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The Water Planet

by: Dr. Ross Hermiston

The Water Planet GEOG 1250

Dr. Ross Hermiston
GPA 3.66

Viva Reynolds

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Viva Reynolds
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Ross Hermiston on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1250 at East Carolina University taught by Viva Reynolds in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/221305/geog-1250-east-carolina-university in Geography at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 10/11/15
Geography 1250 Spring 2011 Exam 2 Study Guide Disclaimer This study guide is not meant to be an exhaustive review of all materials that may serve as sources for exam questions lectures readings inclass discussion and videos Rather this guide functions as a test preparation aid and covers typical areas of knowledge that will appear on the exam 1 In what three types of locations on Earth are arid and semiarid lands likely to be found Why Explain the conditions under which maximum wind erosion will occur in drylands What types of landscapes are created by river uvial processes in drylands 2 How is a drought de ned How does a drought area differ from one that has a normally arid or semiarid climate 3 Define deserti cation and identify its two major causes Discuss why the Sahel region in Africa is undergoing desertification What are the impacts of this process on the lives and livelihoods of people in the region Is the Sahel a natural dryland or going through a drought What causes salinization 4 What is the difference between weather and climate Give examples of each How or why do people confuse the two in everyday discussions 5 What does the Greenhouse Effect do for the Earth What are the common Greenhouse gases How are humans impacting or changing the actions of the Greenhouse Effect How will this impact Earth s water 6 What is the ozone layer and how does it protect Earth How is the Ozone Layer different from the Greenhouse Effect 7 What scientific based evidence shows that global climate changes have occurred in the past Is global warming occurring now If so what evidence indicates it is warming 8 Explain three possible weather and sea changes that may occur if current rates of global warming do continue to increase by the expected 2 F over the next century What impacts on human health can occur and have occurred from global warming 9 What percent of Earth s water is saltwater Freshwater Easily extractible from lakes rivers and ponds surface water Why do humans rely mostly on surface water and groundwater supplies 10 What are major concerns for water use in the future As in explain the world s major water supply problems related to supply vs demand and location issues Which economic sectors account for the most water use globally Why did the Us experience a major increase in water use in the 1950s and why are developing nations facing a similar surge now What are differences in rural vs urban water supplies ECU V Reynolds 11 What are impacts on humans and the environment from lack of water What produces or distributes disease causing agents pathogens like e coli or cholera and how do they contaminate water sources What impacts do pathogens have on humans 12 Discuss the major water resource con icts on the Colorado River s Who is involved in this con icts countries states tribes other 13 How have humans historically solved water supply issues What are common technological xes to water supply problems Which is currently cheapest Most expensive Describe some consequences or problems that arise from technological xes such as groundwater development interbasin transfers of water and building of dams Discuss how evaporationcondensation methods differ from the reverse osmosis method of desalination and why both are still so expensive 14 What is groundwater and where is it located How does the water table relate to groundwater What is an aquifer How does water enter the ground and how is it extracted by humans What is a recharge rate and how does that differ between the East and Western US and why is this important to know How does a cone of depression form What are common problems from groundwater mining overdraft What is subsidence and where is it happening in the US What is saltwater intrusion and how does it occur Additional Questions from the readings and in class lms 15 From Global Warming The Signs and The Science video What is the impact of global warming on Alaska and on food production such as rice and oOn human health in cities and in the example of Greeley CO Why is China s growing population of concern in terms of the Greenhouse Effect Why are poor people more likely to suffer from global warming s impacts How is the US economy and energy supply such as at Port Fourchon LA tied to global warming 16 httpea1thobservatognasagovFeaturesDustBowl Why did the Dust Bowl occur What was it What were the impacts on humans and the local environment from the Dust storms How is this similar to what is happening in the Sahel region of Africa 17 