Introduction to Anthropology
Introduction to Anthropology ANTH 1000
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Chapter 17 Social Identity Personality and Gender 0 ENCULTURATION THE HUMAN SELF AND SOCIAL IDENTITV o SelfAwareness Enculturation begins with selfawareness SelfAwareness the ability to identify oneself as an individual to reflect on oneself and to evaluate oneself Humans do not have ability at birth Babies in other countries exposed to more stimuli gt N America Longer breastfed Lower chance of ADHD Fewer Allergies Fewer Ear Infections Fewer Diarrhea Lower risk of SIDS Social Identity Through Personal Naming Many cultures mark naming a special event naming ceremony naming ceremony a special event ritual to mark the naming of a child marks social transition from a state of nature to culture 0 The Selfand the Behavioral Environment Development of selfawareness requires basic orientations object spatial temporal normative that structure psychological field in which self acts Object orientation attention to certain environmental features Also explains perceived environment Spatial orientation ability to get from one object or place to another Temporal Orientation gives people a sense of their place in time behavioral environment Normative moral values ideals principles which are purely cultural in origin 0 PERSONALITV THE DISTINCTIVE WAV A PERSON THINKS FEELS AND BEHAVES o The Development of Personality Margaret Mead possible to distinguish between two general patterns of childrearing Dependence Training Childrearing practices that foster compliance in the performance of assigned tasks and dependence on the domestic group rather than reliance on oneself Pattern typically associated with extended families consisting of several husbandwifechildren units within same household Societies with economy based on subsistence farming foraging groups where several family groups may live together Breastfeeding provided ondemand for several years Behavior adults interpret as aggressive selfish is likely to be discouraged Self comes from individual being a part of larger social whole rather than individual existence Independence Training Childrearing practices that foster independence selfreliance and personal achievement Characteristic of mercantile industrial amp postindustrial societies Selfsufficiency amp personal achievement important for success Breastfeeding prompted by schedule not demand Babies in N America are rarely nursed for gt 1 year Parents resort to pacifier to satisfy baby s sucking instincts Displays of individual will assertiveness even aggression are encourage tolerated to greater degree Schools devote considerable resources to competitive sports Competition fostered in classrooms spelling bees awards grading curve Prom king queen Individuals in US society received clear message by time they grow up Live is about winning amp losing losing failure I Combined DependenceIndependence Training a Encourages individuals to be more supportive of one another than is often the case in modern industrial societies a No childrearing methods is inherently better worse than the other 0 Group Personality I Can we describe group personality without falling into stereotyping a Qualified yes in abstract way We may speak of a generalized cultural personality for a society as long as we do not expect to find uniformity of personalities within 0 Modal Personality I The body of character traits that occur with the highest frequency in a culturally bounded population I Statistical concept gathered by means of psychological tests administered to sample of population a Projective personality tests Rorschach quotinkblotquot test a Swiss psychiatrist first published in 1920s Thematic Apperception Test TAT I Twofold Problem u Making sure sample is representative and u having time and personnel necessary 0 National Character I Objections to National Character Studies a Studies recognized early on flawed Over generalized conclusions tests highly subjective Occupation amp social status cut across national boundaries u Helped change anthropological focus form traditional smallscale communities of foragers herders farmers to largescale contemporary state societies u Prompted new theoretical amp methodological approaches to serious interdisciplinary group research 0 Core Values I Those values especially promoted by a particular culture I Alternative approach Francis Hsu u Studied core values amp related personality traits 0 ALTERNATIVE GENDER MODELS FROM A CROSSCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE o lntersexual people born with reproductive organs genitalia andor chromosomes that are not exclusively male or female I Turner syndrome female develops external genitalia nonfunctional ovaries infertile I Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome AIS a Normal clitoris labia breasts externally u Undescended testes in abdomen I Hermaphrodite both testicular and ovarian tissue ovotestis I Castration u POWs forced castration u Ottoman Empire of the Turks castrated could occupy variety of important functions known as eunuchs a Late 15 h century emergence of musical eununchs castrati Sung female parts in Roman Catholic church after church authorities banned women singers Saint Paul s instructions a Castrated before reached puberty retained high voices no hormones produced no puberty a 1700s estimated 4000 castrati boys in Italy alone I Many indigenous communities in Great Plains and SW created alternative