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Introduction to Philosophy

by: Ms. Abner Armstrong

Introduction to Philosophy PHIL 1110

Marketplace > East Carolina University > PHIL-Philosophy > PHIL 1110 > Introduction to Philosophy
Ms. Abner Armstrong
GPA 3.71

Henry Jacoby

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Henry Jacoby
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Abner Armstrong on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1110 at East Carolina University taught by Henry Jacoby in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/221360/phil-1110-east-carolina-university in PHIL-Philosophy at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 10/11/15
2 N I 4 PHIL 1110 Exam 5 Final God as defined by the 3 western religion Christianity Judaism Islam is the omnipotent omniscient omnibenevolent transoendent eternal immaterial immunable creator of all things otherthan itself a Omnipotent all powerful violatingthe laws of physics Cannot violate the laws of logic example a round square ora married bachelor This puts a limit on his power Bottom line God can do anythingthat is within the laws of logic b Omniscient knowledge of all facts God is not limited by space and time c Omnibenevolent incapable of making an error Morally correct d Transcendent exoeeding or surpassing usual limits especially in excellence e Eternal no end God has always existed f Immortal God has no body God is an it not male orfemale Dualisticview ofthe mind g Immunable cannot know or learn new things because he already knows everything h Creator ofall things if there were no God nothing would exist We are sustained by God because if he ceases to exist so do we i Three positions i Theism believerthat God exists ii Atheism the claim that God does not exist iii Agnostic skeptic the claim that there is not enough evidence for us to know whether God does or does not exist also called religious skeptic Types ofargument a A priori can be known by reason alone Knowledge of things without experiencing it b A posteriori cannot be known by reason alone Knowledge due to experience c Causal simiar effects have similar causes Good argument by Hume i If there were OLIIEI thenwe quot 39 that our universe has an intelligent designer d Reduction ad absurdum gives a conclusion that is contrary to the original assumption e Principle tates th t quot that quot quot of affairs can obtain and no statement can be true unless there is sufficient reason why it a reason no state should not be otherwise f Abductive inferenoe ofthe bestexplanation Why is the Bible notevidence for the existence of God a It provides a circular argument forthe existence of God assumes God exists and talk about what he does b Why does the theist have the burden of proof Nonbeliever does not have the belief One cannot prove the nonexistence of something The nonbeliever needs a reason o add the belief to his list of beliefs Claimer has to prove a claim or it can be thrown outeg in court lt a The demandfor disposal does not go anywhere c Why is faith notjus fied belief i Belief without evidence Basic idea of each argument of the Existence of God a Argument Ontological i TypeApriori ii Premises 1 God is the greatest conoeivable being 2 God existin the understanding 3 I upposegod does not exist in reality but exist in the 39 1 4 ENecould then conceive of a greater being namely one that alsoexist in reality W 5 But premise 4 is impossible as it contradicts 1 and the definition of God 6 So God exist in reality as well as in the understanding NOTE this argument assumes that God exist in the understanding which leads to a contradiction If God did not exist in reality one could imagine somethingthat exist in the understanding and in reality and that thing is greaterthan God which is a contradiction Therefore no one can be greaterthan God Argument form is known as Eeductian ad dzsurdum it gi n quotI i n that 39 39 39 39g39 39 r 39 assumption iii Objections Guanilo invalid argument because the form can be applied to anotherthing eg Paradise island However Guanilo does not say why or what s wrongwith 2 the argument a Anselm s reply it only works for provingthe existence of God b He could have said premise 2 of the Paradise Island is wrong but that poses a problemforthe original premise 2 about God Kant challenges the concept that existence is a good property The concept tells whether it applies to anything in reality or not a One cannot build existenoe into the definition of something Example N sqound an existing round square b Argument Cosmological first Cause i TypeA posteriori ii Premises 1 Everything in nature has a cause 2 An infinite series of causes in impossible 3 Therefore there must be a first cause which is uncaused 4 Therefore God exist God first cause iii Objections 1 Invalid argument because it provided no reason for premise 4 2 Getting rid of premise 4 makes a good argument 3 Problem with having an infinite series of causes Earth on a turtle It adds another part when tryingtoexplain i TypeAposteriori ii Premises 5 2 the designer 5quot iii Objections 1 Inference from 34 does not follow because that doesn t prove that God is the creator and the creator could e anything or anyone else 9 bad analogy NOTE premise 3 is important because it proves that the universe has a purpose This argument is and abductive analogy Pascal sWager this