Introductory Psychology PSYC 1000
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This 46 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lane Schuster on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Theodore Whitley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/221337/psyc-1000-east-carolina-university in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
CHAPTER 4 Consciousness everything of which person aware at any given time thoughts feelings sensations external environment Circadian Rhythm regular fluctuation from high to low points of certain bodily functions and behaviors within 24hour cycle regulates all vital life functions and psychological functions like learning efficiency and mood Subjective Night time during 24hour period when biological clock tells person to sleep Restorative Theory of Sleep function of sleep to restore body and mind Circadian Theory of Sleep sleep evolved to keep humans safe during night NREM Sleep slow respiration and hear rate little body movement low blood pressure and brain activity REM Sleep rapid eye movements paralysis of large muscles fast irregular heart and respiration rates increased brain activityvivid dreams Parasomnias behaviors and physiological states that normally occur only in waking state take place during sleep Somnambulism sleep walking occurs during partial arousal from stage 4 sleep Somniloquy sleep talking can occur in any stage Sleep Terrors sleeper awakes in panicked state during stage 4 sleep Nightmares frightening dreams during REM sleep Dyssomnias disorders in which timing quantity or quality of sleep impaired Narcolepsy disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and attacks of REM sleep Sleep Apnea disorder in which breathing stops during sleep Insomnia difficulty falling or staying asleep waking too early light restless or poor quality of sleep REM Dreams storylike quality more visual vivid and emotional than NREM dreams NREM Dreams less frequent and memorable than REM dreams Lucid Dreaming steps that enable dreamers to control content of dreams may help alleviate depression Manifest Content content of dreams as recalled by dreamers Latent Content underlying meaning of dreams Activationsynthesis Theory of Dreaming dreams brain s attempt to make sense of random firing of brain cells during REM sleep Evolutionary Theory of Dreaming vivid REM dreams enable people to rehearse skills needed to deal with threatening events Hypnosis procedure using power of suggestion to change thoughts feelings sensations perceptions or behavior Substance Abuse continued use of a substance after episodes in which use has negatively affected work education and social relationships Physical Drug Dependence compulsive pattern of drug use in which user develops drug tolerance 0 Drug Tolerance user less affected so larger doses required for effect 0 Withdrawal Symptoms physical and psychological symptoms when drug use discontinued o Psychological Drug Dependence craving or irresistible urge for drug s pleasurable effects more difficult to overcome than physical dependence CHAPTER 5 o Stimulus S any event or object in environment to which organism responds o Unconditioned Stimulus US eicits unconditioned response without learning food loud noise light in eye puff ofair in eye 0 Unconditioned Response UR response elicited by unconditioned stimulus without learning salivation startle response contractions of pupil eyebink o Conditioned Stimulus CS neutral stimulus that after repeated pairing with unconditioned stimulus becomes associated with it and elicits conditioned response tone buzzer bell o Conditioned Response CR learned response elicited by conditioned stimulus salivation to tone 0 Generalization tendency to make conditioned response to stimulus similar to conditioned stimulus sounds like alarms o Discrimination learned ability to distinguish between similar Ss so that conditioned response occurs only to original conditioned stimulus not to similar Ss odors distinguish spoiled food visual discriminations of harmful objects 0 Biological Predispositions organisms biologically predisposed to acquire classically conditioned associations that enhance chances for survival 0 Taste Aversions foods you do not like or like to be around 0 Edward Thorndike s Law of Effect consequence or effect of response determines whether tendency to respond in same way in future strengthened or weakened ex Organisms tend to repeat behaviors that bring about pleasant consequences 0 Shaping graduay molding desired response by reinforcing any movement in direction desired response animal models writing or learning language the example of Spanish and French 0 Positive Reinforcement Rf pleasant or desirable consequence that increases probability that response will be repeated A on test praise 0 Negative Reinforcement Rf termination of unpleasant condition following response that increases probability that response will be repeated fastening seatbelt giving in to whining when you have a headache you take a pain reliever negative reinforcement 0 Primary Reinforcer reinforcer that fulfills basic physical need and does not depend on learning food and water air sex 0 Secondary Reinforcer reinforcer acquired or learned through association with other reinforcers money getting praised o FixedRatio FR Rf after fixed number of correct nonreinforcedRs piecework in factories or sales praise every third time homework on time o VariableRatio VR Rf after varying number of nonreinforcedRs slot machines praise for homework completion varies after 1 then 3 then 2 o FixedInterval Fl Rf after first correct response after specific time interval