social space I Transgender a person who crosses over or occupies a culturally accepted position in the binary malefemale gender construction a Winkte Lakota half man half woman a Berdache N Americans in great plains u Fa afafines Samoa the female way Accepted option for boys who prefer to dance cook clean house care for children amp elderly a Hijra lndia Urdu term covering transgendered men castrated males and hermaphrodites who dress amp behave like women I No transgendered culture type can be lumped together as homosexual o Studying intersexuality and transgendering enables us to recognize the existing range of gender alternatives and to debunk false stereotypes 0 NORMAL AND ABNORMAL PERSONALITV IN SOCIAL CONTEXT I Cultural standards that define normal behavior for any society are determined by that society itself I Boundaries that distinguish from normal amp abnormal as well as standards of what is socially acceptable culturally variable o 90th5 Holy Men in Hindu Culture I Sadhu ascetic monk u Transform his personal identity change sense of self leave place in social order n Detach himself from pursuit of earthly pleasures kama power and wealth artha radical break with family and friends abandon moral principles amp rules of code of conduct prescribed for his carte d harma symbolically expressing his death as normal Hindu participates in own funeral amp rebirth ceremonies acquiring new identity of sadhu u dedicates himself to achieving spiritual union with divine soul through meditation yoga a goal become fully enlightened soul liberated from physical limits of individual mortal self a divine state of pure consciousness and freedom mokshe o ACrossCultural Perspective on Mental Disorders I lrving Hallowell observed that it is normal to share the delusions traditionally accepted by one s society 0 Ethnic Psychoses I A mental disorder specific to a particular ethnic group a Northern Algonquian lndian groups Cree and Ojibwa existence of cannibalistic monsters called Windigos Individuals afflicted by psychosis developed delusion that falling under control of these monsters would turn them into Windigos and crave human flesh u Windigo psychosis is paranoid schizophrenia expressed in a way compatible with traditional h Algonquiah cultures Chapter 18 Patterns of Subsistence 0 ADAPTATION O O 0 Human adaptation is unique I Capacity to produce and reproduce culture Cultural Adaptation A complex of ideas activities and technologies that enable people to survive and even thrive Establishes balance between needs of population and potential of its environment Tsembaga of Papua New Guinea a Raise and eat pigs under condition of illness injury warfare celebration u Pigs omnivorous eaters keep village clean a Status symbol a Pigs become problem among neighbors hostility fueled fighting breaks out hostility ends followed by massive pig roast The Unit of Adaptation I Ecosystem A system or a functioning whole composed of both the natural environment and all the organisms living within it a Population humans must have flexibility to cope with variability and change within natural environment sustaining them Adaptation in Cultural Evolution I Cultural Evolution Culture change over time not to be confused with progress I Progress The notion that humans are moving forward to a better more advanced stage in their cultural development toward perfection I Humans must have potential to adjust become part of environment a Comanche Indians of S Idaho Evolved from peaceful nomads to wealthy leading invaders with European weapons I Convergent evolution in cultural evolution the development of similar cultural adaptations to similar environmental conditions by different peoples with different ancestral cultures a Cheyenne Indians from crop cultivators to exclusively hunting amp gathering I Parallel evolution the development of similar cultural adaptations to similar environmental conditions by peoples whose ancestral cultures were already somewhat alike I Stability as well as change involved in cultural adaptation and evolution I Culture Areas geographic region in which a number of societies follow similar patterns of life a Ethnic groups living within same broad habitat often share certain culture traits a Culture areas not always stable everything in nature is in a state of flux a 1870 s and 80 s mass slaughter of bison due to RR expansion Indians faced starvation I Culture Core cultural features that are fundamental in the society s way of making its living including foodproducing techniques knowledge of available resources work arrangements involved in applying those techniques to the local environment a Social and political organization also influence how tech applied to problem of staying alive u Ethnoscientists focus on principles behind native idea system how they inform a people about environment what role they play in survival O MODES OF SUBSISTENCE Human societies across world have developed cultural infrastructure compatible with natural resources available to them within limitations of various habitats Foo O 0 Cha FOOD FORAGING SOCIETIES d Foraging hunting fishing and gathering wild plant foods lt 005 of world population still support selves as foragers Diets balanced amp less likely to experience severe famine than farmers Limited possessions racteristics of Foraging Communities Mobility Move as needed within circumscribed region Hunting dogs Availability of water Small Group Size lt 100 people Ecological factor Carrying capacity