Introduction to Comparative Government and Politics
Introduction to Comparative Government and Politics POLS 2010
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EVANS 1 Comparative Politics MF 1130 100 Prof Evans Case 520 Chapter 1 m abstract concept institution that makes public policy exercise power 3 Core features 1 Territorial 2 People 3 Sovereignty Internal and External Internal Power to make other people do what they otherwise wouldn t exp pay taxes External respect of neighbors set policy no one can change it State vrs Goverment Think of State as a ship and Government as the helm Politics process in which state organizes and govern itself Types of States 3 types of states Industrialized democracies Current and Former Communist Regimes exp South Korea Cuba Third World Countries developing or recently developed a democracy MODERN STATE BORN IN EUROPE Treaty of Westphalia 1648 first time European leaders recognized entities called states 4 states of State Building Stein Rokkan 1921 79 Catalyst to State formation Warfare state has to create Army to create military needs money create states to extract resources from people to build army Capitalism state enforcement of regulation Nation Building people find common grounds to unite find a sense of belonging Mass Democracies mass of people having say in who governs the state removal of barriers Welfare State state looks after welfare of people what s good for the people all in it together Proliferation of the Modern State Decolonization in the late 1950 s early 1970 s Collapse ofCommunism in former Soviet Union amp Central Eastern Europe 1989 1995 What Is Globilzation Idea states being intradependent states impact on other states decisions exp World depending on America economy EVANS 2 GLOBALIZA T ION complex series of economical social technological cultural political etc changes that are seen as interdependant interaction and intergration among people and states The End of State Large Suprastates such as NAFTA or others larger than states regulate states forcing them to comply will these bring an end to the state as we know it today Nations amp Nationalism What Constitutes a Nation a sense of communal belonging Language Culture Values common history or shared fate When did Nation rst Appear Two Theories Primordial View nations where a natural occuring phenomena had always been around View declined after WWII 1945 ConstructiVist View Nation was a socially and politically constructed community Imagined Communities the idea here is that institutions construct social and political structures to in uence the beliefs of the state and or people How do Nations and Nationalism Develop two rules construct ideals to promote Nationalism for good or bad Rule of Elites Rule of Political Institutions NA T IONALISM idea that every nation has its own state Nations are place that people belong no borders An End to Nationalism after WWII Soviet Union made rst try Growing Economic Independence Francis Fukuyama End of History The idea that there is only one way to organize a society Liberal Democracy EVANS 3 Nationalism Resurgent against all odds revived after period of lull p I M I n to m i Supranational Institutions Europe Unions Globalization m u I I A benign or 39 Force National Chauvinism my nation is better than yours Nationalism and SelfDetermination often gets locked up with democracy Legitimacy nation gives a legitimacy to a rising power POLITICAL CULTURE WHATIS POLITICIAL CULTURE ITISA PATTEREN 0F ATTITUDES PA TTERNSAND BELIEFS ABOUTPOLITICS CAN BE CONSOUS INCOUNCES IMPLICIT 0R EXPLICIT What39 and39 quot quot 39 Political Attitude Political Socialization process through which people gather their attitudes value and belifes Agents of Political Socialization family schools lifestyle etc Political Interests abortion gun control etc Political Identity see yourself as ethinic religious etc Political Ideology What is an Ideology more or less systematic set of ideas and beliefs about politics consists of both empirical and pre scripted statements Empirical observed ideas Pre Scripted how it should be Purpose of Ideology helps voter reach an opinion political parties can market themselves exp Conservative party candidates I dealogical Sgectmm L R Communism Right Wing or Natinalism Socialism SocialDemocracy Liberalism Coservatism Green Christian Democracy EVANS 4 528 Organizing State Pow er 0 VER VIEW Constitution Division of Power Vertical Horizontal Judicial Review amp Activism Political Institutions Constitutions provided institutional frameworks create Decision Rules rules about political procedures elections bill to law rules of game Incentive Systems effects of the rules they create VERTICAL POWER 3 main ways