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Introduction to Renaissance Studies

by: Bradford McCullough Sr.

Introduction to Renaissance Studies MRST 2500

Marketplace > East Carolina University > Education, Science > MRST 2500 > Introduction to Renaissance Studies
Bradford McCullough Sr.
GPA 3.76

Kevin Moll

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Kevin Moll
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bradford McCullough Sr. on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MRST 2500 at East Carolina University taught by Kevin Moll in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/221304/mrst-2500-east-carolina-university in Education, Science at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 10/11/15
Chapter one Introduction The best and worst of times Erasmus of Rotterdam suggested something of the fundamental problem of Europe in the time of Renaissance and Reformation Best and worst times Between 1300 and 1700 many parts of Europe experienced an incredible era of superb achievement with such luminaries as 0 Jan Van Eyck Botticelli Albrecht Durer Raphael Michelangelo Titian Artemisia Gentileschi All producing masterpieces in abundance The Italian master artist Leonardo da Vinci used nearly perfect techniques in oil painting perspective and the use of light and shade to produce revolutionary paintings such as his THE VIRGIN OF THE ROCKS of which he painted two versions THE VIRGIN OF THE ROCKS represents a culminating manifestation of many important Renaissance trends including the rise of humanism and scienti c naturalism in art As the 15 11 century philosopher Marsilio Ficino expressed it This age like a golden age has restored to light the liberal arts that were almost extinct GRAMMAR POETRY RHETORIC PAINTING SCULPTURE ARCHITECTURE MUSIC The 16th century artist and rst art historian Giorgio Vasari 15111574 even coined the term Renaissance to celebrate the magni cent achievements going on all around him In literature The Renaissance was also an age of cultural giants such as Boccaccio Cervantes Marguerite of Navarre Petrarch Rabelais Shakespeare Christinee de Pizan 7 studied women in society Niccolo Machiavelli questioned the traditional understandings of the connection between ethics and politics The great classical scholars and humanists of the period such as ERASMUS and LORENZO VALLA strengthened our understanding of the JudeoChristian tradition Renaissance 7 Rebirth Refers to the revived interest in classical and JudeoChristian sources The humanist slogan as fonts to the sources Many of the humanists urged their followers to immerse themselves in ancient languages and literature as a means of individual and societal improvement In science notions of the universe developed by ARISTOTLE and PTOLEMY were discredited to some degree by the POLE NICHOLAS COPERNICUS and the Italian GALILEO THE FLEMING ANDREAS VESALIUS respectfully revised some of the timehonored notions about anatomy put forth by the Greek physician GALEN in the second century Inspirational religious leaders 0 John Wycliffe 0 Jan Hus o Savonarola Confronted many existing traditions while reviving others Similarly the theory would never be the same after GUICCIARDINI and MACHIAVELLI The Renaissance was also a period of almost incessant warfare periodic famine high infant mortality terrible health care rapid aging widespread epidemics peasant and artisan revolts intolerance of any form of diversity ignorance superstition forced conversions and migrations cruelly elaborate public executions of ethnic religious minorities and a ferocious witchcraft craze that occurred mostly after the 1590s h 15 cent 7 serious depressron The Renaissance began against the background of a series of natural and human disasters and ended in the bloody religious con icts of the Reformation Era The Age started with females generally subordinated to males and restricted by law and custom Ended up pretty much the same way because PATRIARCHY the rule of the father in the family and society There is little doubt about the historical and cultural importance of the years between the lives of the painter GIOTTO c 12671337 and the naturalist MARIA SIBYLLA MERIAN 1647 1717 The Italian Renaissance brought forth the triumph of individualism and helped usher in the modern world This Lust for acquisition helped fuel the rise of capitalism and the movement toward a world economy During the l4Lh 7 l7Lh c merchants learned to make better use of international banking and found new ways to raise capital Simple innovations such as o The use of doubleentry bookkeeping and bills of exchange greatly improved business practices Navigational techniques became more sophisticated and ships were made bigger and better Trade