General Chemistry I
General Chemistry I CHEM 1150
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Miss Beatrice Schoen
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Beatrice Schoen on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1150 at East Carolina University taught by Anne Spuches in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/221363/chem-1150-east-carolina-university in Chemistry at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Measurements and Problem Solving General Chemistry 1150 Instructor Dr Spuches Spring 2011 CALCU LATO RS tame 111mm v q 123435133 F9 182011 182011 CALCULATORS NEW CLICKER Turning Technologies NXT Student Res onse S stem Accept Button or Enter Button CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE Geology Environmental Science nysics Chemistry Mataids science p Mathematics Engineering Medicine Biology WHAT IS CHEMISTRY Chemistm is the study of matter and its I ro erties both at the macroscopic as well as at the atomic subatomic and molecular levels Chemists seek to understand the composition of matter the changes that matter undergoes as well as the energy associated with these changes Matter is anything that has mass and volume It is the stuff of life Everything around us including us is made up of matter 182011 I Physical Properties easily shaped into sheets malleable and wires ductile good conductor of heat and electricity density 895 gcm3 melting point 1083 c boiling point 2570 c DESCRIBING MATTER PROPERTIES Some Characteristic Properties of Copper Chemical Properties slowly forms a basic bluegreen sulfate in moist air V reacts with nitric acid and sulfuric acid slowly forms a deepblue 7 solution in aqueous ammonia universe identity 1 Physical Intensive Properties those which the substance shows by itselfwithout interacting with another substance No changes in composition SOME DEFINITIONS Matter anything that has mass and volume the stuff ofthe Composition What the matter is made of and how much each substance is present Properties The characteristics that give each substance a unique Chemical Properties those which the substance shows as it interacts with ortransforms into other substances Changes in composition but mass is conserved 182011 THE FOUR STATES OF MATTER Solids k I r Liquids Asubstance that conforms to the container but will retain its own 2 volume 3 Gas 39 allu 39 ofthe container 3 a THE FOUR STATES OF MATTER 4 Plasma w r 4 r 39 4 39 of all phases in the universe space is comprised of sparse plasma 99 of the known universe is in the plasma state 182011 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES ryicnsubliming rum gt my 39humiml mmwxilum quotluluNd l39lu39siml dung cogs 5mm carbon dioxide dry iLe 1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES pf 213333 Sugardissoh ing 39 g V B pnnllunm gt JDIIQOHUM Ihcmiumnwosilhmmmlvurcd I 3 3 391 31 339 1739quot quotT Iuymn lungc cuu onmqu a A g A Dissmved sugar 1 239quot muiemres Q r39v 182011 Pmpancgasburning itin gwlijnlg thcmiu unmosilinwhcm Chmiwlchangc 1 k39 ClickerQueslion su de Exlen Dependo hquantityamounlosubslancepresent Massvoumeenglh Manyi 39 IntensivePropenies Do noldependon lheamounldsubslance present We mp ralure pressure n bslan nsily ceszme ingpoinlmomngpoinHreezingpoinl sivepropenies nle 182011 THE IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY IN STUDYING MATTER High potential Iukg engmymnmhm Physical and chemical changes are accom anied by changes in Enerw Energy is the ability to do work i Kinelic enevgy Kinetic energy Energy due to the otion of an object Potential energy Energy due to the position OT an object or energy Irom a chemical reaction low potential V 1 energy stablEl 39 Heatl 39 Total Energy KE PE Wighlazrlme hem M W GRAVITATIONAL SYSTEM Potential Energy A SYSTEM OF OPPOSITELY CHARGED PARTICLES Potential Energy SCIENTIFIC APPROACH DEVELOPING A MODEL Observations Facts or quantitative data that need some explanation 4 Hypothesis Tentative proposal that explains observations revisedif experiments do notxupport it Procedure to test hypothesis measures one or more variables at a time 9 E 3 hi Predicts how the observation occurs based on Model Theo IV the experimental results alteredzf predictions do notxupport it Further Experiment Tests predictions based on model 182011 THE EFFECT OF ARSENIC ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS Observation Monomethylarsenite disrupts function of Zinc containing Protein Hypothesis Zinc binds to sulfur Arsenic likes to bind to sulfur as well Does Arsenic disrupt the function of the protein by displacing zinc Experiment Circular Dichroism is a technique to look at the structures of protein Can we use it to tell the difference Ami e Ammm ZincProtein MMAeProtein THE EFFECT OF ARSENIC ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS Experiment Add MMAto protein that contains zinc protein complex and observe what happens MMA w mm Mm ZincProtein MMAProtein Free Zinc Model MMA is toxic because it displaces zinc from sulfur containing proteins Test Model with other proteins 182011 m um um lwuughuw m a Nahum THE IMPORTANCE OF MEASUREMENT IN CHEMISTRY 1 mile 1609 km Length 1 yard 09144 m 1 03048 m 1 inch 254 cm exactly 1 cubic foot 002832 ma 1 gallon 3785 dma Volume 1 quart 9464 cm3 1 uid ounce 2957 cm3 1mL 1 cm3cc 1 pound 04536 