Physics and the Universe
Physics and the Universe PHYS 1080
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madisen Buckridge on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 1080 at East Carolina University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see /class/221349/phys-1080-east-carolina-university in Physics 2 at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Chapter 15 Catastrophe hypotheses depend on a rare event such as sun colliding into another star volutionary hypotheses the planets formed by gradual natural processes olar Nebula Theory proposes that the planets formed in a disk of gas and dust around the protostar that became the sun Terrestrial planets the four inner planets that are small rocky and dense ovian planets the four outward planets that are large and low density Kuiper beltcomposed of small icy bodies called Kuiper belt objects that orbit the sun beyond the orbit of Neptune Protoplanets unchanged composition of accreted matter over time Accretion condensated clumps sticking to the other clumps in outer space Planetessimals bigger clumps of accretion sticking together Chapter 16 Comparative planetology the approach of comparing and contrasting planets to identify principles and understand the planets better We use Earth as a standard for comparative planetology because we know it best and it contains all the phenomena found on the other Terrestrial planets Terrestrial planets Earth the Moon Mercury Venus Mars moon is included because it is a complex world and makes a striking comparison to Earth The Terrestrial worlds Differ mainly in size All have lowdensity crusts mantles made of dense rock and metallic cores Comparative planetology s main points 1 Cratered surfaces are old 2 Heat flowing out of a planet is what drives geological activity 3 The nature of the planet s atmosphere depends on the size of the planet and its temperature 4 Stages of Earth s evolution 1 Differentiation the separation of material into layers according to density 2 Cratering after a solid surface has formed heavy bombardment of the early solar system made craters 3 Flooding by lava and water 4 Slows surface evolution constant changing sections of crust slide over and against each other Seismic waves vibrations caused by earthquakes and are detected by seismographs Pressure waves waves that can pass through a liquid such as sound Shear waves travel as a sidetoside vibration and cannot pass through liquid Earth 46 billion years old and happened from the inner solar nebula m liquid we know that because seismic waves don t travel through it and is composed of iron and nickel Mantle plasticlike and can deform and flow under pressure M brittle and breaks under stress Primary atmosphere Earth s first atmosphere that was composed mostly of carbon dioxide nitrogen and water vapor Secondary atmosphere current atmosphere seawater absorbed most of the carbon dioxide and plants have added oxygen Greenhouse effect when infrared ration is absorbed by the atmosphere but cannot get back out and heats up the Earth s surface E39ecta debris blasted out of craters can produce rays and secondary craters Multiringed basins very large pits formed by large impacts Micrometeorites tiny and constantly bombard the moon s surface Moon Highlands oldest part of surface and heavily cratered Lowlands filled by lava causing it to be smooth maria singular mare Lunar rocks Vesicular basalts lavamade rocks that contain holes from bubbles Anorthosite lightcolored and lowdensity rock that floated to the surface of the highlands when it was a magma ocean Breccias rocks made of fragments of broken rock cemented together under pressure Chapter 17 Mercu smaller than Earth 13 of Earth s diameter larger than the moon old heavily cratered surfaces extremely thin atmosphere very high density metallic core is large compared to its diameter obate scarps long curving cliffs formed by a wrinkling crust which forms when it s large metallic core solidifies and contracts Venus amost as large as Earth can t be seen from Earth because of the atmosphere carbon dioxide in the atmosphere drives an intense greenhouse effect and makes the planet a world of volcanoes and lava flow sighty closer to the sun than Earth Shield volcanoes found on Earth Venus and Mars are caused by rising columns of magma hot spots Comgosite volcanoes only on Earth associated with plate tectonics and subduction zones Geological activity due to volcanisms and vertical tectonics Coronae large circular uplifted regions Mars half the size of Earth thin atmosphere last much internal heat but not all cold and has low escape velocity air pressure is too low for water liquid water would boil away remaining water is frozen in polar ice caps and as permafrost in