Ethnocultural Psychology PSYC 2777
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lane Schuster on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2777 at East Carolina University taught by Rita Rodabaugh in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/221333/psyc-2777-east-carolina-university in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
1182011 De nitions Culture A set of attitudes behaviors and symbols shared by a group of people and usually communicated from one generation to the next Meme A unit of cultural ideas symbols or practices which can be transmitted from one mind to another through writing speech gestures rituals or other imitable phenomena Richard Dawkins Ethnicity A cultural heritage shared by a category of people who also share a common ancestral origin language and religion Race A large group of people distinguished by certain similar and genetically transmitted physical characteristics Collectivism Complex behavior based on concerns for other people who belong to the same social group common traditions and values and conformity to the group norms Individualism Complex behavior based on concern for oneself and one39s immediate family individual achievement responsibility and choice Masculinity Complex behavior that promotes values such as heroism achievement assertiveness and material success Femininity The extent of emphasis on interpersonal goals friendly atmosphere consensus modesty caring for the weak and quality of life Traditional culture The term used to describe cultures based largely on beliefs rules symbols and principles established Predominantly in the past confined in local or regional boundaries restricting Mostly intolerant to social innovations Non Traditional culture The term used to describe cultures based largely on modern beliefs rules symbols and principles Relatively open to other cultures Absorbing and dynamic Sciencebased and technologydriven Relatively tolerant to social innovations Comparisons between Traditional and Non traditional cultures Traditional cultures Nontraditional cultures Most social roles are prescribed to individuals Most social roles are achieved by individuals In evaluations of individual behavior the emphasis is placed on custom and routine In evaluations of individual behavior the emphasis is placed on individual choice There is a clear distinction between good and evil in human behavior The distinction between good and evil in human behavior is relative Truth is not debatable it is established and does not change Truth is revealed through the competition of ideas Individuals choices are restricted to the boundaries of social prescriptions Example Premarital extramarital and homosexual behaviors are restricted Individuals choices are not strongly restricted to the boundaries of social prescriptions Example Premarital extramarital and homosexual behaviors are generally tolerated U S Population in 2000 and 2050 The U S Bureau of the Census RaceOrigin 2000 2050 All races 282000000 420000000 White non Hispanic 196000000 210000000 Black 36000000 61000000 Hispanic Latino origin 36000000 103000000 Asian origin 10700000 33400000 Four types of knowledge in psychology Type of knowledge Sources of knowledge Scientific Knowledge accumulated as a result of scienti c research of a wide range of psychological phenomena Popular or folk Everyday assumptions ranging from commonly held beliefs to individual opinions about psychological phenomena Ideological value based A stable set of beliefs about the world the nature of good and eVil right and wrong and the purpose of human 1ifea11 based on a particular organizing principal or central idea Legal Knowledge encapsulated in the law and detailed in of cial rules and principles related to tie IL 39 39 Of39 1quot1 I Some major U S religious bodies Numbers and assessments are based on the following sources Yearbook of American amp Canadian Churches 1999 US Bureau of the Census 2002 National Jewish Population Survey 2002 Religious Congregations and Membership 2000 When the direct count is unavailable assessments are made by different groups based on different criteria Religious Body Number of Members Protestant 8586 Roman Mormon 795000 February 17 2011 Read the assignment in the reader and the two posted articles Both are subject to quiz questions Additional information on gender not in the Heine text Men prefer to marry younger physically attractive women with high reproductive potential Women prefer older and wealthier man increased resources and increased status Marital stability around the world is associated with fertilitya legal reason for divorce Chastity is important in China Iran India others Not important in Sweden Denmark Germany Holland Childbirth pain and speed and ease of labor show extreme variations based on seeing childbirth as normal with no shame Nontraditional cultures above plus Russia Australia Denmark sex does not have mystery shame con ict Modern Australians do not consider marriage important for sexual behavior In US who expresses tolerance for homosexuality College educated and postgrads those with liberal ideology vote democratic women more than men Men are less tolerant of women partners sharing sexual fantasies with them Women everywhere are more distressed than men when partner is kissing someone else Kissing is a crosscultural behavior Arctic host gives wife to guest Males 1421 Black youth are more sexually active than other ethnic groups Around the world similar sex problems related to age Heine p l98gt Other wavs cultures differ in self concept 1 Self Consistency how we think and behave across different situations Study Japanese and Americans completing the 20 statement quotI amquot exercise in four conditions a in a professor39s office b next to a fellow student c in a large group d alone Answers were then tabulated as positive or negative statements American responses were far more positive than Japanese ones on the average American students showed little difference in positive to negative statements across the four conditions Japanese showed wide variations most critical in professor39s of ce somewhat less in group still less with a peer and least critical alone Therefore so some people context actually alters thinking and selfconcept Cognitive Dissonance Leon F estinger Americans desire to be consistent is so strong we will change our attitude so that we appear more consistent Smokers make excuses and these excuses are really rationalizations We also try to avoid dissonance when we make choices AFTER the choice is made Study Japanese and Canadians rated list of 10 CD39s as to desirability After rating they were offered a choice of either 5th or 6th choice for participation Then rated the 10 again The Canadians showed clear rationalization of their choice by rating the one chosen higher than previously The Japanese showed no such rationalization Study Japanese rationalized more when ordering food for others than for themselves Euro Canadians the opposite pattern Conclusion North Americans strive for consistency within themselves East Asians are more concerned with consistency with others How does this work in advertising Poles amp U S quotYou39ve helped us out beforequot Vs quotThis is what your peers have done What do you think Study Koreans and Americans compared selfconsistency across situations with friends with family with professors by themselves Koreans viewed themselves far less consistently across situations than did Americans Correlations of selfconsistency with wellbeing social skills likability U S correlated Korea not U S 2004 elections John Kerry quot ip opquot George W Bush quotsteadfastquot leads to belief perseverance Exercise 7 to be completed later 2 Self Awareness 2 ways of considering the self quotmequot and quotIquot Subjective selfawareness quotIquot like being in the audience of a play Usually pleasant but critical of others Objective selfawareness quotmequot on stage how we appear to others may be stress producing critical of selves Study subjects taking Roger s Selfdiscrepancy scores If just listened to their own voice more selfcritical than those who listened to someone else s voice Similar ndings if they were in front of a mirror Difference in cultures that are interdependent very objectivequotmequot oriented and Independent quot1quot Memories lst person or 3rd person Asians more 3rd Americans equally lst amp 3rd Americans more critical of selves when in front of mirror Asians same in front of mirror or not Asians overall higher discrepancy score Page 213 pictures to describe themselves Asians in best light Americans quotwarts amp allquot