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Principles of Biology Laboratory

by: Dr. Cristobal Kub

Principles of Biology Laboratory BIOL 1101

Marketplace > East Carolina University > Biology > BIOL 1101 > Principles of Biology Laboratory
Dr. Cristobal Kub
GPA 3.56

Timothy Christensen

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Timothy Christensen
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Cristobal Kub on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1101 at East Carolina University taught by Timothy Christensen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/221314/biol-1101-east-carolina-university in Biology at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 10/11/15
Lab 1 the various instruments used for measurement and how to use them properly metric rulemeter for lengthbalances for masspipets and cylinders for liquids how to read measurements meniscus for volume bottom of curve converting between units of measurement ie mL to L etc what a spectrophotometer is its use and how to interpret its measurements he amount of light absorbed can be read using the spectrophotometer The darker the solution the more light it will absorbBlank the spec how to calculate dilutions 10M Stock1M Working Solution DF of 10 Lab 2 know the different aspects of an experiment ypothesis falsified but never proven ependent Variable object that is measured counted or observed in response to the experimental conditions ndependent Variable experimental condition that is changed Constant conditions that stay the same throughout the experimen I graphing data the different aspectsvariables of the pill bug experiment distilled water vs habitat solution go over primary vs secondary literature Primary literature should be from the first person to do the experiment presenting results Secondary literature are the results repeated and shown in a different articlepaper Lab 3 knowall the different macromolecules their composition and function Carbohydratescarbon hydrogen and oxygenSimplest form is a monosaccharide which can be joined together to form disaccharides double sugars and polysaccharides many sugars Proteins Amino acids are protein subunits The structure of a protein is determined by the amino acid composition Amino acids are linked by tight peptide bonds and often interact with each other to help shape the protein Lipids Compounds that contain mostly carbon and hydrogen Grouped together based on insolubility in water Stored in adipose cells Component of cell membranes Basis 39 Hormones cholesterol Can be metabolized into ATP Stores 2X as much energy as a carbohydrate Nucleic Acids The nucleic acids make up the blue prints of living organisms Examples DNA NA mRNA tRNA All nucleic acids are made up of the same building blocks MONOMERS UCLEOTIDEs There are five 5 essential nucleotides ADENINE CYTOSINE GUANINE HYMINE and URACIL ZU the different types of fats aturated fats lack double bonds usually from animal fats and contribute to heart disease Unsaturated Fatcontain double bonds usually from plant fats and more favorable in the diet how to characterize acids and bases 1 the 4 different tests from this lab what they test for and how to interpret the results for simple sugars Benedict39s Reagent is used to test for the presence of small sugars gives a negative result for sucrose Upon heating a colored precipitate will form in the presence of mono or disaccharides for starchodine Reagent is used to test for the presence of starch A dark blue color indicates the presence of starch For proteins When Biuret Reagent is added to a solution containing peptide bonds the solution will turn purple violet or lavenderThe deeper the purple the more concentrated the protein For lipidsSudan Iquot dye binds to lipids giving them a yellow or orange color Apply samples to labeled spots on filter paper using a pipet Soak filter paper in Sudan rinse then check spots Lab 5 everything about enzymes Molecular catalysts that speed up reactions necessary for normal cellular function They work by lowering the activation energy or amount of energy required to start the reaction study the graphs on ppt Energy omctivatiun A MUNCATALYZED E 4 gt WALYZED E Reactants N E ll I1 a A6 I H Prn ducts how factors affect enzymes with unlimited substrate rate of reaction increases w concentration of enzyme with fixed amount of enz mes rate of reaction and concentration of substrate the components of an enzymatic reaction roduct the result of the reaction inhibitors I think this was in the supplemental material on blackboard l39l39l39UU know all of them and what they do the different components of the potato extract reaction to air 2 Lab 6 photosynthesis reaction Primary energy source for all life is the Sun Sunlight energy is introduced into the biosphere by photosynthesis through plants algae and some types of bacteria light reaction vscalvin cycle Chloroplast Commo pm mam My pubisan at Emmiquot mm chloroplasts Loll cross soclion Vein 939 Immmemhmne space outer membrane i GGWVl M 0 Pharaoh Educnixm llquotU nmhshmg n5 Bunlnmln Cummim pigments and absorption of various wavelengths Chlorophylls are greenish pigments which contain a porphyrin ring These pigments have photosynthetic activity Xanthophyll yellow Phycobilins are watersoluble pigments and usually blues purples violets and pinks These are not involved in photosynthesis nthocyanins are watersoluble flavonoid pigments and usually appear blue to purple to red depending on pH These are not involved in photosynthesis study wavelength and absorption graph on ppt gt 1 m 10 5lnm 10quota nm 1 nm 1 03 nm 105 nm 1 Oglnm 1Dquoti m Gamma Micro Radio rays X rays UV Infrared waves waves Visible light 330 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 nm anuner Luugel Higher energy gt Lower energy cammm Dunnquot mm inn mm cnll i3 ii3ii a Carmenuids Ansonbane all light hy nhlnmpl al pigmmia Wavelenglh all light hm


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