httpwwweoearthorgzalticleDeserti cation What is deserti cation Where is it happening What role do people play in causing this problem What are the environmental and human health impacts What can be done to prevent or reduce this problem 18 What is the Greenhouse Effect and how does it operate normally What are greenhouse gases What role do humans play in changing these processes and gas concentrations I I httpwww nwsn edn geo facultv ritter geoglOltextl 39 effect html 19 What are expected weather changes from global warming Where would they occur httpwwwuwspedugeofacultyrittergeog101textbooldweather systemsfuture geographies severe weatherhtml ECU V Reynolds 20 On this page be sure to watch video at bottom on European changes What has happened to wintermountain activities What is happening in southern places like Spain httpwww nwsn edn geofacultvrittergeoglOltextbooldclimate quot chance html 2l httpdiscovermagazinecom2009jun30stateoftheclimateandscience How certain are the interviewed scientists of climate change occurring versus the certainty of potential warming impacts How do the examples given in the article indicate the way politics plays a role in changing climate or adapting to global warming What roles should be played by individuals versus governments basically 7 should you change your lifestyle or habits or does that make a difference In what ways might global warming impact our agricultural processes 22 Report Climate change crisis 39catastrophic What are locations of great lifethreatening concern or impact now from warming and expected security health and economic impacts Which groups of people are suffering worst impacts already 23 The Burden of Thirst 7 Why are the Kenyan people mentioned in the article so desperate for water What are the health impacts of not having clean water What government or other projects have been built to solve the water problem here Did they work and why In the case of Bolivia how has privatization of the water supply worked out for the citizens httn39 nom 39 39 39 39 com 20100422 at r 39 39 teXt 24 quotFacing the Freshwater Crisisquot What are the threats to water supplies given in the article What are lowtech fixes mentioned that can help solve the problem What are ways to limit waste of water In what ways are governments failing to protect water supplies and how can they act to help reduce water scarcity problems in the future 25 List of Top 10 Water Wasters Which methods are things you or other individuals can control in homeyardhabits Which methods are outside individual control perhaps in hands of government or community 26 quotThe Continent That Ran Dryquot Why is the drought happening Is it short or longterm How did Australia s government plan back in the mid1900s for future water shortages that are occurring in the 2000s What has been the response as of 20072008 when article was written to the drought by individuals and government agencies ECU V Reynolds Geography 1250 Spring 2011 Exam 1 Study Guide Disclaimer This study guide is not meant to be an exhaustive review of all materials that may serve as sources for exam questions lectures readings inclass discussion and videos Rather this guide functions as a test preparation aid and covers typical areas of knowledge that will appear on the exam 1 How is the discipline of geography particularly well suited to the study of our watery planet What types of tools do geographers use to describe cultural and natural Earth processes see first day PowerPoint lecture on Blackboard if you hadn t joined the class yet 2 De ne relative humidity How does it relate to absoluteactual humidity and to saturation What is the dew point temperature and what does it mean in terms of relative humidity What time of the day is relative humidity highest and lowest and how do these times compare to air temperatures during the day What does the Heat Index and Windchill Index tell you about humidity or local weather conditions and what do they actually measure 3 Discuss the four major ways to get unstable rising air to form clouds as lifting from convection convergence orographic or frontal processes Know which types would likely cause weather in eastern vs western North Carolina Know that Westerlies are usually the winds that push low pressure systems cyclones with warm cold fronts across the US What general types of weather are associated with high and low air pressure systems Be able to identify cold and warm fronts on a weather map see activity from class for example 4 What 3 conditions are necessary for clouds to form How are clouds named What types of storms or weather are associated with cumulonimbus clouds vs nimbostratus clouds What is the difference between rain snow hail freezing rain and sleet in how they are produced Why is a measurement from a rain gauge considered a point measurement 5 Where are thunderstorms likely to be often found or contrarily almost never seen in the US Where are tornadoes likely to occur and what types of weather can create them 6 Describe normal pressure seasurface temperatures and weather characteristics in the Southeast Paci