drawing in notebook Unitary State all states power is concentrated at the center means that there is only ONE level of government one national government most world states are unitary may have different sub regions that are responsible for things HOWEVER central government has total say so to highest power of decision Federal State has TWO level of government Federal amp State exp ONE CANT ABOLISH OTHER Regional government has authority in certain areas own right of excitant usually set forth by constitutions Confederal System Central government is weaker than other authority Argument for Federalism by the creation of a federal system higher level of government accommodates the needs of others make trade offs to compromise within whole region federalism brings government closer to home in large territories while still having a system in control on a larger level More democratic democracy for the people gives the people more power to elect those Deep Political Cleavages political agreement between differences ethnic language people identify politically by ethnicity Protects Minorities offer common group state to avaoid oppression Check Overly Ambitious Rulers Serves as Policy Laboratories let states adopt laws to see reaction before in smaller test group before federal system adopt Citizens can vote with your feet can travel to state where you agree on ideals EVANS 5 Arguments against Federalism may fuel abition of the appeased for more power lead to lrther separation inequality some states out perform others Lack of protection of minorities what if minorities aren t concentrated oppress Inefficiency lot of areas with overlapping territory in state vs federal Disintegration of State Undermines National Identity Inter Governmental Raltions Blurring the Distinctions Devolution reforms to shift power amp Decentralization in Unitary Systems Greater Centralization in Federal Systems FDR New Deal Horizontal Division of Political Power Institutional Framework determine Government Formation Government Duration Division of Power Horizontal Legislature Executive Judiciary Functions of Legislatures Representation of Public Opinion What does representation mean M s Middle Class Mialalle Age M ale Majority group Does it Matter Functions of Legislatures Legitimation Law Making Scrutinv of FYemltive and A 39 Approving Executive Appointments such as supreme court decision Question Time in parliamentary system EVANS 6 requires government to answer and be accounted for on a daily basis Debate Committees can possibly be strong Vote of No Con dence of I mpeachment when you have two chambers one is particualry more powerfulthe most powerful house is entitled the lower chamber comes from British Parliament power trausitou from house of lords to house of commons where people had to be elected Choosing an Upper House Heridartry House Lords UK until 1999 Direct Election US Japan Australia often federal states Indirect Election france Election from Lower Chamber Norway Group Election Ireland Appointed by State Govts Germany Appointed by PM Canada Executive Head of State versus Head of Government in parliamentary system two people in charge of two functions Head of State Figure Head doesn t really make any political decisions excersise no power Types can be selected Head of Government Head of political System In the US President is Head of State as well as Head of Government are fussed into one problems that can occur tension arrises when con ict between actions as the HOS and HOG Head of Government Main Functions Main Functions decider implement decisions policy coordinate government actions Presidential Systems De ning Characteristics President has xed term independent of legislature President is both Head of State and Head of Government President is Independently SelectedElected and his tenure is independent of legislature Legislature Executive Judiciary all branches are completely independent of selection terms as well as tenure Parliamentag Systems EVANS 7 Executive and Legislature are MUTUALLY DEPENDENT reason being is that PM or Cabinet depend on majority of votes won in Legislature can not have split government can cause gridlock or runaway train in policies PM an Cabinet and part of Legislature people don t elect PM or Cabinet party with most seats won in Legislature picks members of Cabinet all members of Cabinet sit n Parliament Vote of No Con dence majority of legislature vote that they no longer have con dence in Government EXAM TUESDAY THE 9 h ABSENT GET NOTES Wednesday May 3 Humility Majority Voting System engineers a majority weather there was or was not FirstPastthePost FPP Electoral System Advantage maxamizes accountably to constituants makes two party system leads to