the soil waterrelated features outflow channels appear to have been cut by massive floods alley networks longterm drainage caused riverbeds with sandbars delta and tributaries prove that conditions on Mars must have once been different allowing liquid to flow on the surface has two moons Phobos and Deimos most likely captured asteroids smal airless and cratered no internal heat left Chapter 18 Jovian Planet large massive lowdensity worlds in the outer solar system Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Beltzone circulation cloud belts parallel to the planet s equator Li uid Giants Jupiter and Saturn are composed mostly of liquid metallic hydrogen ce Giants Uranus and Neptune are abundant in solid water all Jovian worlds have extensive satellite systems and moons can be classified as 1 Regular satellites large close to parent planet move in prograde direction with the rest of the solar system 2 Irregular satellites small far from parent planet and have high orbital inclinations Jupiter core made of heavy elements surrounded by a deep mantle of liquid metallic hydrogen large and strong magnetic field Magnetosphere around Jupiter traps highenergy particles from the sun to form intense radiation belts Atmosphere three layers of clouds formed of hydrogenrich molecules cloud layers are located at certain temperatures within the atmosphere cloud stripes parallel to equator are 1 lightcolored highpressure regions of rising gas 2 darker belts lowerpressure areas of sinking gas spots in Jupiter s atmosphere including the Great Red Spot are circulating weather patterns Moons ofJupiter Galilean moons linked together in orbital resonances o active volcanoes orbits Jupiter 4 times Europa smooth ice and cracks orbits Jupiter 2 times Ganymede grooved terrain orbits Jupiter once upiter s ring composed of small particles that are bright when illuminated from behind forward scattering Roche limit the distance from a planet within which the tidal stress can destroy or prevent one from forming Jupiter s ring lies within Jupiter s Roche limit Saturn less dense than water contains a small core with less metallic hydrogen that Jupiter therefore its magnetic field is 20 times weaker Saturn s moons are icy and mostly heavily cratered m Saturn s largest moon cold cloudy nitrogen atmosphere so cold that gas molecules do not travel fast enough to escape Enceladus has a light surface with some uncratered regions aturn s rings composed of icy particles ranging in size from boulders to dust composition and brightness of the rings particles vary grooves in the rings can be produces by orbital resonances or waves that propagate through the rings caused by moons near or within the rings hephard satellites the gravitational effect of small moons can cause narrow rings and sharp ring edges Jovian planets rings can t be material left over from the formation of the planet rings are replenished occasionally with material produced by meteoroids asteroids and comets colliding with moons Uranus 13 the diameter ofJupiter 120 as massive internal pressure cannot produce liquid hydrogen heavyelement core mantle of solid or slushy ice and rocky material below a hydrogenrich atmosphere atmosphere is almost featureless at visible wavelengths pale blue color is cause by traces of methane which absorbs red light rotates on its side possibly due to major impact or tidal interactions with other planets during its early history larger moons of Uranus are icy and heavily cratered Ovoids grooves on Miranda the innermost moon caused by internal heat driving convection in the icy mantle Occultations the passage of the planet in front of a star during which the rings momentarily blocked the star s light how the rings of Uranus were discovered Rings of Uranus narrow hoops of ice with traces of methane confined by shepherd satellites Neptune ice giant with no liquid hydrogen has heat flowing from its interior atmosphere is rich in hydrogen and colored blue by traces of methane Neptune s moons Nereid far off and follows a large elliptical orbit m orbits backwards icy with a thin atmosphere and frosty polar caps smooth areas suggest past geological activity dark smudges mark the location of active nitrogen geysers Neptunes rings made up of icy particles in narrow hoops and contains arcs produced by the gravitational influence of one of more moons Pluto small world with 3 moons one of which Charon is quite large in relation to Pluto mostly rock with a substantial amount of ice redefined as a dwarf planet member of a family of Kuiper belt objects orbiting beyond Neptune Plutinos Kuiper belt objects that follow orbits like Pluto that have an orbital resonance with Neptune Chapter 19 Meteorites Meteroid small solid particles orbiting in the solar