number of people that available resources can support at a given level of foodgetting techniques 9 Including tools amp work necessary to gather Social factor Density of social relations number and intensity of interactions among members of a camp 9 Circumstances and quality of those interactions mechanisms for regulating them Ju hoansi Southern Africa Canadian anthropologist Richard Lee Too many children families encouraged to join others where fewer children live Food foraging peoples regulate pop size in relation to a How much body fat they have accumulated a How they care for their children Mothers nurse children several times hour 45yrs Flexible Division of Labor by Gender Men Hunting butchering of large game Processing of hard tough raw materials Women Collecting and processing plant foods domestic chores No less arduous than men May walk up to 12 miday 23 times week carrying children and 1533 lbs of food Food foragers up to 6070 diets from plant foods Food Sharing Rules specify how much meat distributed to who Egalitarian Social relations Must be able to travel wo many encumbrances esp on foodgetting expedition Status differences does not constitute inequality lnnu Montagnais Indians of Labrador Hunting extremely important men provide most food women clothes Women excluded from ritual feast regarding hunting Men excluded from ritual feast of women y y y o Cul o FOODP o Cro O Cro Food foragers make no attempt to create a surplus of food Wealth amp status not achieved by hoarding equally distributed Concept of territory most groups have ranges resources open to all members First come first serve Families move easily from group to group wherever they have previous kinship tie tural Adaptations and Technology among Foragers Habitat amp technology shape characteristics Mobility of group may depend on water game animals seasonal resources Different hunting technologies pop size div of labor by gender Mbuti pygmies in lturi tropical forest Hunt elephants with spears Bows amp other large nets for other game RODUCING SOCIETIES Food foraging gt food producing c 10000 yrs ago in SW Asia u Neolithic The New Stone Age prehistoric period beginning about 10000 years ago in which peoples possessed stonebased technologies and depended on domesticated plants andor animals Gordon Childe llNeolithic revolution profound culture change now referred to as Neolithic Revolution profound cultural change beginning about 10000 years ago and associated with the early domestication of plants and animals and settlement in permanent villages lncreased dependency on domestication gt gave up mobile life Unlikely people voluntarily became food producers Unintended byproduct of existing foodmgmt practices Paiute lndians discovered how to irrigate wild crops in desert settle down for longer p Cultivation in Gardens Horticulture Horticulture cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools no fertilizer Nonexclusive dependency on garden Slashandburn Cultivation swidden farming extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut slash is subsequently burned crops are planted among ashes Method lookeddown upon Mimics diversity of natural ecosystem Ecologically sound amp far more efficient than current practices p Cultivation Agriculture Agriculture cultivation of food plants in soil prepared and maintained for crop production Uses technologies other than hand tools irrigation fertilizers wooden metal plow pushed by draft animals quotdevelopedquot countries rely on fuelpowered tractors to produce Much of farmers activities governed by political amp economic forces granting them little control Early food producers developed several major crop complexes two adapted to dry uplands cultivate to changing seasons a wheat barley oat flax rye millet two adapted to tropical wetlands a yams and taro 0 Characteristics of Agricultural Societies I Development of fixed settlements a Food production different kind of social organization Some could provide for all allowing others to invent and manufacture equipment I Egalitarian societies gt multifamily kinships Mixed Farming Crop Growing and Animal Breeding I Indigenous foodproducing cultures in western hemisphere depended primarily on growing domesticated indigenous crops manioc corn beans I Eurasian amp African mixed subsistence strategy a Crop cultivation animal husbandry While growing crops they also breed amp raise animals including a Chickens ducks geese rabbits pigs goats sheep cattle camels dromedaries donkeys horses Pastoralism breeding and managing large herds of domesticated grazing animals goats sheep cattle horses llamas camels u Specialized way of life around breeding amp herding u Completely dependent on livestock for survival a Do not establish permanent settlements I Nomadic Pastoralism Bakhtiari Herders in the Zagros Mountains u Effective way of living gt sheep cattle ranching u Fiercely independent Zagros Mountains western Iran a Sheep amp goats provide milk cheese butter meat hides wool Women amp girls spin wool gt yarn u Labor division according to gender Women cook sew weave care for children carry fuel amp water 9 Lack economical amp political power Men tend to flock Governed by tribal leaders khans elected inherit office Although pastoral they trade surplus of goods for other goods connecting them to agricultural amp industrial societies lntensive Agriculture and Nonindustrial Cities I Cities composed of craft specialists carpenters blacksmiths sculptors basket makers stonecutters