Psych 100s Week 5 Notes
Psych 100s Week 5 Notes PSYX 100S-03
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Sturgeon on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYX 100S-03 at University of Montana taught by Kali Diane Strickland (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Liberal Arts at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Psychology Week 5 92815 Chapter 5 Variations in Consciousness What is consciousness Cognitive thought Ability to perceive subjectively Awareness of external and internal stimuli Knowledge of yourself as the unique being experiencing these things Level of Consciousness Awareness Freud Preconscious 0 Beyond awareness but can be brought into consciousness 0 Memory storage not currently thinking about it but can be brought into consciousness Unconscious 0 Often inaccessible Conscious 0 Current awareness 0 Present thought Iceberg Model conscious is the tip preconscious is living in the waves and can sometimes be seen unconscious is below the surface Brain waves An electrical impulse in the brain period firing of neurons Periodic firing is measured by an EEG EEG Electroencephalograph Monitors electrical activity in the brain over time and large areas Amplitude height Frequency cycles per second Theta light sleep Delta deep sleep Beta normal waking thought Alpha deep relaxation Sleep Cycle 45 complete cycles per night REM get progressively longer Stages 0 1 1012 mins I Breathing is regulated I Theta waves I Heart rate slows I BP decreases I Can be awaken readily I Hyponic jerks happen as people fall asleep 0 2 1025 mins I quotsleep spindles high frequency brainwaves decrease as it moves to stage three I progressively more relaxed I less responsive to the environment 0 3 and 4 30 mins I slow wave sleep I delta waves I deep sleep I hard to wake up 0 5 REM sleep I Rapid eye movement REM I High frequency beta waves I Experiencing most restful sleep Vivid dreaming REM atonia motor neurons that can t fire Paralysis is in effect Dreams Mental images with a storylike quality Strange Not normal but perceived as real Mainly occur in REM Day residue contents of real life spill into dream 5 Lucid dreaming can realize they are dreaming and control aspects Theories of Dreaming Wish fulfillment Freud o Manifest content what we think of the dream surface level storyline of the dream plot 0 Latent content interpretation that an individual has given the dream Problem solving Cartwright 0 Creative problem solving because dreams are not restrained to normal logic and realism Activationsynthesis model Hobson and McCarley o Byproducts of random firing from subcortical areas in the brain 0 The brain is trying to fill in the gaps of the random firing and small memory fragments that are brought up by the random firing Biological Rhythms and Sleep Circadian rhythms 24hour biological cycle 0 These cycles regulate sleep and other bodily functions but are most important for regulating sleep 0 Also regulates BP hormones and some cognitive performance alertness throughout the day 0 Can vary between people 0 Insert a biological rhythm chart Physiological pathways 0 Light levels got to retina to the SCN of the hypothalamus to the pineal gland which causes the secretion of melatonin o Melatonin hormone that helps adjust biological clocks I There aren t known long term effects so some worry about taking it as a supplement I Can be helpful for treating jet lag but is very timing specific I Can be used as a sedative for daytime Ignoring Circadian rhythms Common to ignore the rhythms in today s society 0 100 years ago the average amount of sleep was 10 hours now it is 69 hours Constant changing of circadian rhythm can lead to long term effects Jet lag official clock changes and biological clock remains the same Researchers looked at the effect ofjet leg on professional baseball teams and players Recht Lew and Schwartz 0 Regular winning without travel was 46 0 East coast to west the first game won was 44 0 West coast to east the first game won was 37 Sleep Deprivation Result in impairments of 0 Attention ability to focus 0 Mood 0 Reaction time 0 Coordination 0 Decision making abilities o Immune system more likely to get sick Selective deprivation o Rebound effect in REM sleep I Deprivation causes the body to want to go into REM sleep more often 0 Sleep Hygiene ways to get better sleep I Establish a routine I When unable to sleep get out of bed I Avoid stimulants such as caffeine and nicotine I Eating healthy and exercise I Bath time and sleep rituals going to sleep at the same time each night can cause the circadian rhythm to change I Less screen time not watching TV before bed Sleep disorders 0 Insomnia sleeplessness difficulty obtaining an adequate amount of sleep I Falling asleep younger adults I Staying asleep middle aged and elderly I Waking up too early middle aged and elderly 0 Hypersomnia sleeping too much I Present in individuals with depression 0 Narcolepsy immediate transition from waking to REM sleep 0 Sleep apnea pauses in breathing or shallow breath during sleep I Breathing stops for a minimum of ten seconds at a time I Obstructive throat muscles relax I Central brain does not send signals to cause breathing o Parasomnias I Nightmares More common amongst children Having stress can increase the amount Counseling can cause a decrease 0 Night terrors I Woken from NREM sleep I Temporary I Increased with stress 0 Somnambulism I Sleepwalking I 15 children I 3 adults Meditation train attention to heightened awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control and increase alpha and theta waves short and long term benefits 