single party control MOST STABLE FORM wasted vote if more than two candaz39tes the majority didn t vote for the canadz39ate 1983 British Election putMargaret Thatcher into Gov Was notMajorz39ty but FFP Engineered one Party Seat Seats Actually Cons 362 Pluralit Maiorg39 5 Voting System Second Ballot EVANS 8 Goalhow it works voters cast ballot if one canadite wins majority canidate wins district if no clear winner there is a run off election where top two vote getters will have gain a clear majority Advantages Disadvantage Delays outcome of Election Cost more Proportional Representation PR1 First adopted in 1899 Belguim Popular across Europe after WWI power shift from monarchs to people Vote for party number of seats allotted directly depends on of vote Goal allows for fair representation Two PR Lists Open list is published voter can rank order of canidates more control to voter Closed list is published prior to election order is set more control to party Threshold specifeied of vote required to hold a seat typical number is 5 adds mark of legitimacy keeps small partys from rising Advantage propotinalize votes to seats in legislature Disadvantage Promote many parties Mixed Member Proportional gMMP Combines two voting systems at one time FFP amp PR developed in Germany way of addressing wasted vote Used in Hungary New Zeland Germany VOTER CASTS TWO BALLOTS FFP as well as PR ballot tends to give two big parities neither of which typically win majority Advantages tends to produce a coalition government but small coolition 2 or 3 parties two big parties 2 or three small allows larger anchor party to persuade smaller party to gain the 50l to achieve majority to form government anchor party comes from FFP parties Electoral Systems FFP 2 party system Duverger s Law link in 2 party and FFP Effect on Voters leads to 2 party system because the voter will typically vote for who will win constraining Effect on Parties politician needs to learn to get along with people on a larger base EVANS 9 Party members need to hold together to keep party large to win vote Proportional Representation PR Pure PR system gt MultiParty System Effect on Voters voter doesn t have to worry about wasting vote Effect on Parties politicians aren t so concerned about staying together in a party can branch and develop own party leads to cooliton government The Westminster Model an Elective Dictatorship Great Britain Parliamentary Sovereignty Two Parties Alternating in Power Unitary State Parliamentary System Executive and Legislature are mutually dependent Executive Prime Minister and Cabinet Cabinet includes Ministries head of departments Collective Responsibility between PM and Cabinet a once they decide a policy all are on board with decision all must agree PM s Dissolution Power a PM must call election within 5 years of last election written in Statue Majority s Dismissal Power a Vote of No Con dence is Legislatures power to rid itself of PM A New Prime Minister From Blair to Brown Blair handed power to Brown last year Transition of Power from one PM to another there was no election the party put the new leader in Brown Westminister Parliament Bicameral a two chambers House of Commons Lower House a 646 Member of Parliament MP s b number can change House of Lords a Historically hereditary inherit seat b Refereed to as peers c 750 Exclusively male pass to rst born son HISTORICALLY d 600 life peers introduced in 1958 govemment appointed seat to recipient for natural born life mostly retired political nominated by PM and appointed by queen women and men title does not pass to heirs Relationship between two Houses HOL can delay but not block legislation EVANS 10 a HOL looks bill after HOC meets about it sends back to HOC HOL however can not completely block a bill b HOL acts as House of Review to bills New Labour s Reform Effort In efforts to reform HOL democratically appointed positions in HOL may cause problems in parliament as a whole Today 92 life peers England within Great Britain Societal Cleavages amp Nationalism Historically been a Unitary State that governs many Nations One State but Five Nations United Kingdom of Great Britain amp Northern Ireland Great Britain Unitary State England Scotland Wales Unita State loci for power is Westminister London Scottish Nationalism Scottish National Party SNP 1934 wanted Home Rule not independence 1972 It s Scotland s Oil large depot of oil found off of Scotland s coast SNP Electoral Record February 1974 Election Won 6 Seats Grew form 59 74 to 6 to 34 October 1974 Election receives nearly 13 of all Scotland votes send 11 MPs to Westminster 68 Welsh Nationalism Plaid Cymru est 1925 Wanted Home rule never deviate Region Population Pro 0k UK Actuall of