I Dwellers indirectly concerned with adapting U Need to adapt to living amp getting along with fellow urbanites I Urbanization brings new social order n Inequality develops people ranked according to their control over resources kind of work they do gender family born into I Mostly depend on what is produced foraged in surrounding taking over farms rural u The demise of farmers determining their own surplus farmers gt peasants Peasant rural cultivator whose surpluses are transferred to a dominant group of rulers that uses the surpluses both to underwrite its own standard of living and to distribute the remainder to groups in society that do not farm but must be fed for their specific goods and services in turn Eric Wolf studied A I The Aztec State a 15 h century highly developed urbanity political elite gained control over food production a Social order in three classes Nobles Commoners Serfs 9 Bound to land lowest slaves 9 Some sold selves into bondage a Captives taken in war a Absolute monarchy founded on intensive agriculture corn a Market extremely important to economic amp social institution Buying amp trading on daily markets Served social functions to meet other people amp hear latest news 0 INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES o 200 years ago Invention of steam engine in England I Water wind steam oil gas diesel Machines amp tools replaced human labor 0 Large scale industrialization Chapter 15 Methods History of Ethnographic Research and its Uses 0 O Salvage Ethnography or Urgent Anthropology I UrgentAnthropoogy Ethnographic research that documents endangered cultures also known as salvage ethnography I Cultural anthropology 9 formal discipline during colonialism 1870s1950s First anthropologists worked for museums amp interviewed Native Americans I Anthropologists still assist in cultural preservation efforts a New methods Acculturation Studies I Acculturation The disruptive process of culture change occurring in traditional societies coming in contact with more powerful state societies industrialized capitalist I Margaret Mead 1932 fieldwork Omaha Indians a Community breakdown u Culturaldisintegration Applied Anthropology I Applied Anthropology the use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems in communities confronting new challenges I 1930s Bureau of Indian Affairs BIA formed in US I 1941 international Society for Applied Anthropology founded at Harvard Studying Cultures at a Distance I WWII wartime government program of llnational character I studies a Mead Ruth Benedict innovative techniques for studying llculture at a distance I Analysis of newspapers literature photographs and films Structured interviews with immigrants Studying Contemporary State Societies I Generalized understanding of human behavior amp ideas depends on knowledge of all cultures and peoples I Hortense Powdermaker fieldwork among Melanesians in southern Pacific u Focused on combating dominant society s racism against African Americans I 1950 Alfred Metraux international team of researchers to study contemporary race relations in Brazil Peasant Studies I Peasants represent midway between modern industrial and traditional largest social category Advocacy Anthropology I One of the first projects Meskwaki Indians on reservation in Iowa 19481959 I Sol Tax challenged govt sponsored applied anthropological research projects a Proposed researchers work directly with disadvantaged exploited and oppressed communities to help them identify and solve their own problems Advocacy anthropology research that is communitybased and politically involved US Robert Hitchcock a Land rights developmental issues social economic and cultural rights of people in southern Africa o Studying Up I US Laura Nader u Called upon anthropologists to focus on Western elites govt bureaucracies global corporations philanthropic foundations media empires business clubs 0 Globalization and MultiSited Ethnography I Consequence diasporic populations scattered I New trend in anth Research a Multi sited ethnography investigation and documentation of peoples and cultures embedded in the larger structures of a globalizing world utilizing a range of methods in various locations of time and space I Cyberethnography imagined communities DOING ETHNOGRAPHV CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGV RESEARCH METHODS u Ethnographic fieldwork extended onlocation research to gather detailed and in depth information on a society s customary ideas values and practices through participation in its collective social life 0 SITE SELECTION AND RESEARCH QUESTION I Advanced planning a Funding u Permission O PREPARATORV RESEARCH I Research existing written visual sound information available I Learn language of community I Study theoretical historical ethnographic amp other literature relevant to research problem 0 PARTICIPANTOBSERVATION I Consider culture as a whole for sake of context I Tuned in to details of daily life ordinary amp extraordinary O ETHNOGRAPHIC TOOLS AND AIDS I Notepad penpencils camera sound recorder laptop I Socially amp psychologically adapt I May also enlist assistance of key consultants a Key consultants member of society being studied who provides information that helps researchers understand the meaning of what they observe early anthropologists referred to them as informants 0 DATA GATHERING THE ETHNOGRAPHER39S APPROACH I Two main categories quantitative amp qualitative D Quantitative data statistical measurable