Introductory Psychology PSYC 1000
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lane Schuster on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Lisa Maag in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/221332/psyc-1000-east-carolina-university in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Ashley COOK quot quot 39 W Chapter 1 As YOU READ PRACTICE ACHVITIQ WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY COMMON VERS 1 Although coming up with a de nition of ps estions that we might expect psychology to answer sho us you would like to have answered throughout yo isit these questions as the semester goes on You ma 0t answer the questions as asked and you may needt ers as the N 9 P semester goes along L0 11 Take the test of popular psychology knowledge in your textbook on page 4 How did you do If you missed any items select the one you believed in most strongly or that you have heard the most often Now look for evidence that supports the right answer L0 11 No van goodmwswwqusw 5f 39 500 Wav39ar lgi f ehtgwhmhig is cMaVQWK Q39 AW zy39Ji cltQd we pm3ndquotrrvpersa I V I 0M paredinlay haquots shadieved People w39itM SQWMWWZV C Mauro distovbamws in 393939VVlh8 iamsuagQiemahoml a V relahonsln39ms AJ39VXXA O39lMYS 3 Look at the proverbs and their opposites on page 7 Pick one pair and research which one of that pair has the better support in terms of both quantity and quality of evidence Write up your findings here L0 11 Examine any one of the Web sites that are listed in Table 11 in your textbook Using the guidelines provided in the introductory chapter to this Study Guide note those aspects that support con dence in the good quality of the Web site you selected Are there any aspects of this site according to the guidelines that lead you to be less than 100 confident in the site L0 12 In your own words describe how a hypo iesis is different from a theory L0 12 A hyw w sis 3 a Resetaide WV GCilC39iiCW IOU exwla m Hawk YOU xwa 0 Map46ft gluf f cl 4m i p 39 t 39C I39 v 02 Couviye a your 651033 0 6Lcjgrmyl lugrlc 0 6x cont l CLer opyriglit 201 PLeagson Bducatio i k i 11 Inc 3 Sam Law Nick Pope Lindsie O hagan Adam Johnson Dr Magg 9911 PSYC 1000 Study Guide 1 W P In Psychology there are some questions thatjust cannot be answered by science For example we might be able to tell what parts of the brain are used with different thought processes but we cannot answer questions about religion andor why people believe what they do i got 6 questions correct I did okay on most of the questions I have heard the Dyslexic generalization a lot and it should be put to rest I myself am dyslexic and take offence when this is spoken There are many types of dyslexia and this just happens to be quotfunnyquot Look at the proverbs and their opposites on page 7 Pick one pair and research which one of that pair has the better support in terms of both quantity and quality of evidence Write up your findings here birds of a feather flock together opposites attract According to a University of Iowa study on mating issues mating based on similar or opposite characteristics which studied 291 newlyweds that had participated in the lowa Marital Assessment Project researchers found with very strong evidence that people tend to marry those who are similar in attitudes religion and values They also found that these were the main reasons why people got married www N dmmrs 5W Other studies like the one done at the University of Iowa seem to prove that there is more truth in the proverb quotbirds of a feather flock together than opposites attract I found that there are more studies done to prove that it is more important to have similarities in a relationship than have too many differences The quality of this site is good however it involves both supported and unsupported claims which make it more difficult to decide which is true So in the case of this website in some aspect i wouldn39t rely on it 100 percent for truthful information A hypothesis is simply an educated guess and a theory is a summary of observed behavior 3 A gt9 K NW3 Study Guide for Psychology A