0 Better immune system 0 Better mental health Focused attention and monitoring 0 Mindful o Mindfulness I John KobatZinn I Focusing on present moment experiences with openness curiosity I Improves well being I Improves physical health I Improves mental health Stimulants uppers 0 Increase behavioral and CNS activity 0 Caffeine nicotine cocaine amphetamines o Negatives I restlessness I anxiety I paranoia I insomnia I stroke I possible schizophrenia o Withdrawal I Fatigue I Irritability I Severe depression Drugs Psychoactive drugs 0 Chemical substance that modifies mental emotional or behavioral functioning o Licit legal 0 Illicit illegal Abuse continual use of drugs despite negative consequences Withdrawal the body s attempt to rebalance after long term use Tolerance Gradual decrease in responsiveness to drug Dependence continued use of drug to avoid withdrawal symptoms Effects can vary depending on the drug 0 Alcohol I Ethyl alcohol is the commonly known alcohol in beverages I Enhances goba activity releases dopamine and serotonin I Can experience impairments in mental and motor functions Can lead to liver disease and reduced REM sleep Chapter 6 Learning I Learning relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Conditioning 0 learning associations between events 0 relationship of events to each other 0 3types Classical Conditioning stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response originally evoked by another stimulus dogs were classically conditioned they salivated at the sound of the bell because they were given meat powder when the bell sounded stimulus any detectable input from the environment response reaction to a stimulus Acquisition the initial phase of classical conditioning Neutral stimulus stimulus that would not cause a specific reaction Unconditional stimulus invokes a natural response that is not learned Conditioned stimulus stimulus that was previously neutral but now evokes a reaction Unconditioned response natural reaction before any previous conditioning Conditioned response learned reaction from stimulus because of pervious conditioning Phobias Physiology response 0 Immune function sexual arousal Extinction if the stimulus is taken away gradual loss of response sure to the stimulant Spontaneous recover the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus Stimulus generalization occurs when after learning a response to a specific stimulus and organism responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original experience Stimulus discrimination occurs when after learning a response to a specific stimulus an organism does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to original stimulus I Second order conditioning a conditioned stimulus functions as if it is an unconditioned stimulus I Temporal contiguity how close two stimuli are paired in time I Backward conditioning occurs when a conditioned stimulus immediately follows the unconditioned stimulus poor association strength I Forward conditioning the conditioned stimulus before the unconditioned stimulus Simultaneous conditioning both uc and usc are presented and end at the same time okay association strength Short delayed cs and than usc but they both end together best association strength Trace cs begins and ends before the ucs poor association I operant I observational learning Operant Conditioning Positive Reinforcement Strengthening a response by adding a rewarding stimulus Negative Reinforcement Strengthening a response by taking away an aversive stimulus Positive punishment Weakening a response by adding an aversive stimulus Negative punishment Weakening a response by adding an aversive stimulus Reinforcement schedule continuous schedule good for shaping reinforce is given every time ratio schedule intermittent schedule not given the reinforce every time o Fixed ratio reinforcer is given after a fixed number of responses lower resistance of extinction quicker response time 0 Variable ratio reinforcer is given after variable number of response not a fixed number on the average higher resistance of extinction Interval schedule 0 Fixed interval reinforcer is given after a certain period of time fixed interval of time lower resistant to extinction quicker response time 0 Variable interval reinforcer is given after a variable amount of time usual on an average higher resistance of extinction Extinction When reinforcement is no longer presented after the behavior the behavior with eventually stop 0 Variable schedules are more resistant to extinction Escape Learning an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends an aversive stimulation think about an animal wanting to escape from a box Avoidance Learning an organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring avoiding something causes a new behavior to be increased Learned helplessness when people or animals become conditioned to learn that a situation is unavoidable Observational Learning observing a model which influence behavior Experimental group that watches the behavior being modeled Control group does not see the modeled behavior Learning and reproduction contingencies Attention another s behavior must be observed and its consequences must be observed Retention must store a mental representation in memory of the behavior witnessed Motivation reproducing learned responses if they pay off aka reinforcement Reproduction converting the mental image into an overt behavior Opponent process theory 0 Fear relief 0 Pain pleasure o Triggers the opposing emotion after a certain amount of time or after repeated exposure
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