system Meteor visible streak of light from a meteoroid heated and glowing as it enters Earth s atmosphere Meterorite space material that has reached Earth s surface ron meterorites solid chunks of iron and nickel when sliced open polished and etched they show Widmanst tten patterns Widmanst tten patterns reveal that the metal cooled from a molten state slowly tony meteorites commonly seen falling to Earth Chondrites dark gray granular rocks containing chondrules Chondrules small glassy particles that are solidified droplets of unknown oncemolten material tonyiron meteorites rare and a mix of stony and metallic material Carbonaceous chondrites rich in volatiles and carbon Some contain CAIs calcium aluminum rich inclusions which are understood to be the very first solid particles to condense in the cooling solar nebular Achondrite no chondrules or volatiles appear to have been melted after they formed Meteor showers suggest that meteorites are fragments of asteroids because they come from the same area in the sky called the radiant poradic meteors meteors that occur but are not part of showers many meteorites appear to have formed as parts of larger bodies that were broken up core fragments became iron meteorites outer layer fragments became stony meteorites intermediate layers became stonyiron meteorites Asteroids irregular in shape and heavily cratered from collisions surfaces are covered by gray pulverized rock some have densities so low they must be fragmented rubble piles most lie in a belt between Mars and Jupiter outside the belt Tro39an asteroids two groups of asteroids caught in the Lagrange point ofJupiter caught between the gravitational pull ofJupiter and the Sun 6Uahead ofplanet in its orbit and 6Ubehind NearEarth ob39ects NEOs that cross the Earth s orbit and could potentially hit Earth Centaurs asteroids that orbit among the planets of the outer solar system Ctype asteroids common in outer asteroid belt where the solar nebula was cooler darker and may be carbonaceous type asteroids most common and may be the source of chondrites bright and red Mtype asteroids appear to have nickeliron compositions and may be the cores of different asteroids shatters by collision bright semired Comets produced by a lump of ices and rock reffered to as the comet nucleus nucleus stars frozen until it nears the sun then some of the ices vaporize and release dust and gas that is blown away to form a head and tail Gas tail ionized gas carried away by the solar wind Dust tail solid debris released from the nucleus and blown outward by the pressure of sunlight a comet s tail always points away from the sun no matter in what direction the comet is movingdue to the effects of solar wind and radiation pressure M head ofa comet can be up to a million km in diameter comets have very dark rocky crusts and jets of vapor and dust issue from active regions on the sunlit side the low density of comet nuclei shows that they are irregular mixtures of ices and silicates comets are believed to have formed as icy planetessimals in the outer solar system but some were ejected to form the Oort cloud Oort cloud spherical cloud of icy bodies that extend from the sun other icy bodies in the outer solar now make up the Kuiper belt Physics and the Universe Study Guide 1 Chapters 16 Austronomical unit AU the distance from the Earth to the sun is 1AU Milky Way our galaxy Distance 1 light year 63000 AU 1 AUsun to earth Time Scales Nanosecond1 billionth of a second light can travel 12 inches in 1 nanosecond Minute hour Week month decade century etc Zenith the point in the sky directly above varies by location Nadir the point in the sky directly below varies by location Celestial sphere the half sphere you see anywhere on Earth you can never see more than half ofthe celestial sphere at any given time Celestial eguatoran imaginary circle around the sky directly above the Earth s equator The pelamal s harefnr an observer atthe North Pole 39 39 The NC is suaight overhead atthe zenith and the Polaris North Star directly above the North Pole never Edam Squaw m mehmzm moves Latitude horizontal north latitude and south latitude Magnitude measures the brightness of stars wry 5quot Mann Venus Wyn w r ibis1 magnitudes are the dim stars J i 39 7 25 2 w m 5 in m 15 2n 25 magnitudes are the bright stars vrybnsm 5m r vuyiaml Apparent magnitude how the stars look to the naked eye 0 Absolute magnitude the actual brightness of a star Sirius brightest star other than the sun Angular distance angles are measured in degrees 60 arc minutes in one degree A V Wmal mum sow sensual pa 0 60 arc seconds in one arc minute Seasons because Earth s axis is tilted as the sun moves eastward around the sky it spends half the year in the southern half of the sky and