Prop of Prop Dist of Pop seats Actual Seats Seats England 49 mill 836 529 818 540 Scotland 5mill 86 59 913 56 Wales 29 mill 49 40 619 32 EVANS ll Region Population Pro ok UK Actuall of Prop of Prop Dist of Pop seats Actuall Seats Seats N Ireland 17 mill 029 18 278 2 Historically more seats alloted to S W N1 in HOC then they would have if seat allocation were based on population Payoff Central Government in W and S then those regions sent in to Government by tax Government to V quot 1979 Reform The electorate was asked to vote yes or no Do you want the provisions of the Scotland Act to be put in effect Devolution Scotland and Wales in 1990 s receive some political power Scottish Parliament 1998 election 99 129 MSPs MMP Electoral System Limited LawMaking Power a limited more so the a state in a federal system Limited Ability to Generate Tax Revenue a limited ability to generate Tax revenue bc of UK Welsh National Assembly have lessor version of homeland rule 60 Members MMP electoral system Administrative Discretion ain certian policy areas Westminster will pass a broad law the WNA will fruther intrupret exp Westminster gives 100 million for colleges in WNA the WNA decided how to spend the 1 00 million Lack primary legislative powers Wales can not raise ANY taxes The 1998 Referendums Scotland aTurn out 604 bFirst Question A scottish parlament 743 yes c Second Question Taxing Power 635 Yes Wales Turnout 513 A National Assembly of Wales a 501 yes Welsh National Assembly Election EVANS 12 Panx 2 a 1 Labour 28 30 26 Plaid Cymru 17 12 15 Conservative 9 ll 12 Liberal Dem 6 6 6 Other 1 l MMP Allows for smalller party to do better in election due to the fact that half is PR and half Has Devolution Quelled Scottish Nationalism April 2007 Poll 3 Options a Independence outside of UK 22 Yes b maintain Status Que ie Devolution c Greater Power for Scottish PMT win UK 56 Yes The West Lothian Question WestLothia is a district The question was posed What will Scotland and Welsh homerule kind of effect with this have on England The Westminster Model An Elective Dictatorship FPP facilitates 2 party system 2 Main Parties Labour Party Conservative Party aka Tories 39 Party 3rd party not needed to maintain majority Liberal Democrats Post 1974 A MultiParty system no party since 1945 no party has won 50 of vote Conservative Party Seen as natural party of Government till 1997 in Britain a 23 of time since WWII Conservatives held power bPragmatic kept conservatives towards middle of spectrum c Noblesse Oblige the conservative felt that more fortunate had obligation to look after the lesser d Effective Organization had effective party places in districts Thatcherism comes to power as neoconservative shrinking power of state a ProMarket NeoLiberal reforms up intill 70 s state controlled or owned industries EVANS l3 state needs to sell the industries owned to private sector b AntiWelfare State went away from Noblesse Oblige by cutting Welfare lowered taxes to put more money back into pockets of people c forced to resign 1990 by own party can change PM without election John Major replaces her Problems Faced Since Mediocre Leaders Aging Membership not atracting young divided internally over European Integration EU TEST Focus on KeyTerms Britain Terms collective consensus 3 line whip White Paper 3 acronmes Beverage Report Confederation Britshi INdustry Good Friday Agrement Labour Party Liber Democratic Party Mastor Treaty Trades and Union COngress Notes 85 of Exam A lot of overlap with notes and book Know Terms and Know Notes 3550 s What is the figure usually expressed as that party must win to get into legislature Parliment VRS President Mutual Dependant in Legislative on Parlimentry majority must form in Legislaion to electe cabinate Minority Goverment ABSENT 9 12 615 Courts In Germany Historical Role of Courts courts supported buearcracy a protected the power of those already in charge Post WWII Objectives wanted courts to be a form of protection of democratic rights protect rights in basic law Structure of Judicia contrast to American system a 50 States 1 Federal EVANS 14 German courts have one system of courts a local level gtAppellate Court reviews lower decision gt Federal Court of Justice b Federal Constitutional Court only job JUDICIAL REVIEW can determine laws unconstitutional it is the ONLY court that can do that Federal Constitutional Court Framer s Intention a protect people democratic rights located in Karlsruhe a in hope to remove judges away from capital removes them from political in uence Composition amp Appointmet a 16 members b half of members selected by lower house former politicians selected half by upper houseformer civil servants usually selected c serve nonrenewable 