Framework for Everyday Thinking W D a PSYCHOLOGICAL PSEUDOSCIENCE IMPOSTERS OF SCIENCE 0 i 1 Draw a relationship between the concepts of falsi ability metaphysical claims and pseudoscientific claims L0 13 and 16 owWM tum ym an 4 but it omth WWW a PPMWWW loadx wbwnu N Read each of the following statements Which ones ask a legitimate scienti c question Why or why not L0 13 a People who believe in an a erlife are better adjusted than individuals who do not b Anxious individuals harbor unconscious sexual urges NO 13ka Mum mm mm muW c Depressed individuals have sadder memories than do nondepressed individuals mm QM WW Morngte how sud t MN 8 t Moo j d A er death our soul endures and is reborn in a new living being A A l 0 N o 0d 0 0 W pW bLM UMM Develop a relationship between illusory correlation seeing a correlational relationship where none exists cg between gender and how much a person talks and apophenia Provide an original example from your own life to support your argument L0 13 and 16 MJOUHDM between gum Mum onustth emu 86 Ann WoLt wt xwie 39w wh f 1tuxi iqltdi 0M 5 i M be Mm at ber tnmmd o Q AM i Won m Anna ct rt th mg in The mypsychlab activity for this section asks you to watch the video quotCold reading Talking to popular heaven medium James Van Pragh Discuss how something like cold reading can be examined from the perspective of each of the three reasons we should be concerned about PM quotmm m amt10 it man man wrestma quoturine MWLA swam auntAZ i uMwmh 1 W twnmvawn t or 80M Whg m s mowpihmxhw arch in mm to Md i m d mi ML rentm H m N0quot WJJW it quotwintering Airmen curl Wining na r W Kgndd quotW pm 0 out Li 0 9mm S Chapter 1 ayA Azancda SCIENTIFIC THINKING DISTINGUISHING FACT FROM FICTION Scienti c skepticism does NOT mean that we do not believe any claims at any time In fact Carl 1 Sagan noted in his book Demon Haunted World that to be overly skeptical is just as dangerous as not being suf ciently skeptical How would you describe that middle ground that is more bene cial LO Mair mm 5 at M we we Mame amid WL WE lm 39Fcr 9mm k t C peg lg W wellubu no this weatm i Hon lm s 34 rUQQ V7 Mwi xhlw m items 95 Ck cnei kmd m 2 Do you believe that critical thinking and scienti c thinking are the same or different Make a case for them being the same and for them being different L0 16 Mb 9 AMm le mm a o l n C memo Nihwjb bollx M unmet are 030 sennt oc t e waif of ovationhon CnMLM w mmkin quotgt 0 man to oases sewedxig Wedquot 3 Q 0ampw10 wle SoviewhR L wi lnm N 13 based o nOV I on J lVL9 3 Take the case of ESP and apply three of the six scienti c thinking principles to cast doubt on the realityofESPLO 16 g katcobihw mopeds sadismquot eia iutsqui xwmirtgitm attest sz t iiampw of T w im WVM le m 39 mania knew them down ViteX istrihiblWe w WW t 4 A student receives a bad grade on several tests and subsequently is treated for depression at the campus counseling center Did the bad grades cause the student s depression Explain three possible relationships thatmight actually exist in this situation 1016 V V isc zr a i ek Mort wtth been whitish taintac Mm M Q l ia i t m g rim i u i h w frtmxf ici on airtime or me cm wisest fewer new W a c 39itt wt sa Qn 39hmej oi Smith39th wequot lotsz W 0W 5 a K v m mg a C0pyright 201oPearsonEducanon Inc WW5 15 at 33 Co39m clh papal Gmlakielif iwvoi ih Emmett ttili 1TH YWLMMMH SCIENTIFIC THINKING DISTINGUISHING FACT FROM FICTION L Scienti c skepticism does NOT mean that we do not believe any claims at any time In fact Carl Sagan noted in his book Demon Haunted Worll hat to be overly skeptical is just as dangerous as not being suf ciently skeptical How would you describe that middle ground that is more bene cial LO 15 50mm 3 w HC 15 m was mm Mums wow 50 Mom W t n Omz D mmmcwgs it Of W95quot Clo ims out or 8m iCKOICXWIS m Swim 1mm in 0mg scientific l Nixon and r M 0 W t 50 tecp an cram m 700 m an Claim 39i some in S oven SIUUQMQI main 4m mm W moi de Wmmc ai WM CM 0th omenHr am iSnH mum 39 0mm WW timid com mom a m my a Irma Jul7 VIMw Mimi mm 3 quotMOACOLyd WW 39 humanex I W 01 u mom vN l gter N 5002260 In Mgr Wm Om 0W7 Wimd 6 Oh how 