information such as demographic composition types and quantities of crops grown ration of spouses born amp raised within or outside community D Qualitative data non statistical information such as personal life stories and customary beliefs and practices I Methods u Taking Surveys Just one part of many research methods Usually carried out after enough time spent on location to gain community s confidence 0 Cha 0 Eth Interviewing Informalnterview unstructured openended conversation in everyday life a Carried out anytime anywhere 9 Essential people share most freely Formal Interview structured questionanswer session carefully notated as it occurs and based on prepared questions 2 categories of questions openended questions broad amp closed specific Elieting device activity object used to draw out individuals and encourage them to recall and share information Mapping Local place names Geographic features Information relevant to local subsistence 9 Animal migration routes 9 Fishing areas a Medicinal plants a GPS to measure precise distances 9 GIS Photographing and Filming Photography instrumental for gt a century Franz Boas 9 Photographs during first fieldwork in Canadian Arctic early 1880s llenges of Ethnographic Fieldwork Gaining Social Acceptance in the Community Success in fieldwork depends on mutual goodwill and ability to develop friendships Political Challenges Possibility of being caught in rivalries Viewed with suspicion by government Challenges Linked to Gender Age ldeology Ethnicity and Skin Color Males may face prohibitions severe restrictions in interviewing women women s activities Femal researcher may not find ready reception among males The Problem of Subjectivity Things Are Not as They Seem Describing a culture accurately requires 3 types of data People s own understanding of their culture amp general rules they share Extent to which people believe they are observing those rules Behavior that can be directly observed The way people should do and actually behave may be different Misinterpretation due to personal feelings amp biases shaped nographic Reflexivity Acknowledging the Researcher as Subject Observational access often limited Reflexivity selfmonitor through constantly checking own personal cultural biases and assumptions as they work and presenting these selfreflections along with their observations 0 Putting It All Together Completing an Ethnography I Piecing gatherings into accurate coherent whole I Digital ethnography digital technologies AV for collection analysis amp representation 0 Ethnohistory I Ethnohistory study of cultures of the recent past through oral histories accounts of explorers missionaries traders and through analysis of records land titles birth amp death records other archival materials 0 ETHNOLOGV FROM DESCRIPTION TO INTERPRETATION AND THEORV I Theory vs doctrine Doctrine assertion of opinion belief formally handed down by an authority as true amp indisputable dogma O ETHNOLOGV AND THE COMPARATIVE METHOD I Single instance generally insufficient for supporting plausible hypothesis I Key resource Human Relations Area Files HRAF vast collection of crossindexed ethnographic and archaeological data catalogued by cultural characteristics and geographic locations Initiated by Yale Univ mid 1900s Can be used to crosscheck Use with caution Chapter 16 Language and Communication LINGUISTIC RESEARCH AND THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE 0 Language a system of communication using sounds or gestures that are put together in meaningful ways according to a set of rules Signal an instinctive sound gesture that has a natural or selfevident meaning Linguistics modern scientific study of all aspects of language I Go back to ancient language specialists in India gt 2000 years ago I European age of exploration 16 118 h centuries great leap forward in scientific studies I 19 h century made significant contribution in discovering System Regularity Relationships I 20 h century unraveling reasoning process behind language construction testing working from new amp improved theories I 3 main branches Descriptive historical socialcultural settings DESCRIPTIVE LINGUISTICS I Unraveling a language by recording describing and analyzing all of its features leads to I Deeper understanding of structure unique repertoire relationship to other languages 0 Phonology the study of language sound I Phonetics the systematic identification and description of distinctive speech sounds in a language I Phoneme smallest unit of sound that makes a difference in meaning in a language a Linguist works to isolate them through the minimalpair test Two short words that appear to be exactly alike except for one sound bit vs pit o Morphology the study of the patterns rules of word formation in a language include rules verb tense pluralization compound words I Morphemes the smallest units of sound that carry a meaning in a language 0 Syntax amp Grammar I Syntax the patterns rules by which morphemes are arranged into phrases amp sentences I Grammar the entire formal structure of a language including morphology and syntax HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS I change in language I study quotdead I languages investigate relationships between earlier amp later forms study older languages for developments in modern ones exam interrelationships I Language Family group of languages descended from a single ancestral language I Linguistic Divergence the development of different languages from a single