registering to win prize but can only register 1 timeday weekly quiz vocab quizzes in high school 0 VariableInterval VI Rf after first correct response following varying time interval checking voicemail pop quizzes o Punishment removal of pleasant stimulus or application of unpleasant stimulus to decrease probability of response 0 Positive Punishment decrease in behavior resulting from adding consequence spanking extra chores 0 Negative Punishment decrease in behavior resulting from removing consequence loss of privileges 0 Escape Learning learning to perform behavior to prevent or terminate aversive event changing majors dropping out of school 0 Learned Helplessness passive resignation to aversive conditions acquired when escape seems impossible o Avoidance Learning learning to avoid events or conditions associated with aversive consequences can be adaptive avoiding riding with drinking driver much avoidance learning maladaptive avoiding situations because of fears fear of public speaking math anxiety 0 Biofeedback use of equipment to give precise feedback about internal physiological processes so people can learn to exercise control over them used to control migraine headaches gastrointestinal disorders asthma anxiety epilepsy neuromuscular disorders 0 Insight sudden recognition of relationship between elements in problem making solution apparent o Latent Learning learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement not demonstrated until the organism motivated to do so 0 Cognitive Map mental representation of spatial arrangement such as maze locating places without maps 0 Facilitation Effect exhibiting behavior similar to that shown by model in unfamiliar situation student praised for asking questions in one class asks questions in different class Inhibitory Effect suppressing behavior because model punished for displaying behavior student who asks question required to prepare written report to answer questions so other students avoid asking questions Disinhibitory Effect displaying previously suppressed behavior because model does so without being punished substitute teacher fails to enforce rule against talking without raising hands so other students begin to blurt questions even when regular teacher returns 0 Bandura39s quotBobo Dollquot Studies children imitate adult model s aggressive behavior seen on film recent research people who watch most violence as children are more likely to engage in violent acts as adults CHAPTER 6 Encoding transforming information into form that can be stored in memory Storage maintaining info in memory consolidation involves physiological change in brain Retrieval bring stored information to mind Visual iconic memory fraction of second Auditory echoic memory up to 2 seconds Eidetic Imagery ability to retain image of visual stimulus for several minutes 5 of children Working Memory workspace for carrying out mental activity solving math problems Displacement when short term memory is full each new incoming item pushes out existing item Chunking grouping bits of information into larger units so easier to remember ex Remembering your banner ID number Rehearsal repeating information to maintain in short term memory Maintenance Rehearsal repeating phone numbers Elaborative Rehearsal distinguishing psychological disorders by linking them to movie characters Automaticity ability to recall information from longterm memory without effort writing without having to think about each letter in words Overlearning practicing or studying material beyond point where it can be repeated once without error Spaced Practice learning in short practice sessions with rest periods in between Massed Practice cramming Long Term Memory virtually unlimited capacity for containing person s permanent or relatively permanent memories Declarative Memory stores facts and information life events Nondeclarative Memory stores motor skills habits simple conditioned responses if you haven t rode a bike in 510 years and someone gives you a bike to ride you will be able to ride it due to nondeclarative memory Recall produce required information with minimal cues essay tests Recognition identify information as having been encountered before multiple choice tests Relearning measures retention in terms of time saved when relearning material compared to time required to learn it initially purpose of education Serial Position Effect recall better for items at beginning and end of lists Primary Effect tendency to recall first items in sequence more easily than middle items Recency Effect tendency to recall last items in sequence more easily than middle items being able to recall the first and last things you see on a list for a test Context Effect tendency to encode elements of physical setting in which information learned along with information itself testtaking skills think about room in which studied study in room where test will be administered Cryptomnesia failure to use source monitoring when writing papers may lead to omitting citation or unintentional plagiarism not paying attention to source of information o Flashbulb Memories extremely vivid memories of surprising shocking or highly emotional events September 11 2001 or Kennedy s assassination o Forgetting inability to bring to mind information previously remembered o Ebbinghaus largest amount of forgetting occurs quickly then tapers off 0 Encoding Failure information never stored in long term memory 0 Decay Theory if not used memories fade with time and eventually disappear o Consolidation Failure failure of long term memories to form affected by sleep trauma shock therapy 0 Motivated Forgetting forgetting through