3M7 2 Do you believe that critical thinking and scienti c thinking are the same or different Make a case for them being the same and for them being different L0 16 Willch twbklh It 015m of Wilt PM W x 0M blooms mitt an own W Wt WA iltil10lhfgh Pewmove CVIOiE VtC oeton mewm 0 dmm 3 Take the case of ESP and apply three of the six scienti c thinking principles to cast doubt on the reality of ESP L0 16 tiit 3 em 0915 3 YA man39ch QC Wmvthg exhatsenmrx Peltdd Oh We trL quotg hat 0 was Aw gp ic utmc wL mm 3 2 lt3 13quot Hr vo Mime r quothow r ijva it or not Atgo39 meow or on c cg M 0 50 439 W39V i quotA Vquot m I V M l V Mn A Mi 0 Ce own 5 quotyuanw ESP 96 quot RCCi V39e mm39k Cig max91 51 Gage Mxovvc 4 A student receives a bad grade on several tests and subsequently is treated for depression at the g V g campus counseling center Did the bad grades cause the student s depression Explain three possible W V D r relationships that might actually exist in this situation L0 16 N0erhe load gvmdeg probmkh WHO i 50R CW J C DY ATM d 7ligiyquot 3ibh Oh QXXMO W OYiiwh 90M log on 0i social levtl th he might nowe 39vst tuft ailment he Won OWE iquot W W M6 in Kathe t y i qh l Copyrighml wdleatsonEducatioannc OHM m m39QWIWI evei W mtgtwill l Vt iit2 ititiia r f ct tw Wit worth Alt coxd We be Wm m mowmy tvm wail N5 atoms WWW Wm WWW if it6 W vy iotn K o htad ck Brittany Kaehler Skyler Everett Study Guide for Psychology A Framework for Everyday Thinking Ashley Chasmquot Brinany Kearney 253939LQQXZ BA TJAMLBRESEMI Billr lhg n l mlill h l 1 Match these major historical events in the history of psychology to their dates L0 17 6 Noisscr launches eld of cognitive psychology 1967 1 Wilhelm Wuncit opens rst laboratory devoted to scientific psychology and thereby 1 879 psychology is hour as a new discipliner i Milgmm publishes classic studies on oltcrlicnco 1963 3 van Pavlov discovers classical conditioning 1910 7 Daniel Kaitneinan is rst psychologist to win a Nobel Prize 2002 2 William James writes Principles of syciwiagn 1890 4 John Watson starts field of behoviotistn 1913 Shirl89Uiri l 0ii 913f 2 Compare structtnnlisnt and l nnctimmiistn s cottnituuimis to the early development ot psychology as an hrdepenricnt discipline L0 17 Structurallsm was the Idea that wanted to identify the basic parts or the quotstructuresquot of a psychological experience Structuraiism looked at experiences that shaped in person and functionalism looked at feelings ideas and behaviors to try and tind out why people do what they do Structuralists ask qitestlons such as quotwhat is conscious thought likequot Structuralism emphasized the importance of systematic observation to the study of conscious experience Functionalism wanted to understand why people adapt the feelings thoughts and behaviors that people have Functionalists ask questions such as why do people forget thingsquot These ideas have in uenced psychology greatly by setting up the principles and ideas that psychologist use today 3 Match the following theoretical frameworks to their proponents tutti to their delinitintm Siltlcltll39 liSlll Ulric Neisser sought to identify basic purpose ot tltougltts feelings and behaviors Fttnctionalism John B Watson sought to understand elements of psychology examined the effects of thinking in behavior Deimviorlsm liclwnrrl l39irchener 4 uncovered general laws of learning by examining external objective behavior ognitivisrn Willinm Jnlnes Copyright 2010 Pemmn Education Inc 34 or O n r Ome Stephens PSYCHOLOGY S PAST AND PRESENT WHAT A LONG STRANGE TRIP IT S BEEN Study Guide for Psychology A Framework for Everyday Thinking 1 Match these major historical events in the history of psychology to their dates L0 17 Neisser launches eld of cognitive psychology S as Wilhelm Wundt opens rst laboratory devoted to scienti c psychology and thereby psychology is born as a new discipline 2 Milgram publishes classic studies on obedience 3 Ivan Pavlov discovers classical conditioning Daniel Kahneman is rst psychologist to win a Nobel Prize 5 William James writes Principles of IDsychology 2 John Watson starts eld of behaviorism 