half the year in the northern half of the sky gt Vernal eguinox spring begins the point when the sun crosses the celestial equator going northward Summer solstice summer begins when the sun is at its furthest point north Autumnal eguinox autumn begins the point where the sun crosses the celestial equator going southward Winter solstice winter begins when the sun reaches its furthest point south Precession the earth s axis slowly tilting Ecliptic the apparently path of the sun around the sky Saros cycleapproximately 18 years after one Saros cycle the sun moon and nodes have circled the sky and lined up Lunar eclipse when the Earth is located between the Sun and Moon Solar eclipse when the Moon new or full is located between the Earth and Sun Only happens when there is a node Node the point where an objects orbit passes through the plane of Earth s orbit Umbra the region of total shadow Penumbra region of partial shadow where light is dimmed but not extinguished Constellations vs Asterisms Constellation a full picture made by stars Ex Ursa major bear Asterism a group of stars that is not a full constellation can be part of a constellation Ex The big dipper is a section of Ursa major Star trails the path a star seems to travel across the sky as the Earth rotates Aphelion the point where the Earth is furthest from the Sun summer solstice Perihelion the point where the Earth is closest to the Sun winter solstice m in order Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Parallax describes how you get a different view from a different angle Phases of the moon m lasl Mo weeks a mo The quot7 quarter The mlrd quml t quotW0quot 5 9 The rst hm weeks of III I clE cl Gibbons comes week through Ils me own it shown balow wins moon I 1 WW mm m Lan mm Meek cycm p0 on at 39 1m humpbacked r a mu Mann 5 mo vgeks mmugh ils mun L 4week cycve A699 I m mm o o Sm a o 7 o V 9 rises al sunsel East New moon 9wcvcing crescent rst quarter wcvcing gibbous9full moon Full moon wam39ng gibbous9third quarter wam39ng crescent new moon Intensity measuring the brightness of stars energies IPA Power divided by area Heliocentric theog theory that everything revolves around the sun TRUE Geocentric theog theory that everything revolves around the earth FALSE Ecnh Epicycle the circular motion a planet follows around the deferent Deferent a larger circle that goes around the earth although the 391 7 earth would be slightly off center l 9 Spring tide extreme tidal changes occurat new moon and full moon High tide is very high low tide is very low Neap tide occurring at lSt and 3rd quarter moon Tides do not rise very high or fall very low Rotation 1 day39 full rotation of the Earth Revolution 1 year when Earth travels around the sun one full time Geosynchronous something in Earth s orbit that will always stay in that location above the Earth EX Cellphone satellite will always stay directly above the xed area regardless of night or day Newton s Laws of Motion An object in motion tends to stay in motion at a constant speed in a straight line and an object at rest tends to stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside force 2 Force must be equal to the mass times the acceleration 3 For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Kepler s Laws 1 The Law ofEllipses the path of the planets about the sun is elliptical in shape with the center of the sun being located at one focus 2 The Law oquual Areas an imaginary line drawn from the center ofthe sun to the center ofthe planet will sweep out equal areas in equal intervals of ime 3 The Law ofHarmoniesthe mtio of the squares ofthe periods of any two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their average distances from the sun Temperatures Boiling point 212 F 32 C 373K Freezing point 32 F 0 C 273K Absolute zero 459 F 273 C 0K Waves long wavelengths have a lower frequency and sound short wavelengths have a higher frequency and soun wvelength m Doppler effect the apparent PMS change in the wavelength radiation Refracting telescope has a amptnude lens that en s light Re ecting telescope has a mirror that re ects light Resolving power how ne detail is gathered Light gathering power how much light can be collected wavelenglh m Electromag enetic spectrum D 0 E 3 if vgt 92 gt a g u 9 g 33 66 9 9 s 0 CE IcoE EtDE a 36 206 2 8m Egt NE ltEmI u E sga 5 H6 ID 2 xw Sgectrums Continuous when light is radiated at all wavelengths and all visible colors are shown Absorption when radiation passes through a cool gas the atoms in that gas absorb photons of certain wavelengths which are missing from the spectrum Emission when a hot low density gas emits light at certain wavelengths Continuous Spectrum Emission Lines Absorition Lines
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