only works if there is no good argument for against the existence of God a b Evidential reasonthe claim that belief in God must be supported by objective evidence i Reason to believe Eif and only ifthere is evidence that p is actually true Prudential reason reason to believe 2 if and only if believing p would make you better off 39 Example horse 32 6 example c Problem of EVII the difficulty in explainingthe why there is suffering and other evils in the world with All artifacts have a designer the more complex the artifact the more intelligent The things found in nature are similarto artifacts and are extremely complex Therefore nature itself probably had a designer who is extremely intellignt And therefore God exist God the intellignt designer God Exists God Does notExist Believein God Eternal infinite reward Somefinite good bad Don tBelieve in God Eternal infinite punishment Somefinite good bad Objections i One could make up a story of similarform about Zeus ii What if God rewards everyone no one a specific group etc iii Lawhead What if God only rewards those who actively sought him and not those who have blind faith iv Would God punish a do gooder who is not a believer m it is morally wrong to believe anything without sufficient reason WK Clifford One39s mind is weakened and one opens oneself to believe anything the existence of God a c Moral evil bad actions and their unfortunate results for which humans are morally responsible b Natural Evil suffering of humans and animals from natural causes such as disease genetic defects and natural disasters Problem for the theist explaining unnecessary evil d Theodiol The attempt tojustify God39s permittingevil to occur in the world e Theist s reply i Soul building goingthrough hardships allows a person to be stronger 1 Problem a Does not always accomplish the task doing evil b God39s omnipotence could accomplish the task without painsuffering ii freewillj God could not create creatures who havefree will but who are incapable of N iii Greatergood army men die to that team could win the battle thus the war ortaking a baby to get painful shots thatwill later protect it from horrible diseases Another example is a baby that died in a fire and someone said God did to take it to heaven 1 Problems a God39s is powerful enough totake the baby to heaven without letting it sufferin afire NOTE believer could say we do not knowenough about God and why things like pain and suffering happen in the world iv Four positions relative to science vs religion a Adversaries Both answerthe same questions but in a way where one must accept one and throw out the other giving conflicting answers b Territorial No conflicts because they deal with describe different realms physical and spiritual c Perspec val and quotl both describe the same reality but in different ways different questions vs i Examplewhy did she die Science botulism vs religion God wanted it like this d Harmonizers both talk about the same thingwith no contradiction i Problem not everythingthe Bible says about nature is exactly accurate scientifically PHIL 1110 Exam 3 Metaphysics the area of philosophy concerned with fundamental questions about the nature of reality 1 Define m Materialism the theory that human beings can be explained completely and adequately in terms of the physical or material components also called physicalism and eliminativism 57 Dualism reality is made up of 2fundamental kinds of stuff Physical and nonphysical Squot Cartesian Dualism the mind and the body causally affects each other am Now we yaw v39rl lm l Also called internationalist or substance dualism Qualia quality of content Example To explain to someone who has never felt pain whatit feelslike 9 without them experiencing it physicalism finds this hard to grasp i Qualitative states phenomenalexperiential states feeing sensations sounds smell emotion and pain 5quot Intentionality a feature of certain mental states such as beliefs by which they are directed at or are about objects or state affairs in the world For example in Al computers can relate the symbol quotdogquot to other things in its memory but not thingsin the real world r Ockham s Razor the prindple that we should eliminate all unnecessary entities and explanatory principlesfrom our theories Example a scientist theory is faulty and isfalse unless we have two noses In order to keep his theory true he may have to say something absurd such as one isinvisible Or to explain why one sockis missing one could say something like alien ate it to harvest energy These are situations where Ockham s razor can be applied i quotDon t multiply entities beyond neoessityquot Ad hoc something that one has to say to or one s argument is false 7 Identity Theory a type of physicalism that denies the existence of a separate nonphysical mind that retains language that refers to the mind also called reductionism They think it is important to talk about the mind because it can be translated into talk about brain states Principle ofthe Nonidentity of Disoernibles PND if two things do not have exactly the same properties then they are not identical by Descartes The body has property A The mind has nonA iii PND Therefore the mind at the body 2 NOTE a counter example must have the same form true premises and a false conclusion which will make it an invalid argument If counterargument is invalid then the original