849 890 WEB 196311967 2002 2 Compare 39 d 39 s quot 39 to the early 39 r of psychology as an independent discipline L0 17 monotone woodsmm mm we wemmxc cmumemmm sw 1 mowmmlt m 1x0 ooh row qmmemowcob we R 9 3 N no mos meason WW km QSWowM W RWCNWK 6 or cexxmwg m mm NEW Wu wst 39mmjmmmio 3 Match the following theoretical frameworks to their proponents and to their de nitions Structuralism sought to identify basic purpose of thoughts feelings and behaviors Eunctionalisnb John B Watson sought to understand elements of psychology Behaviorism uncovered general laws of learning by examining ermm external objective behavior GNilliam James Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc 34 D Net39ssex aundnes eld 0 coani ve mchologv 9 01 b7 mwc Chem Ford wuhelm Wunovr Opens er tmbom m devolved Tb scien 39c pBYGnologvJ 87q W Ml lgrwm mbligheS Cloggic wcu39es on obedi39ence a qba 99 Ivan Powlov discouem cmgsicm commonm a 01 0 5 Dania Mmeman iser 8 Y PSVanIQQiSHD wim a O Od PhZ 9 01 8 Nun39ch James wr es Pn mkblafoF Fs ycholoevw 8910 3 John Watson gram ma 3 bemw on sm q 3 Simcmmlism deals vu39 a 96800 3 experiences me mm qnce o s s m co osewa on and gmow o COHSQOUS exwdemes came Rum W Cunohonawsm sooLeq a th we have we Hugem Fading and behavior m wehave This in uenced vsvcmlogv 39 by smwim WKeoxsming behind ourom ons S tmdurodiam S Edward Tf rcherneva Swe n rh unde mhoi emems 0 mammv n mc gmusm Mix amwmes swam 0 iola mW basic wmseomgms eeimx s bewauibm 99mm orisma war 3 waksow39T wmwea ameraktaws 0 WWW m examm m abmm obdecma hammer Cmmkiv zma mm MQKQXA dammed mm mkm39nw in b hON 0 Mow lancer ON it WCL Y P Chapter 1 a N t Wand 4 Imagine that you are committed to a future in some eld of psychology Which type of psychologist would you want to be and why L0 18 NW l39e QWm More mwmttg oomgel g 6dooloclsi because allhougk lLKQOUlCl VC YDC mc aC O39COKQAQLQ igt NQKSJHS 0091an WM Pm WM Mmm 0M3 rears Wight a tale 1 l gt MM 2 c M coon m would Lye IMVwXlquot A public speaking phbbia can beyihtgrpgegd d lg eigl ltly by the differerjstctypes psychologists Pickb kl h h PC 5 three different types of psychologists and suggest the mechanisms they might use to interpret a public Speakmg imb a39 L013 U9 Odd 2 Ado ox swam expenw mss 60W N rd w35 all at 6 l A Cb lVblLed 76 39 ram 009 5 D V 0Wa M 0 tact do to 03 quotp a gag gala Mint 39 al ln o A anew L 3 63quot o r n 9930 VOW 9 illWM MQLI y 0 m f w E 0 CM wovd j SQ lter le 1430er c but F 9PQ 0FL 5ptfodlt Lobic 6 After reading about the Great Debates of Psychology skim through the rest of your text and find examples you believe illustrate each of these concepts Chapter 1 provides you with some ideas of the 3 chapters that cover the different areas of psychology where good examples can be found L013 a n39ature39Ps 3C adopla l lOM SitKit quot0Jr Show S39MZKWiHY g 39 Wt t cc nKrf 39l Wx Sohohl39v 61 b nurture 51ka0 waugs suck as vow wwpvzmg ccs WV mgw ug 5 r J CUWVV L avt arm cm tor oewrs quotd 3 01er 39 vetweer c free win ammox 6m fwvw DrodLLS J Von W thug 20fo whepsoorc AN our 39 d39 detertinisrf ww m H 0 VS thlcai 5k 6 Udm as 5 Klan M We 139 o o r be 0 IOrS We COMPKMUg dietum mat a pwccwuj ng WAN S Psychology as a complete journey has a vast interdisciplinary perspective combining elements of philosophy sociology anthropology biology neuroscience chemistry physics and mathematics On the one hand these interrelationships are exactly what make psychology a fascinating discipline to most people On the other hand they may sometimes seem a bit overwhelming Which aspects excite you the most Why Which aspects worry you the most Why How can you plan ahead to take the worry out of those aspects of this journey L019 The WM JARM 1thch me Wmd the brain PaZQMW 1 39 VO WOW Stem bow wows iguath oletng Algaemy W e MQLW be X0 inter sirfyxj Wmi mAflVJquot3J C L afamp5W x OllROIUAlquot Wares Md WM Aptem39m HAM 5 m w w t brain wwpm ptj39 wwp WOW1C5 W HAL was 3 V C0 h Oerondu n l Wt mc eps gmqtegl liaswacan 23d 0F d m H WWW VMt M S AM 0 their wrsoqu mpzm Jag gyCNW 50 mg Qlaw r0 QV came M KS b wll m Q P gfywm w l KENS SM Mil0W u o Emilee Core 4 Q