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Introduction to Chemistry for the Allied Health Sciences

by: Miss Beatrice Schoen

Introduction to Chemistry for the Allied Health Sciences CHEM 1120

Marketplace > East Carolina University > Chemistry > CHEM 1120 > Introduction to Chemistry for the Allied Health Sciences
Miss Beatrice Schoen
GPA 3.59

Subodh Dutta

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Subodh Dutta
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Beatrice Schoen on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1120 at East Carolina University taught by Subodh Dutta in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/221364/chem-1120-east-carolina-university in Chemistry at East Carolina University.

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Date Created: 10/11/15
Chemistry 1120 Exam 3 Study Guide CHAPTER 6 Avagadro s Number The mass of a mole 6022 x 1023amu 1 amu 1 g Use this to convert moles to molecules Ex If I have 0783 moles of water how many water molecules do I have 0 0783 moles X 6022 x 1023 moleculesmoles 472x1023 molecules of water Formula Units Grams molecules or atoms CHAPTER 5 continued consumes ur pruduced In the dwerm39ca reac un o Ex4NHzO 302 2N2 o sto 4 Ma s quHz reactstu pruduce 2 ma es cf N o o o o o 4 Ma s quH reacts with 3 ma esufo In solving chemicalequatianbased pmbiems me on 3 IV quotmnsi ansquot allowe re those between quann39n es boxes cunneaea by arrows Avngmlm39x mmlhu Pmklu a 15 mmquot m umu o 2 came I o 25 02g gt 15 c02g o 13 H20g 0 TO SOLVE 220 ma es Ceng x 15 ma coz2 ma ems 17s ma es co2 memng Readath of rst the theare m yie d o o EX In the balanced equation of 39 CH4lgl 2 Ozlgl 9 CO2 g 2 l lzo I I This equation implies that everyone 1 molecule of CH4 reacts with 2 molecules of 02 So if you have 5 molecules of CH4 and 8 molecules of 02 which is the limiting reactant 5 molecules CH4 x 1 molecules of C02 lmolecule CH4 5 molecules of C02 8 molecules 02 x1molecules C02 2 molecules of 02 4 molecules of C02 Since less C02 can be made from the 02 than the CH4 the 02 is the limiting reactant Stoichiometry Steps 1 Balance the equation 2 Calculate the molar mass atomic mass 3 Start with what is known and convert to what is asked for O I GramsofA GIVEN I Molar mass as conversion factor Moles of A equation to find mole ratios Moles of B Molar mass as a conversion factor Use coefficients in balanced I GramsofB FIND I CHAPTER 7 Kinetic Energy Energy of Motion Puten ra Enegy e Stored energy cava ent bands are a farm cf patenrrar energy n Tm reamans patent39a energy Tscunverted to Heat 7 Heat the kinetic energy cf the rnw39ng par d s pnysrcar or chemka dwange Band D SD n Enera an rsurated gaseuus rnuremre Endmnerrnr39c process m reaman that absurbsheat and nag a pusm39ve AH 7 ma energy an e bands farmed r39n the produas r39s less than the ma energy of the n s bruken r39n the reamant 7 Ha pensrrenrrupy changeTsPOSmVE 7 Energy r39sAB o 7 AH Wm be an the LEFT reactants 7 Ex 0 N 0 OR 0 Mg 002g gt2N0g g r Mg 0 45 kcal gt 2N0g AH o43 kmv rm Activation mgr AH Hmmaumsr H macxams 1 A H Exulherrm A prunes m reacmm that rexeases heal and has a negalwe AH the bands bruken mlhe reactants Happens lEnlrupy change 5 NEGATIVE 7 Energy 5 RELEASED AH Wm be unlhe hghupmduns Ex 0mg 2 015 9 Collg E z mom E 213 kcal ox cmtngouchoug zmom AHLZBkcmmm Activation 395 i5 zMV gY exo rhermsc acfion Energy of AH Wm quotmm H A H nlrugy aka Murder 7 Symbuhzed bylhe symhm 5 UNIS are anu E K yam u 5 Sam uwer Enlrupy and lewer ma es arreaclanls 6357 higher Enlrupy 377d mare ma es ulpru u s FreeEnergyChange AG 7 Usedlu descnbe spuntanertyuta process 0 AG AH TAS healulreamunl mlnus Temperature m H Emmpv Change AG AH 39I39AS Sgunlaneuus Process 7 A process that once started proceeds Wlthuut any external mlluence Exergunlc Endergunlc Culllslun Theury A set at statements thatglve the Cundllluns that must be met belure a chemlcal reactmn Wllltake place 5 tatements me e Molecular Collisions reactant pamcles must mteract collldetu react Activation Energy For the collision to lead a reaction the particles have to have 0 a minimum amount of kinetic energy Collision Orientation the particles must be lined up properly when they collide to produce a reaction 0 Factors that Influence the Rate of Chemical Reactions 1 Physical Nature of the reactants o Reactants have to collide with enough energy and in the proper orientation Z Reactant Concentration Increase in frequency of collisions Increase in the reaction rate Increase in Concentratio n 3 Reaction Temperature Increase in frequency of collisions Increase in reaction rate Increase in Temperature Increase in forcefulness of collisions 4 Catalyst 0 Is a substance that increases the rate of reaction WITHOUT being consumed in the reaction holds one reactant in particular orientationweakens bonds where reaction takes place and brings the reactants together more efficiently Changesthe path the reactants follow to make product Lowers the activation energy needed to produce product 