kg M ass 1 ounce 2835 g 182011 SI BASE UNITS NOT METRIC UNITS Physical Quantity Unit Dimension Unit Name Abbreviation v ll lI l 1 le 11 time second 5 luminous intensity candela cd MEMORIZE HIGHLIGHTED DINENSIO S COMMON DECIMAL PREFIXES USED WITH SI UNITS PrefX Pre Word Conventional Emmemla symbol Notation Nolallon tera T trillion 1000 000000000 1x1012 giga 6 billion 1000000000 1x10a M million 1000000 1x10B k thousand 1000 x103 h hundred 100 x102 da ten 10 1x101 one 1 1x10 deci d tenth 01 1x101 0 hundredth 001 1x102 m thousandth 0001 1x103 in millionth 0000001 1x10B n billionth 0001 1x10 9 pico p trillionth 0000000000001 1x10quot2 femto f quadrillionth 0000000000000001 1x1015 MEMORIZE THE SHADED PREFIXES 182011 7 DERIVED UNITS Speed Volume Density 182011 IEMPERAIURESCALES l 1 IemperatweSta es m w r IEKWaierbn s 1 1 1 w UKAhmmlozem CickerQueslion l sas eHenng95degreesfahrenheilinNonhCaroHna m I hiske eraluremde reesCe sius w Whalisl RELIABILITY OF MEASUREMENT Measured Vuantities are alwar 5 re orted in such a way that only the last digit is uncertain All digits recorded in any measurement all the certain digits plus the first uncertain digit are called Significant Figures RELIABILITY OF MEASUREMENT The number of signi cant gures in a measurement depends upon the measuring device Estimation in Weighing in bi 182011 LL 31931 5 UL X L 019 5 I 5 w L 019 5 I 550LXL019 S 51 L 019 S I 51A0L x L019 S 50 L 019 s L 5 90L x L 3 ts LI 5 w L 019 s I 6 LOL X L 013 s I 5 p L 019 s L 5 80L x L 3 x5 LI 5 9L saquotIBA IIBulS saneA Egg LDDDDDDDDDDDDDD I HWULHUFEW Lnnnnnnnnnnn n menm Lnnnnnnnn n WWW gt EnLXL quot umwm nnn nnn nnn L umnxq nnn nnn nnn nnn L umnm mme UULIEIUN loams jstzueuodg summeAung pJOM weld H32ng ruEizm SJan IS HJN ClEIS SEIXHEIHd 39IVWIOEICI NOWWOO sunsng yepugMa pelenpeJ 9H1 u 8 Plnbll J0 el1m0ll 3llll 39snosguaw an o wonoq an 12 ameA an pea Japunlb pawnme e ugpeaJ uauM uonseno Je00 LLOZQl L SJCENIFICANT FIGURES 1 Nonzero digits are always signi cant figures 2 Zeros before the rst nonzero digit leading zeros are NOT significant 3 Zeros between 39 393 quot uguie 4 Zeros at the end with decimal point ending zeros are signi cant mu 5 L the iiumuei 39 39 39 signi cant Use scienti c notation to avoid ambiguity 6 Exact numbers have no uncertainty Sig gs do not apply Conversions 16 oz 1 lb 100 cm 1m or 1 inch 254 cm Exact Result 39om counting number of objects 30 000 students at ECU ROUNDING NUMBERS 1 Ifthe digit removed is to or greater than 5 the preceding number increases by 1 Rounding up 2 If the digit removed is less than 5 the preceding number is unchanged Rounding down 3 Crazy 5 RuleBanker s Rule Applies only in the case where the 5 you are removing is followed by zeros or is an ending 5 example1735000 or 2425 The preceding number is increased by 1 if it is odd but remains unchanged if number is even 182011 SIGNIFICANT FIGURES IN CALCULATIONS Addition and Subtraction The answer has the same number of decimal places as there are in the measurement with the fewest DECIMAL PLACES Multiplication and Division The answer contains the same number of significant figures as there are in the measurement with the fewest SIGNIFICANT FIGURES SIGNIFICANT FIGURES AND LOGS Logs and antilogs 10 The answer will have one more significant figure when performing log operation and one less for antilog log 18x 105 10530 50 X 10396 182011 EXAMPLES Parenthesis Exponents Nhltiplication and Division Lto R Addition and subtraction L to R I 39 bar I erform all 39 39 39 quot quot L the 39action bar before dividing the numerator by the denominator EXAMPLES Calculations with exact numbers 182011 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS Convert 125 inches to cm We know 254 cm 1 in exactly lnfoGiven x C quotVer5I quot DesiredAmount Factor What is a conversion factor Conversion factors come 39om the above equality For every equality you can have two conversion factors Problem Solvmg Convert 176 yd to cm Given a 1094 yd 1 m b 1 m 100 cm Sort Problem into given andwhat is asked and list these Step 2 List information given and list any relationships or equations required Step 3 Come up with plan This is your roadmap to solving problem Step 4 Write equations and solve them 182011 Problem Solving Continued EXAMPLES Units raised to powers Convert 570 L into in3 G Step 1 Sort Problem into given andwhat is asked and list these Step 2 List information given and list any relationships or equations required See Above Step 3 Come up with plan This is your roadmap to solving problem Step 4 Write equations and solve them 182011 EXAMPLES Continued PRECISION AND ACCURACY Precision Refers to reproducibility or how close the measurements are to each other Accuracy Refers to how close a measurement is to the actual value 182011 PRECISION AND ACCURACY Inaccurate lmprecise Inaccurate Precise Accurate Precise hum mm hm W mm W l I r J w Irml Auth Iiml mlmhrr mu mlmbu Sludem A 5mm 3 Student c capyugmozm Pearson Pumice Hall inc SYSTEMATIC AND RANDOM ERROR Systematic Error Values that are either all higher or all lower than the actual value Random Error In the absence of systematic error some values that are higher and some that are lower than the actual value 182011 C Trial number liming quot50 Hm mmm l IIIIHII I II n MEN 0 am mm Trial number D
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