12 year term power of judical review 3 Routes to the Court 1 Abstract Review when law is passed before aplication court can review constitunality of new law 2Concrete Review have to have case where individual is adversely affected by law 3Individual COmplaint Procedure individuals file complaint directly with FCC German Political Parties end up with most stable party system in 201h century Political Parties amp Basic Law Article 21 a section 1 Political Parties participate in the forming of the political will of people The may be freely established Their internal organization must conform to democratic principles b section 2 FCC decideds ifparty seeks to impair free democratic basic order and excsitance of the FRG German Political Parties Top to bottom Liberal to Conservative Party of Democratic Socialism PDS GreensBundnis Free Democratic Party SPD Christian Democrats a Christian Democratic Union CDU b Christian Social Union CSU seperate of CDU but works with CDU Republikaner Evolution of the Party System 1953 1983 2 12 a SPD b CDU CSU EVANS 15 c FDP get 12 because are needed to form coalition 80 s 90 s Multi Party System a greens i post materialist socity citizens start to worry about materialist green party b PDS Former Communist Party if GDR i reuni cation of Germany brings about voter change c Republikaner i party exclusion of those people taken workers jobs econimic decline PARTY PERFORMANCE GRAPH 7605 Other party not achor party voter increase a voter number drifts from SPDCDs to other party Governments 1948 2005 4857 CDUFDP 5761 CDUCSU 6166 CDUFDP 6669 Grand Coalition CDUSPD 6982 SPDFDP 8298 CDUFDP 9805 SPDGreens 05 Grand Coalition CDUSPD Social Democratic Party Gerhard Schroder face of SPD Origins Created after WWII aby people surzived german prisioncamps bsupported major industrial rms nationalization 6982 Breakthrough Identity Crisis 80 s 90 s Schroder New Center june 16 Christian Democrats 2 Parties Christian Social Union Christian Democratic Union Originated after WWII Break with tradition protostant and catholic cooperate Policies pragmatic pro EU intergration Helmut Kohl CDU FDP Coalition 82 EVANS 16 Free Democratic Party Orgin after WWII Idealogical Position Centrist limit goverment interferance in economy 1iberal on social issue limite state involment on diviorce abortion Swing Party Kingmaker 1949 1998 needed to make King in government Highest of Germans 13 voted for them 73 Able to negotiate with both sides acts as check of balance b c FDP center party determine who governs German perception shifted to seem that FDP wanted just to be in power A New World 1998 SDPGreens FDP Not part of Gov since The Greens Origin 7980 1983 win seats in lower house overcome threshhold Enviromentaly orintated quality of life equality concerns views on Turkish populations Trouble Electorial outcomes once won electorial seats the dicision had to be made pragmatic vrs doctorine batt1e forms between realist vrs fundementalist More Problems New Issues stance on EU Tuming out Core Voters going south Bundnis 90 new green party West Germans rejected 90 election Green party failed to reach threshold 93 Bundnis 90 9405 Pragmatic view held upper hand in party Impact on Gov Gained agrement from SDP to phase out Nuclear energy Achieved gas taX for enviroment Pass law making German turkish population to achieve citizenship The Far Right Republikaner 1983 formed by former CSU Ideology opposed to minorites opposed to EU integration Support EVANS 17 have low education level material insecure Never crossed Threshold Party of Democratic Socialism PDS Origin successor of GDR Recieved votes from former East Germany showed job security 1990 Election 915 vote in Landtag elections PDS 111 ofvote in 5 former GDR election Party that Voters vote for that older previous GDR 94 98 02 Challange how appeal to broader base of people rebranded as The Left Party 2005 Election Changing Political Winds North RhineWestphalia SDP won only 371 lowest turnout EVER aCDUFDP majority in Bundesrat Seats after Election SPD 222 Green 51 Left 54 FDP 61 CDU CSU 226 Who Will Govern Possibilities Tra ic Light Coalition a SPD red b FDP yellow c The Greens Jamaica Coalition aCDUCSU bFDP cThe Greens Grand Coalition a CDUCSU and SPD Thinking About the EU created in 1951 as the European Coal and Steel Community ECSC EVANS 18 1957 European Economic Community EEC 1967 European Community EC 1992 European Union The Basics The European Union Key Questions How and Why did the EU emerge What is its political culture and how does it shape a EU as a Nation Main decision making bodies a EU as State FailuresSuccess ECSC Created in efforts to prevent future con icts in Europe facilite intrests around steel and coal Created