c near Peru How does the El Ni oSouthem Oscillation ENSO phenomenon change these characteristics What changes are referred to by in the terms El Nino and Southern Oscillation What sea surface temperature changes occur during a La Ni a event 7 How do ENSOEl Nino and ENSOLa Nina events affect global weather How do ENSOEl Nino and ENSOLa Nina events impact hurricane development in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Basins What does teleconnection mean 8 Under what ocean and atmosphere conditions do hurricanes form Why do hurricanes dissipate over land Why do the hurricane forming basins have different seasons of maximum activity When is the Atlantic basin most active which months during the year and in which two places do most Atlantic basin hurricanes begin developing ECU V Reynolds 9 What types of dangers and damage are most likely to result from hurricanes consider rain wind ooding storm surge Which types of damage are more likely to occur along coasts versus inland What is storm surge and where is the most severe storm surge relative to the eye of a hurricane if you are looking down on it as with a satellite image 10 On what two hurricane measurements is the SaffirSimpson Scale system based What does it tell you about measuring hurricane damage What are some problems with the SaffirSimpson Scale in terms of what doesn t it measure or tell you about a hurricane 11 What type of naming system is used for Atlantic basin hurricanes At what point is a hurricane given a name when they are a tropical depression tropical storm or Category 15 Why is the current Atlantic Basin naming system useful for comparing hurricane seasons Additional Questions from the readings 12 Why is Forks WA so humid Why don t the people there notice the humidity much httpwww 39 39 39 409294lhtml 13 from textbook chapter on Water Phases Evaporation and Transpiration Humidity Condensation and Uplift Mechanisms that starts here httpwww nwsn edn geo facultv ritter geoglOltext39u l 39 ic moisturephase changes m What are the three phases of water How does water change from one phase to another Where does the energy for latent heat of evaporation come from Where does most evaporation on Earth occur What is responsible for transpiration What is humidity How do relative and absolute humidity differ What is the dew point temperature and why isn t it the same number like 32 F or 60 F everywhere What is condensation and how are condensation nuclei important for creating things like clouds What are the four lifting mechanisms to get air to rise How do they work 14 Behind The Weather Strongest El Nino In A Decade What are the impacts of El Nino on Us weather patterns How does it affect the jet stream How and why scientists know El Nino or La Nina is going to happenhttpwww nor on 39 st v storvphpstorvId123380157 15 Frozen In France Thank The Arctic Oscillation Where is the Arctic oscillation phenomenon located which pa1ts of the world are impacted How did it change in 2010 and 2011 compared to previous decades and what are the results in terms of weather httpwww nor on 39 storvstorvphpstorvld122649916 16 From online chapter on thunderstorms How do the two types of thunderstorms air mass and severe differ in their impacts http wwwuwsp edugeofacultyrittergeogl 0 ltethooldweatherisystemssevere7weather7thun derstormshtml ECU V Reynolds 17 From httpwww srh nnnn vnv srhietstrw t 39 htm and httpwww srh nnnn ovsrhietstream 39 imnacts htm Where does the ENSO phenomena occur initially Which places are impacted by ENSO What are the technological advances that helped make better ENSO predictions Why is it important to have satellite air AND ground or ocean based scienti c recording instruments Why do you think scienti c awareness of the ENSO phenomenon only developed in the 1970s and 1980s What is the relationship between ENSO and the jetstream that normally brings the US weather 18 Super Storms article httn39 nom quot 39 muhic com 200608super ms 39 A text What kind of technology is used in monitoring hurricane development and making hurricane predictions Why given all our modern technology is it still hard to determine which hurricanes will turn into major lifethreatening storms What were the climate conditions that led to the super hurricane season in 2005 Why are hurricanes predicted to increase in intensity over the next few years What are some of the problems with making such predictions Why would the existence of more intense hurricanes pose a global problem 19 Read section of online chapter on hurricanes and risks this page and Continue to next page httpwwwuwspedugeofacultyrittergeog10 ltextbooldweather systemshurricaneshtml What creates hurricanes How are they different from frontal storms What are the risks from them Where according to the map provided are people in the US at greatest hurricane risk 20 On blizzards httpwwwwrh nnaa nv 39 quot J nhnwfofgz What process creates blizzards How are they defined by meteorologists What are the expected human impacts or dangers from blizzards ECU V Reynolds


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