ancestral language I Developed methods to estimate when divergences occur a Glottochronology a method for identifying the approximate time that languages branched off from a common ancestor based on analyzing core vocabularies a Core Vocabularies most basic amp longlasting words in any language pronouns lower numerals names for body parts natural objects I Glottochronology chronological dating methods can help determine time of linguistic divergence 0 Process of Linguistic Divergence u Selective borrowing from one language to another a Increasing professional specialization n In a classful society upper class may make distinct pronunciation to reinforce social boundaries u Phonological differences among groups may be regarded in the same light as vocab differences Language Loss and Revival a Most powerful force for linguistic change domination of one society over another 500 years of European colonialism Taiwan s aboriginal peoples governed by Mandarinspeaking Chinese Tarascan Indians by Spanish Mexicans Bushmen by English Namibians a Only 150 of 300 indigenous languages exist endangered amp gt extinction OO a United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO Key issue impact of electronic media internet UNESCO established Bbel 2001 Linguistic Nationalism the attempt by ethnic minorities and even countries to proclaim independence by purging their language of foreign terms US amp Canada sanctioning N American children into Englishonly boarding schools 0 LANGUAGE IN ITS SOCIALAND CULTURAL SETTINGS O Sociolinguistics the study of the relationship between language and society through examining how social categories age gender ethnicity religion occupation class influence the use and significance of distinctive styles of speech I Language and Gender u Gendered Speech distinct male and female speech patterns which vary across social and cultural settings The distinct male amp female syntax exhibited in various languages Social Dialects varying forms of a language that reflect particular regions occupations or social classes and that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible Noam Chomsky diaect is a language without an army Boundaries can be psychological geographical social economic not always very sharp a lnnercity African Americans African American Vernacular English AAVE aka black English Ebonics ltgt AAVE is actually highly structure mode of speech patterned rules of sounds amp sequences Code switching changing from one level of language to another as the situation demands whether from one language to another or from one dialect of a language to another Ethnolinguistics a branch of linguistics that studies the relationships between language and culture and how they mutually influence and inform each other I Linguistic Relativity idea that distinctions encoded in one language are unique to that language I Linguistic Determinism idea that language to some extent shapes the way in which we view and think about the world around us sometimes called the SapirWhorf hypothesis after its originators Edward Sapir and his student Benjamin Lee Whorf u Hypothesis each language provides different grooves of linguistic expression predispose speakers to perceive the world a certain way u Whorf Hopi language focus on present what needs to be done right now I Kinship Terms u Terms people use when referring to relatives can reveal much about culture a Varies across cultures 0 LANGUAGE VERSATILITV O O O Societies throughout world not unusual to be fluent in 2 languages Ability to comprehend 2 languages but express oneself in only one receptive passive bilingual US many uninterested in learning other languages 0 BEVOND WORDS THE GESTURECALL SVSTEM O Gesturecall system I Gestures serve to quotkeyquot speech provide appropriate frame for listener s interpretation Body Language I Gesture facial expressions amp bodily postures and motions that convey intended as well as subconscious messages I Kinesics system of notating and analyzing postures facial expressions and bodily motions that convey messages I Human body capable of making 7000 facial expressions I Proxemics crosscultural study of humankind s perception and use of space Paralanguage voice effects that accompany language and convey meaning These include vocalizations such as giggling groaning sighing voice qualities pitch amp tempo I Not what was said but how it was said TONAL LANG UAG ES 0 Tonal Language a language in which the sound pitch of a spoken word is an essential part of its pronunciation and meaning 0 Sounds can be divided into tones rises amp falls in pitch key role in distinguishing one word from another 0 70 of languages worldwide are tonal languages THE ORIGINS OF LANGUAGE o Often found that cultural groups tend to locate place of origin in own ancestral homelands amp believe that the first humans also spoke their language FROM SPEECH TOWRITING 0 Many cultures trained from childhood in memorizing genealogies ritual prayers customary laws amp diplomatic agreements I Oral devices rhyme rhythm melody to enhance memory I Memory devices notched sticks knotted strings bands embroidered 0 Writing System a set of visible or tactile signs used to represent units of language in a systematic way I 8600 year old tortoise shes found in China with symbols carved in them I Oldest hieroglyphics in America 2900 years old Olmec Indians in now Vera Cruz Mexico 0 Alphabet a series of symbols representing the sounds of a language arranged in a traditional order