00 Activation energy Activation energy with a catalyst Chemical Eguilibrium Process where two opposing chemical reactions occur simultaneously at the same time At equilibrium the reactants are being converted to products as fast as the products are being converted to reactants is equilibrium constant at constant temperature affected by temp o Keq Products Reactants I EX WA xB yC zD Cllelz 9 AWBquot 39 So ifgiven N2g 3H2g 9 2NH3g K NH32 eq 1VzHz3 Includes only gases g and things dissolved in water aq Value of K If K gt 1 the reaction is product favored product predominates at equilibrium If K lt1 the reaction is reactant favored reactant predominates at equilibrium If K gt 1000 reaction goes essentially to completion If K is between 1 and 1000 more products than reactants at equilibrium If K is between 1 and 001 more reactants than products If K is smaller than 001 essentially no reaction occurs Le Chaterlier Le Chaterlier s Principle states if stress is applied to a system at equilibrium the system will readjust in the direction that best reduces the stress imposed on it More product then the reaction shifts to the right More reactant then the reaction shifts to the left Can occur due to the following o 1 Change in concentration I Increasing the concentration of one of the reactants cause the reaction to go toward the products shift to the right I Increasing concentration of one product shift to left reactants I Decreasing one reactant goes towards reactants I Decreasing one product goes toward products o 2 change in temperature Energy an leit istreated as a reactant Energy on the right is treated as a prnduct o 3changeinpressure Dnly irnpartant when a gas is inyalyed in the reactian Ii reactian is liquid II er in water lad changingthe pressure daes NOT have an effect Increased pressure gees tnwardl ewer gas rnalecules Decreased pressure gaestauiard rnare gas rnalecules o 4Addingacatalyst DnesNOTchangeequilibrium CHAPTER 8 Kinetic Mulecular Theng 39 39 39 ul nane a uiu liquids and gases Solid Liquld Gas Potential vs PE KE PE KE Kinetic energy PE gtgt KE ltlt Volume De nite Inde nite Inde nite an shape and shapean shapeand shape volume de nite volume volume High cohesion High cohesion Low cohesion Density High dens y High density Low density Compressihility High cohesion High cohesion Low cohesion o lg Campressibillty Compressibllily Compressibili ghelma High cohesion 19 w esion Low caheslnn 93quot5 9quot Law ExpanSIon Low Expansmn ngh Expanle Kinetic Mnlecular Theng nf Gases Behavinr ai gases can be explained by the iallawingassurnptians o l 39 39 r 39 their awn size o 2 Collisions between gas particles and between particles and container walls are elastic collisions O 3 Gas particles are in continuous rapid random motion 0 4 There are no forces of attraction or repulsion between gas particles 0 5 The average kinetic energy of gas particles depends on the temperature Kelvin of the gas Boyle s Law First experimental gas law As pressure increases volume decreases temperature and moles are constant 0 P1V1 P2V2 When you double the pressure on a gas the volume is cut in half as long as temp and amount of gas don t change Charles Law As temp increases volume increase pressure and moles constant Temp must be measured in KELVIN V1 V2 F F If the Kelvin temperature ofa gas is doubled its volume doubles Gary Lussac s Law The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its K temp for a fixed amount of gas at a constant volume Pressure is divided by T is constant when moles and volume are held constant P1T1 P2T2 As temp goes up pressure goes up Avagardo s Law As the number of moles of gas increases so does the volume P and T constant V1 V2 n1 TLZ Combined Gas Law P1V11 2V2 T1 T2 Ideal Gas Law PVnRT P pressure in atm V volume in L N moles in mol T temp in K RL ideal gas constant 08026 Change of State Melting endothermic Freezing exothermic Evaporation endothermic Condensation exothermic Sublimation Endothermic process of going from a solid directly to a gas Deposition Exothermic process of a gas going directly to a solid Heat of Fusion The quantity of heat required to completely melt a substance once it has reached its melting point Heat of Vaporization The quantity of heat required to completely vaporize a substance once it has reached its boiling point Intermolecular Forces Attractions between one molecule and another Not as strong as ionic or covalent bonding Affect physical properties of substances especially melting point boiling point and solubility 0 London Forces I Weakest I Larger molar mass Low melting and boiling points Examples F2 Clz Brz 2 o Dipole Dipole Stronger than London forces Polar and non polar partial pressures Ex H25 CH3CI 0 Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen has to be covalently bonded to an O N or F then the H will be attracted to another 0 N or F of another molecule Low molar mass liquids at room temp and relatively high boiling points Ex H20 NH3 HF


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