argument is also invalid due to the pattern we a physical mind nonphysical and body interaction interact Elimi nativism 2 Materialist vs Substance Dualist a Materialist one type of reality matter is a fundamental type of reality the mind is not a fundamental type of reality Descartes is dead and I m in the bathtub Says dualists use extra stuff i We can explain without the extra stuff b Substance Dualist more type of reality matter is a fundamental type of reality the mind is a fundamental type of reality does not know if Descartes is dead I m not in the bathtub i Unless there are mind we can t explain i m quot in w a 3 it 3 Fitting the soul in with biological the ries ofevolution and human reproduction Squot 5 Descartes two arguments a Argument from doubt what can and cannot be doubted i Ican doubt my body exists ii Icannotdoubt my mind exists iii PND iv The mind and bodyare notiden cal b Argument from Divisibility material things are spatially extended and anything spatially extended is divisible Since the body is material and the mind is not i The body is divisible ii The mind is indivisible iii PND iv The mind and the body are notidentical l39llz 7 How does materialist use Ockham s Razoragainst Dualist How can the Dualist reply 39l39l 6 a Materialist We can explain a partiwlar phenomenon without the extra stuff b Dualist there are some things we can t explain without the extra stuff 7 What problem does qualia and intentionality pose for the Materialist a tis hard to explain 5 What is the difference between identity and mere correlation or corresponding What advantages are there in claiming mindbrain identity over correlation a Identity Mental states such as pains or beliefs area identical with brain states An example is that H20 is identical to water There is a onetoone identity between a particular mental state and a particular brain state b Correlation mental states are correlated with brain states An example is that an electrical discharge occurs when there is lightning When in fact they are the same thing c Advantages identity theory is better due to Ockham s razor Iquot PHIL 1110 Exam 2 Define a Rationalism reason is the source of our fundamental knowledge b Empiricism experience is the sole source of our knowledge about the world c Skepticism we do not have knowledge i Global we know nothing and it is impossible to know anything ii Local knowledge is possible on some things but not all Justified true belief conception of knowledge a Why doesn39t knowledge belief One can believe that they are in China while they are in England b Why doesn39t knowledge true belief One can believe something that is not true Cartesian conception of knowledge to know X mea ns that X is certain To say that X is certain means that X is impossible to doubt a Method onyperbolic Doubt being doubtful of one s belief The method Descartes used to Reasons for doubting that the senses give us knowledge a The sensory illusion things in the environment or impairment of a person affects the senses Allows one to doubt the senses unless one is sick or impaired b The dream hypothesis sometimes one cannot tell the difference between a dream and reality Does not allow one to doubt the basics of math 95quot The evil genius hypotheses Bouwsma39s criticism of Evil Genius no perfect illusion exist fit did it would be reality itself e Jacoby39s reply perfect illusion exist man dreaming and not Why does Descartes claim that he is certain ofhis own existence If I m thinking then there has to be something doing the thinking I think therefore I exist Hume s distinction between impressions and ideas and all the ways that ideas can come from impressions a Perceptions the contents of consciousness b Impressions all our more lively perceptions hearing sight feeling love hate desire will 1 External Sensation color sight smell 2 Internal Emotions love hate ii Sense data sounds odors and taste iii Internal impression feeling love and hate c Ideas contents of memories and imagination i Simple memories ii Complex everything else d Complex ideas are either direct copies ofsome complex impression or we get them in one of the following ways iv l Augmenting large mouse adding Diminishing tiny elephant taking away Transposing creature with arms or legs and vice versa Compounding putting two ideas together Three ways ofdistinguishing relations of ideas from matters of fact and examples ofeach Relation ofldeas Matters of Fact triangles have three sides Can be known by reason alone Example all 1 Cannot be known by reason alone Example Jacoby has two cats Gives no information about the world Iquot Gives information about the world S Negation of any true RI is a contradiction logically impossible Example not all triangles have three sides 3 Negation of any true MF is never a contradiction it is logically possible Example Jacoby does not have 2 cats 9 Hume s 2 reasons why we can39t know anything about cause and effect by reason alone a If it were true it would have been possible to know everything about a thing that one has never encountered before Frankenstein b Statements that describe CampE would have to be a RI statement if we could know about CampE by reason NOTE negating a statement would make it false but logical thus it s MI 5quot Problem of Induction the future will be like the past and the past is based on past experience Past experience Because w