single market elimited Tariff trade Significance transfers sovereignty to Supranational power lays foundation of instutinal rules for future EEC Treaty of Rome 1957 Established the EEC Requires member states to eliminate ALL internal tariff create common external tariff implimented within next 1215 Institutional Structure The Commission a represents EEC b ideas must be passed by ministries The Council of Ministries a represents Member States European Parliament a weakest institution just reviews other institutions European Court of Justice a judges picked by member state 1 b judge is supposed to be objective How and th did the EU emerge The Evolution of the EU Creating the Common Market Eurosclerosis Roadblock EVANS 19 a every member state had own ideas about products 1985 Single European Act first major revision since TOR meant to overcome roadblocks in other areas need unamious consent needed by members a adopt new member b undertake new issues Political Cooperation a National Security issues Signifigance a greater steps towards areas beyond economic policy Important Political Timing Collapse of Communism Political Demise of Margaret Thatcher a Under Thatcher Britian was obstruction to EEC after removal from office Britian became less skeptical The Maastricht Treaty 1992 New Authority to EU Established 3 Pillars a trade and economic pilliar b justice and national affairs c foreign policy Idea of European Citizenship a more ease of movement through EU members Principle of Subsidiarity a EU will only seek to achive policy goals get involved that CAN NOT be achieved by local goverments state Committed EU to Idea of Single Currency amp Central Bank The Political Fate of Maastricht Treaty 1992 Political Timing l990s Recession Danish Referendum a allowed voters to vote in treaty rejected by 50000 votes Lackluster Leadership ano real leader Treaty ofNice 2001 Set Stage for Enlargement of 2004 Will EU create common European Political Culture Popular Culture no Hollywood of EU Lack of Common Language Democratic Deficit EVANS 20 Participation in the EU a removed from everyday life Key EU organizations are still super cial a ordinary people not part b SO FAR from public Resentment a so far from people often blamed scapegoat Few people identify themselves rst as European The European State Institutions of EU Commission a in Brussels b Set Agenda for EU ccomprised of 25 members 1 from each selected by country swears oath to EU d Signi cance most important to spreading EU authority Council ofthe EU a located Brussels b comprised of Ministers from member states c legislature ofideas reviews and decide on Commission ideas European Court of Justice a located in Luxemburg b member state chooses one judges hold 6 year non removable term c Jurisdiction disputes between Commission vr State anything not in compliance with EU directives The European State European Parliament MEPs Location Strasbourg France ampBrussels Belguim Composition directly cap750 MEP Representation is based roughly on population EU s WEAKEST institution Reviews commission amp council actions approval needed for SOME policies adopted EVANS 21 Public Policy in EU sucess Intemal Market Removal of Tariffs amp other barriers to trade success a impact on pplcheaper imports b impact on govremoves soviemty European Moneta Union EMU The Euro European Central Bank a made EU strong currency b best example transfer of soviemty Public EU Policy Failure Common Agriculture Policy CAP Divisive Issue Early on a in EU some members where more agricuture than others France farmer Britian not bfarmer wants substaties from gov causes price to rise for consumer Compromise 1966 Modernization inefficient farms become more efficiant created fund on EU level to standerize substaties European Agricultural Guidance amp Guarantee fund gross to the point where fund is twice as big as total EU fond consequences no one forced implimation to modernize partiipation of member states distorts govermner program must reform due to high lelvel of disrupture The Russian FederationHistorical Introduction Worlds largest coldest countries on Earth Russia Command Eco gt Market Economy poverty serious enviromental problems Totalitarianism gt Liberal Democracy no choice on who governs state permiates everything no free society Multinational Empire gt What will it become because of diversity Tsar Regime Russian Monarchy Origin around 93911 centry collapse 1917 Contributions to Political Culture Autocracy a Unlimited Power of Leader comfort level achieved with powerful ruller EVANS 22 revolution needed to change Absolutism a absolute power over subjects Patriomienalism a idea society belongs to the Tsar Russian Orthodox Church TsarChurch cut deal Church