergy XRay Absorptiometry Machine DEXA aso used for bone mass Air Plethysmography Bod Pod dispacement of air Triceps Skinfold cheap but less accurate Bioelectric Impedance Assessment BIA uses low grade current 051057 Exam 5 34 Why does weightgain occur with aging J PA I calorie intake J ability to mobilize fat 35 Factors are associated with J FFM after age 40 J PA J protein synthesis J GH and GfR 36 Weight height FFM FM and strength difference in men vs women a Females are 5 inches shorter 3040 lbs lighter total weight 4050 lbs lighter in FFM 713 lbs heaver in FM 6 10 higher relative body fat Less upper body strength mrhmmpzr Similar lower body strength 37 The 2008 Physical Activity guidelines for healthadditional health benefits a 150 min of moderate 300 min of moderate b 75 min ofvigorous 150 min of vigorous c 10 min spread out through the day equivalent of both d Medical dearanoe identi es riskfactors develop appropriate exercise gets baseline check for diseases motivate one to know their body composition 38 Obesity excessive amount of body fat BMI over 30 3 Adults 13 overweigit 13 obese b Children 13 overweight 13 obese 39 Diabetes is a chronic disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood a Type I caused by the inability of the pancreas to produoe suf cientinsulin because of failure of beta cells Accounts for 5 of diabetes b Type II the result of ineffectiveness of insulin to facilitate the transport of glucose into the cells because of insulin resistanoe Accounts for 95 of diabetes 40 Whattraining adaptations result in decreased risk of CVD a Reduced work of the heart Improved endothelial function 9 antiinflammatory effect of exerdse I heart size and pumping capacity Produoes larger coronary arteries and improves blood ow to the heart Improves blood lipids 4 LDL and TG and I HDL Lowers BP in hypertensive individuals Reduoes obesity Femquot5195 Improvesinsulin sensitivity i Brain i Reduces the risk of developinga stroke ii Improves mental function and health


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