suppression or repression to protect self from painful or unpleasant information forget because you do not want to remember 0 Suppression conscious attempts to forget o Repression burying traumatic memories in unconscious o Retrieval Failure not remembering something one certain of knowing tip of the tongue phenomenon o Amnesia partial or complete loss of memory due to loss of consciousness brain damage or some psychological cause 0 Anterograde Amnesia inability to form new long term memories HM most famous case alcohol blackouts o Retrograde Amnesia loss of memory for experiences occurring shortly before loss of consciousness Jason Bourne movies CHAPTER 7 o Achievement Test measure what person has learned to a certain point in life 0 Aptitude Tests predict future performance in particular setting or on specific task 0 Intelligence Test measure general intellectual ability 0 Reliability extent to which test yields consistent results 0 Validity extent to which test measures what intended to measure serves purpose for which selected 0 Standardization establishing norms against which to compare scores of people who will take test in future requires administering tests using prescribed procedure 0 Emotional Intelligence ability to apply knowledge about emotions to everyday life awareness of personal emotions ability to manage emotions self motivation empathy ability to handle relationships 0 Creativity ability to produce original appropriate and valuable ideas andor solutions to problems weak to moderate correlation between creativity and IQ o Divergent Thinking ability to produce multiple ideas or solutions to problem for which no accepted solution unusual uses for brick or paper clip 0 Convergent Thinking producing correct answer solving math problem or multiple choice test Chapter 5 Leammng Learning Relatively permanent change in Behavior Knowledge Capaany Attitude Acquired through experience Not attributable to illness injury or maturation Classical Conditioning Organism learns to associate one S with another S Stimulus S Pavlov s Paradigm 1 Unconditioned stimulus US elicits UR without learning Food loud noise light in eye puff of air in eye Unconditioned response UR R elicited by US without learning Salivation startle response contraction of pupil eyebink Pavlov s Paradigm 2 Conditioned stimulus CS neutral S that after repeated pairing with US becomes associated with it and elicits CR Tonebuzzerbell Conditioned response CR learned R elicited by CS Salivation to tone Higher order conditioning occurs when conditioned Ss linked to form series of signals Changes to CR5 1 Extinction weakening and eventual disappearance of CR as result of repeated presentation of CD without US Spontaneous recovery reappearance of extinguished CR when organism exposed to CS following rest period Curve Changes to CR5 2 Generalization tendency to make CR to S similar to original CS Discrimination learned ability to distinguish between similar Ss so that CR occurs only to original CS not to similar Ss odors distinguish spoiled food visual discriminations of harmful objects Watson and Jones Studies Importance of classical conditioning in developing emotional Rs Watson and Rayner 1920 Little Albert Mary Cover Jones 1924 classical conditioning to remove fears Peter Rescorla Studies Importance of predictability in classical conditioning Cs Us pairings do not completely explain classical conditioning Biological Predispositions Biological predispositions organisms biologically predisposed to acquire classically conditioned associations that enhance chances for survival Taste aversions Use with chemotherapy patients novel food instead of typically consumed foods Classical Conditioning and Everyday Rs Why diet soda can make people hungry Sweet taste of soda becomes CS that elicits insulin increase leading to feelings of hunger Advertising Attractive celebrity associated with product After repeated pairings products elicits excitement CR Operant Conditioning Learning in which consequences of behavior manipulated to Increase or decrease frequency of existing R Shape new R Thorndike and Skinner Edward Thorndike 5 law of effect consequence or effect of R determines whether tendency to respond in same way in future strengthened or weakened ie organisms tend to repeat behaviors that bring about pleasant consequences Law of effect basis for B F Skinner 5 study of operant conditioning Aspects of Operant Conditioning 1 Shaping gradually molding desired R by reinforcing any movement in direction of desired R animal models writing or learning language Successive approximations series of gradual steps each more similar to desired R Aspects of Operant Conditioning 2 Extinction weakening and eventual disapperance of conditioned R due to withholding RFignoring inappropriate behaviors Generalization tendency to make learned R to S similar to S originally reinforced Skinner s studies Discriminative stimulus S signals whether R likely to be rewarded ignored or punished behavior around parents and grandparents Rfand Rf Rf anything that follows R and strengthens it or increases probability that it will be repeated sz pleasant or desirable consequence that increases probability that R will be repeated Rf termination of unpleasant condition following R that increases probability that R will be repeated Reinforcers Primary reinforcer reinforcer that fulfills basic physical need and does not depend on learning Secondary reinforcer reinforcer acquired or learned through association with other reinforcers Rf Schedules 1 Fixedratio FR Rf after fixed number of correct nonreinforced Rs piecework in factories or sales praise every 3rol time