Because Uniformity of nature no justification Therefore we cannot know anything outside of the present testimony of the sense things we are experiencing right now such as an itch smell or sounds 10 Hume the source ofour idea ofcausality experience 11 Hume we can t have knowledge about the self or the external world 12 Reichenbach s pragmatic Justification ofScience Methods Uniform Not Uniform Scientific Method X Other Methods 0 Nature is uniformed and will always be or nature is no uniformed o If nature isn t uniformed n06hi ng will bring forth success and currently there are no other methods This is a practical reason to follow the scientific method PHIL 1110 EXAM 4 Metaphysics the area of philosophy concerned with fundamental questions about the nature of reality 1 Understand each of the following a Determinism all events are the result of previous causes i Circumstantial freedom but no metaphysical freedom ii Denies that any freewill exists b Indeterminism events are not caused by previous events i The state of the universe does not determine what happens ii Denies both that the universe is determined and thatfree will exists c Circumstantial freedom the abilityopportunity to do whatever action one chooses without external forces and natural limitations d Metaphysical freedom free will the power of the self to choose among genuine alternatives e Compatibilism soft determinism we are determined but we have a sort offree will to be morally responsible i No metaphysical freedom but circumstantial freedom f Incompatabilism if we are determined we have no free will g Libertarianism metaphysical freedom therefore we are morally responsible for our actions i Denies that the world is deterministic h Hard determinism no metaphysical freedom therefore people are not morally responsible for their actions i Agency theory a version oflibertarianism that rejects determinism and indeterminism Events are caused by agents j Eventcausation occurs when a prior event causes a subsequent one Example Rise in blood pressure after drinking coffee occurs when an event is brought about through a free action ofand agent self Causation of things that are not events i Problem there is a separate self which is kind of absurd Why is the problem offree will a philosophical problem Why does it matterwhether or not we have free will a A fundamental question about reality b It is linked to whether or not we are morally responsible for our actions llSubjectively it seems like we are free moreover we often have to deliberate in order to make a decisionquot Why doesn t the hard determinist think these points show that we are free If free will is an l to do something this causes one to illusion what is the cause of the illusion a One might not be aware of the forces that are causing one think that one is free 57 Falling stone isn t aware of gravity and thinks that he is the one falling and can chose where he falls 4 Hypothetical senses of llcould have done otherwise Categorical Indeterminism and libe rtarianism Hypothetical Hardsoft determinism The same person in the Determinism clearly hypothetical and would not happen same position could have Compatibilism ifsomething were different the outcome would change made a different CleClSlOn Due to a causal force something that would change the dedsion 0 One can do what he wills but he can t will what he wills although an agent may often be free to act according to a motive the nature of that motive is determined EXAMPLE I m at a car dealership where I could choose a blue red or white car choose the red car time was reversed and very same me was at thatvery same car dealership trying to make the very same decision a determinist would say that I would make the same choice libertarian would say that I could ELI chose the blue or the white car and a sun could say glike maybe if my friend Conrad was with me he could have in uenced my decision causing me to choose a different color car a Libertarian an act is free if and only if it is caused by and uncaused decision b Compatibilist a free act is one whose immediate cause is a psycholog39cal state of the agent Response to libertarian Note the difference between free and unfree is no whether it is caused or not but how itis caused What39s wrong man at gunpoint gives up wallet because he fears of dying This is a psycholog39cal state but the action is not free since someone forced him to do it ii39 Other de nition an act is free if and only if it is caused by a nonoompulsive motive Equot What is the agency theory de ned by Taylor What are some of the problems with the view a Agents cause their own choices b Agents cause an intention to be acquired but not by doing something else c You are the cause not the self d Problems 39 An in nite vicious regress ofexertions is threatened ii The agent by himselfherself is not suf dent for any event to occur when it does iii There must be uncaused events in which case the Agency Theory is no different from standard Libertarianism l x izm immune m 6 What does Stace thinkis mistaken assumption that leads to the problem of free will Why does he think moral responsibility requires the truth ofdeterminism What are some of the problems with the compatibilist view a The de nition of llfreequot i Example definition of man as a 5 legged animal Therefore no men exist


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