hora0m Jones SW Miller Imagine that you are committed to a future in some eld of psychology Which type of psychologist would you want to be and why L0 18 I would want to be a School Psychologist so i could help with students teachers parents and faculty s emotions It39s Important to have School Psychologists because It affects a student s learning if there is problem with a teacher or parent This could lead to a development of a learning disability if it is not taken care of A public speaking phobia can be interpreted differently by the different types of psychologists Pick three different types of psychologists and suggest the mechanisms they might use to interpret a public speaking phobia L013 Behaviorism black box psychology comprehending human behavior by only looking outside the organism to rewards and punishments delivered by the environment Functionalism natural selection Cognitivism focusing on an organism s ability to interpret rewards and punishments A er reading about the Great Debates of Psychology skim through the rest of your text and nd examples you believe illustrate each of these concepts Chapter 1 provides you with some ideas of the chapters that cover the different areas of psychology where good examples can be found L019 when thinking of a serial killer you can take in the consideration of nature vs nurture 39 a nature Genetics Does a serial killer kill because of his genes No matter what a parent does to raise the child some children just have a bad temper gene which can cause them to rage and kill b nurture Environmental Influences Or does a serial killer kill because K 39S La 65 c SS Q MONL l at 0 Study Guide for Psychology A Framework for Everyday Thinking 7 APPLYING PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE AND THINING TO EVERYDAY LIFE 1 For the following titles of actual studies note if they are applied or basic research LOLIO a Public stigma in relation to individuals with depression basic research b Effects of spatial cueing on representational momentum basic research c Explaining employment relationships with social exchange and job embeddedness applied researc d Testing signaldetection models of yesno and twoalternative forced choice recognition memory basic research e Interaction patterns in crisis negotiations Persuasive arguments and cultural differences applied research f The role of persuasive arguments in changing af rmative action attitudes atin expressed behavior in higher education applied research 2 Insist on evidence and Examine the evidence are two important mottos to remember from your study of scienti c approaches to psychology Based on your reading of this entire chapter and keeping in mind that not all evidence iscreated eqUal how could you explain to someone that just because a product has 200000 people making a testimonial about its ef ciency that they should still be skeptical What would be better quality evidence that would trump the quantity of evidence LO 110 Quantity evidence is not always trust worthy and should he questioned like all other evidence The number of testimonials should be misleading simply because a majority vote ddesn t make something true l The testimonials may be high in numbers but the information could contain bias or the people surveyed maybe part of a group or demographic that allows the researchers to skew their evidence The number of testimonials is relevant but should also include the how many people liked the product and how many people didn t like the product I think the research would be more productive if the product was simply tested multiple times and the results were given The number of times tested would depend on the product The more times the product is tested the better This testing would ensure that the product was judged on merit not popularlt39y Also the product must be tested in a fashion in which there is eliminate as much bias as po sslbl quotand maybe even have a control group depending on the substance This m ethqd would be more ef cient in determining the effectiveness of a product 39 39
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