expanded and the standard of living improved at least for the prosperous Capitalism helped lead to an expansion in the horri c practices of the slave trade and to the voyages of discovery which in turn led to the creation of vast colonial empires and the spread of lethal diseases throughout the socalled New World The controversial navigator CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS was a child of the Renaissance as was FRANCESCO PIZZARO who conquered and looted the Inca Empire in Peru There was new quality and quantity of exchange between Western Europe and the Ottoman Empire The period clearly featured the rise of the modern territorial state as feudal monarchies in Europe gave way to more bureaucratized and centralized power structures Even a massive state like the Holy Roman Empire which remained largely decentralized and supranational attempted to regularize its medieval organizational structure In 1356 the empire codified its tradition of electing its monarchs in a document known as the Golden Bull Feudal levies were frequently replaced by mercenaries who would fight for anyone who paid them The lance and the sword became more and more obsolete because of the bow and arrow then by the gun powder weapons A military revolution ensued which was to have profound consequences as general superiority in warfare allowed Europeans to dominate and exploit the rest of the world economically until well into the 20Lh c THE REFORMATION The term reformation is historical ction created in the l9Lh c to describe the movements for religious reform that followed from Friar Martin Luther s attack against indulgences in 1517 to the close of the age of religious warfare in the middle of the 17111 c The great German historian LEOPOLD VON RANKE 1795 1886 helped to develop the concept of the Reformation as a discrete historical period as well as a movement for church political and societal reforms The reform movement in the Roman Catholic Church has often been called a Counter Reformation though the more inclusive term Catholic Reformation would seem more appropriate Renaissance and Reformation are still more descriptive and evocative labels in some ways than simply Europe between 1300 and 1700 or Early Modern Europe 14501789 which many Western scholars now seem to prefer It is quite clear to many that something special was going on in Europe between 1300 and 1700 DAN CES OVER FIRE AND WA T ER Regardless of what one calls this age in history the reformation was indeed the best and worst times which is why we can think of it as a series of dances over fire and water The modern historian and novelist SYDNEY ALEXANDER first used this simulating image to refer to the Renaissance Most of its intellectuals still believed that the world was made up of four basic elements 0 Earth 0 Fire 0 Air 0 Water Botticelli Machiavelli Michelangelo William Shakespeare and Elizabeth 1 of England appear nearly superhuman at times One can imagine them capable of doing anything including dancing over fire and water Not since classical Athens or Rome of the lSt c had Europe witnessed such an age of stunning artistic and intellectual accomplishments set against a background of incredible suffering The public burning of religious minorities and dissenters in the elaborate ceremonies called autos defe acts of faith by he Inquisition sums up much of the worst about the age So do the torture and torching of those victims caught up in the agony of the witchcraft trials by both Protestant and Catholic states at the end of the era Catholics and Protestants agreed upon the need to drown and burn Anabaptists those who believed only adults should be baptized therefore had to be rebaptized The new gunpowder weapons substantially increased the firepower available to the period s military Yet the movement known as the Reformation was also a dance of death and destruction Chronology 13377 1453 13477 1350 1356 1378 7 1417 1414 7 1418 1453 1455 7 1485 1492 1494 1495 1512 1524 7 1526 1526 1527 154571563 155871603 1571 158071640 161871648 164271649 Hundred years war between England and France The Black Death Peasant Revolt in France Western Papal Schism Reform Council of Constance Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans War ofthe Roses in England Columbus voyage to America King Charles VIII of France invades Italy Da Vinci begins Last Supper Michelangelo completes the Sistene chapel ceiling Peasants revolts in Germany and Austria beginnings of Anabaptism Ottomans under Suleyman the Magni cent conquer much of Hungary Sack of Rome Council of Trent Reign of Elizabeth I of England Battle of Lepanto Peak period for Witchcraft trials Thirty Years War in Germany English Civil War


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