preached faith to Tsar State gov Westemizers vs Slavophiles Westernizers heard about western ideastried to in uence Western refoms Slavophiles believed Russia had own form gov NO INFLUENCE absent 6 l 9 622 Russia Electoral amp Part Systems Horizontal Power SemiPresidentialism De ned Head of State who is directly elected by the people shares real political power with prime minister who arises from legislature power share between HOS amp PM who person is Presidential Election Double Ballot run off ballot goalelect leader with clear support Pres Power Visa vis the Duma a schedual election for Duma b under some conditions can disolve the Duma Prime Minister a President selects PM bDuma must approve Presidential Decrees a Presidential Laws The Federal Assembaly Bicameral Federation Council Origins means of representing 89Russian regions sends 2 deputies Membership 178 a selection until year 2000 ppl that sat in the power belong to reginal gov selected by the executive of that region Parties based more on individual personality Critiscisms by gettin in Federal Ass have immunity from arrest detaintion search EVANS 23 State Duma youtube check it out Electoral System not in the constitution a MMP before 2007 b after 2007 PR Powers Limited in uence over budget a majority lies with pres can not vote no con dence Political Culture Value Con ict Legacy of Communism creates expectation among Russians Importation of Western Values a tolerate higher level of insecurities Political Culture Paradox Desire for a Democratic Regime Dissatisfactiori with Operation of Current Regime 2 Types of Elections State Duma Elections Lower Chamber Bicameral Federal Assembly 4 Year Term MMP a225 SMD and 225 PR Presidential Elections 4 year term Political Parties Democratic Ceritrist Commuriist Natiorialist right wing it Parties ofPower Democratic Parties political democracy market reform not good in elections Democratic Russia Russia s Choice a Yegor Gaidar b Russia s Democratic Choice 1995 Union of Right Forces Yabloko a Grigorii Yavlinsky founder b money from oil reserve EVANS 24 Centrist Parties Russian Union of Industrialist amp Entrepreneurs Women of Russia a Union of Russian Women b Union of Navy Women c Association of Women Entrepreneurs Communist Parties Communist Party of the Russian Federation a Gennadii Ziuganov b opposed to market reforms command economy c attack western in uence d link with Russian Orthodox Communists Laborers of Russia for the Soviet Union Nationalist Party Liberal Democratic Party Of Russia Vladimir Zhirinovsky m0st suseccful 0f 2 natiolist palty a stress Russian natiolist theme Russian Naitional Unity arainged by hitler style Parties of Power party for leader vehicles for leaders Our Home is Russia 1995 Cikto Chemomyrdin FatherlandAll Russia 1999 Unity 1999 a Vladimir Putin said he would vote for this party canidate Refresher No Centrist Party Emerges Former Communist Party has best Institutionalized Party had previous infastructure Liberal Parties out of Favor with the Electorate Prominence of Parties of Power as Vehicles based on corruption 1993 ELECTIOINS Nationalist Party Democratic Parties Communist Parties do far 1995 Duma Election Communist Party resurgant bc Yeltsin refoms SUCK 1999 Duma Election Party Power do well Communist do well 2003 Electons EVANS 25 United Russia Party of Power do great Presidential Elections 1996 Russian Public poll drops to 8 Yeltsin must face challange to Nationalist amp Communists 2000 Putin gets power from Yeltsin runs in election as president 2004 712 Putin Yeltsin s Legacy State Corruption Organized Crimes ill Gotten Fortunes Financial Default Unsolved High pro le murders Terrorism Political Development under Putin executive Dominance within a Strong State loyalty to the state 2007 Electoral Change Duma completly PR 7 threshold approved 2005 effective 2007 The Russian Model Fragmented Party System M 391 I 39 39 Supmpw idci iaii 111 system read book material Russia Terms pg 257 nomenclature oloaichr priVitastions power minatries shock therpy partys Putin Lenin Stalin Yeltsin GorbichaV EVANS 26 EU pg 194 Democratic De ct supematinal three pilliars class terms Germany 171 just class note terms EXAM understand evolution German Party System Gorbichav Reforms intentions consequences German Party System 25 party system gtgtgt multi party system who what why Test essay 15 pts s worth 15 points Bunasrat germany OVERLAPPING FEDERLISM Federal in charge of inacting law state in charge of implimenting state gov landtag some areas strickly state strickly federal Budasrat state can block in overlap in Federal only state can delay make sure know bicameral names in germany russia
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