Introduction to Anthropology
Introduction to Anthropology ANTH 1000
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Creola Goldner on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Heidi Luchsinger in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/221324/anth-1000-east-carolina-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Political organization the way the power is distributed and embedded in society the means by Vinich a society band tribe chiefdom state legitimacy cultural control social control sanction law creates and maintains social order Uncentralized political systems A relatively small and loosely organized kinordered group that inhabits a specific territory and that may split periodically into smaller extended family groups that are politically independent extremely small kinbased societies all members are related through consanguineal or affinal ties that build temporary camps and that are found among foragers bands have no formal government or legal system and no formal leadership positions political control is exercised by consensus mediation example of a band society lKung San Hundreds plus people mobile or fixed kindescent groups same culture language and identity small kinbased societies that build semipermanent villages and that are associated with nonintensive food producers ie pastoralists amp horticulturists tribes have no formal government or formal legal system political control is exercised through a formal leadership position called headman who has limited authority and no power example of a tribal society Waoran Centralized political systems A regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single chief who is at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people large kinbased societies that build permanent towns and that are associated with agriculture formal political organization consisting of a hereditary nobility political control is exercised through the formal office of chief who has substantial authority and power example of a chiefdom society precontact Hawaii Social classes formal government laws modern countries extremely large classstructured societies that build permanent cities and that are found only in agricultural and industrial societies states have a formal government and a formal legal system that takes many different forms but all states place very extensive power and authority in the hands of a relative few example of a state society United States of America The right of political leaders to govern to hold use and allocate power based on the values a particular society holds Control through beliefs and values deeply internalized in the minds of individuals External control through open coercion An externalized social control designed to encourage conformity to social norms Formal rules of conduct that when violated cause negative sanctions Crime Negotiation Using direct argument and compromise Mediation Settlement of a dispute through negotiation Adjudication Mediation with an unbiased third party making the ultimate decision Chapter 24 Religion Worldview The collective body of ideas that members of a culture generally share concerning the ultimate shape and substance of their reality Types of religion 1 Gods I Goddesses major religions Polytheism belief in several GodsGoddesses theon the collection of GodsGoddesses 2 Ancestral Spirits humans are made up of two components body and soul African Societies China 3 Sacred Places any physical site Three Holy Mountains 4 Animism belief that nature is enlivened or energized by distinct personalized spirit beings separable from bodies 5 Animitism A belief that nature is enlivened or energized by an impersonal spiritual power or supernatural potency Religious Specialists 1 Priests 2 Shaman Rituals and Ceremonies and deat Separation In a rite of passage the ritual removal of the individual from society Transition In a rite of passage isolation of the individual following separation and prior incorporation into society Incorporation ln rites of passage reincorporation of the individual into society in his or her new status Rites of Intensification A ritual that takes place during a crisis in the life of the group and serves to bind individuals together Magic Imitative magic Magic based on the principle that like produces like sometimes called sympathetic magic Contagious magic Magic based on the principle that things once in contact can influence each other after the contact is broken nails hair teeth Witchcraft an explanation of events based on belief that certain individual possesses an innate psychic power capable of causing harm including sickness and death 0 Divination A magical procedure or spiritual ritual designed to find out about what is not knowable by ordinary means such as foretelling the future by interpreting omens Navajo American Indians 0 lbibio witchcraft Nigerian tribe even though exposed to modern science are still highly dependent on religion Revitalization movements revolution 0 Cargo cult A spiritual movement especially noted in Melanesia in reaction to disruptive contact with Western capitalism promising resurrection of deceased relatives destruction or enslavement of Wnite foreigners and the magical arrival of utopian riches Rite of Passage A ritual that marks an important stage in an individual s life cycle such as birth marriage Chapter 12 Modern Human Diversity Race and Racism Johann Blumenhaohlirst to diyide people into races white people being inleriorto all others I EuropeanEthiopian llongolian andllalayPacificlslandersandAustralians Franz Boas and Ashley Alonlagu lought against racism Biologically humans are yensimilar Concept of rate isa hlurny idea