homework on time Variableratio VR Rf after varying number of nonreinforced Rs slot machines praise for homework completion varies after 1 then 3 then 2 Rf Schedules 2 Fixedinterval Fl Rf after first correct response after specific time interval registering to win prize but can only register 1 timeday weekly quiz Variableinterval VI Rf after first correct response following varying time interval checking voicemail pop quizzes Most Effective Rf Schedule Ratio schedules V higher R rates than 5555 5 interval schedules eeeeeeeeeee n1 Fixed ratio schedule highest R r a t e Time minutes Steady responding Variable schedules most resista nt to WOOWAOW exti n ct i o n if i Effects of Punishment Punishment removal of pleasant S or application of unpleasant S to decrease probability of R Positive punishment Decrease in behavior resulting from adding consequence spanking extra chores Negative punishment Decrease in behavior resulting from removing consequence loss of privileges Disadvantages of Punishment Does not extinguish undesirable behavior suppresses behavior when punishing agent present Indicates that behavior is unacceptable does not indicate desirable behavior Person punished often becomes fearful and angry at punisher Frequently leads to aggression Alternatives to Punishment Removing rewarding consequences of undesirable behavior may be best way to extinguish behavior Ignoring childs demands during tantrum Ignoring mishbehavior designed merely to get attention and giving attention to more appropriate behaviors Rf can make good behavior more rewarding Effective Punishment Punishment most effective when applied asap or during misbehavior Should be of minimum severity necessary to suppress behavior problem Must be applied constantly Escape Learning Escape learning learning to perform behavior to prevent or terminate aversive event Learned helplessness passive resignation to aversive conditions acquired when escape seems impossible Avoidance Learning Avoidance learning learning to avoid events or conditions associated with aversive consequences Can be adaptive avoiding riding with drinking driver Much avoidance learning maladaptive Avoiding situations because of fears fear of public speakingmath anxiety Applications of Operant Conditioning 1 Biofeedback use of equipment to give precise feedback about internal physiological processes so people can learn to exercise control over them Used to control migraine headaches gastrointestinal disorders asthma anxiety epilepsy neuromuscular disorders Applications of Operant Conditioning 2 Behavior modification changing behavior based principles of classical conditioning operant conditioning or observational learning Token economy program that promotes socially desirable behavior by reinforcing it with tokens patients in mental hospitals Cognitive Learning Cognitive processes mental processes such as thinking knowing problem solving remembering and forming mental representations Insight Learning Insight sudden recognition of relationship between elements in problem making solution apparent Kohler 5 studies chimpanzees who had given up attempts to get bananas suddenly returned with solution apparently based on insight not trial and error learning Latent Learning Latent learning learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement not demonstrated until the organism motivated to do so Cognitive map mental representation of spatial arrangement such as maze locating places without maps Observational Learning Albert Bandura many behaviors acquired by observing behavior of others and consequences of that behavior learning by imitation Model individual who demonstrates behavior or whose behavior imitated Aspects of Observational Learning 1 Modeling effect learning new behavior from model through acquisition of new Rs student sees other students receive praise from teacher for asking questions in class Aspects of Observational Learning 2 Facilitation effect exhibiting behavior similar to that shown by model in unfamiliar situation student praised for asking questions in one class asks questions in different class Aspects of Observational Learning 3 Inhibitory effect suppressing behavior because model punished for displaying behavior student who asks questions required to prepare written report to answer question so other students avoid asking questions Aspects of Observational Learning 4 Disinhibitory effect displaying previously suppressed behavior because model does so without being punished substitute teacher fails to enforce rule against talking without raising hands so other students begin to blurt questions even when regular teacher returns Effects of Violence on Television and in Electronic Games 1 Bandura s Bobo Dollquot studies children imitate adult model 5 aggressive behavior seen on film Recent research people who watch most violence as children more likely to engage in violent acts as aduhs Effects of Violence on Television and in Electronic Games 2 Children also imitate prosocial behavior Sesame Street Effects of Violence on Television and in Electronic Games 3 Recent research playing violent video games increases feelings of hostility and decreases sensitivity to violent images Video games can teach positive messages and skills Teenagers to drive safely Enhanced spatial ability Internet Cannot assume that Internet based instruction more effective that conventional methods Well designed studies indicate that conventional lectures and textbooks as useful for complex learning as multimedia presentations Additional information about current research on multitasking End of Ch 05
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