I 1 l l l l lJi Ki L J L Jili n msm l I r W H distinctive physical characteristics Race has none to minimal eilecton hehayiororintelligencer HumanBiologioalDiversity Pclymcrphic J L y r i h 1 lpai tiuuiaigeries Polytypiothe pissing y Cline a gradual change in the frequency of an allele or trait over space Epiaanthia eye fold A told of sA39n atthe inner corner olthe eye that coyers the true corner of the eye common in Asiatic populations Ina at i Lactose A sugarthat isthe primany constituent ollresh milh Thrifrygcnctype h hiagunttat J J I r III39ALA A Hriirrr cl l quotMELquot My ultraviolet radiation I w H r r r39 l aa aLlll a I iaia Quiz llone were group ng people on the basis of fingerprints most Europeans are loops as are E Asians Forthe ABO hloodtype the highest rate ol the 0 allele islound among natiyes of South America Forthe ABO blood type the highest rate olthe B allele is lound among some Asian populations Chapter 13HaimanAdaptation Hall a J al I all ti l I laaai Genetically Described by Danuin s theony of natural selection I DevelopmentallyPermananr III I during deyelopment I Physictcgicatty t I I i l li f y Hasictnthis l i ll a t l l l l l l l J l l l l n i y gillsan a airway and human evolutionary hislory TuskegeeSyphiIis Study I I i ii iii i AM M A I J a a J J M tl my a my H disease in the Negro I HLl t L all tJlJt i i ii A at I iii thlltttUttlly hthii my J FranzBoas delined theleatures olthe human growth curve The graph on the leltdepicts distance orthe amount olgroylth attained oyertime uhile the graph onthe right shows the velocity or rate olgroyrth oyer ime Secular Trend A physical difference among related people from distinct generations that allows anthropologists to make inferences about environmental effects on growth and development High Altitude Adaptations Observing that Kenyan runners have won most of the major marathon competitions over the past several decades coaches have emulated the Kenyan approach Adaptation to the hot dry yet mountainous region leads to a long lean build and increased oxygencarrying capacity Acclimatization Longterm physiological adjustments made in order to attain equilibrium with a specific environmental stimulus Body type and heat Bergman s rule refers to the tendency for the bodies of mammals living in cold climates to be shorter and rounder than members of the same species living in warm climates Allen s rule refers to the tendency of mammals living in cold climates to have shorter appendages arms and legs than members of the same species living in warm climates In extreme cold the limbs need enough heat to prevent frostbite but giving up heat to the periphery takes it away from the body core Humans balance this through the hunting response 0 When exposed to cold blood vessels constrict Initial alternations between the open warm and shut cold and the temperature of the skin range dramatically Oscillations become smaller and more rapid allowing a hunter to maintain manual dexterity required for tying knots or sewing The human body s primary physiological mechanism for coping with extreme heat is sweating or perspiring Sweating is a process through which water released from sweat glands gives up body heat as the sweat evaporates Without replacing sweat through drinking water exposure to heat can be fatal Medical Anthropology A specialization that brings theoretical and applied approaches from cultural and biological anthropology to the study of human health and disease I A disease is a specific pathology a physical or biological abnormality l Illness refers to the meanings and elaborations given to a particular physical state I Endemic is the public health term for a disease that is widespread in a population Prions is a protein lacking any genetic material that behaves as an infectious particle Medical Pluralism The presence of multiple medical systems each with its own practices and beliefs in a society Chapter 2 Biology and Evolution The classification of living things Systema Naturae system of nature classifies all living things developed by Carolus Linnaeus Mammal The class of vertebrate animals distinguished by bodies covered with fur selfregulating temperature and in females milkproducing mammary g ands Primate The group of mammals that includes lemurs lorises tarsiers monkeys apes and humans Species smalls working unit in the system of classification Genus genera pl in the system of plants and animal classification a group of like species Linnaeus classification system is based on following criteria 1 ody structure 2 Body function 3 Sequence of bodily growth Taxonomy science of classification Modern taxonomy includes protein structure and genetic material Analogies ln biology structures possessed by different organisms that are superficially similar due to similar function without sharing a common developmental pathway or structure Homologies ln biology structures possessed by two different organisms that arise in similar fashion and pass through similar stages during embryonic development though they may possess different functions Heredity Gene a portion of the DNA molecule containing a sequence of base pairs that is the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity Law of segregation the Mendelian principle that variants of genes for a particular trait that retain their separate identities through the generation Law of independent assortment Mendelian principle that genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another DNA Transcription conversion from DNA into RNA Ri osomes structure of a cell where translation occurs Translation conversion of RNA instructions into proteins
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