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File Processing

by: Amira Von

File Processing CSCI 2230

Amira Von
GPA 3.95

Vernon Pine

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Vernon Pine
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amira Von on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CSCI 2230 at East Tennessee State University taught by Vernon Pine in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/221375/csci-2230-east-tennessee-state-university in Communication Studies at East Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 10/11/15
Introduction Class Diagrams Class Name A Brief Guide to the UML Class Diagrams The Uni ed Modeling Language UML is a graphical language for creating diagrams that are useful in the software development process The UML provides a set of standard graphical symbols and the rules for combining them The UML is process and implementation language independent The UML provides symbols to support various views of the system In all there are nine diagram types included in the UML Class diagrams Object diagrams Use case diagrams Sequence diagrams Collaboration diagrams Statechart diagrams Activity diagrams Component diagrams and Deployment diagrams In this guide we will be concerned with class diagrams which provide a structural view of the system Class diagrams are perhaps the most common type of diagram used in modeling objectoriented systems A class diagram shows a set of classes interfaces collaborations and dependencies In addition notes and constraints can appear on a class diagram You use class diagrams to show the static structure of your system A class is represented by a box that is divided horizontally into three sections The top section contains the class name the middle section contains the class attributes and the bottom section contains the class methods An example of a class diagram for a Time class is shown below Time hour minute second setTime displayMilitaryTimeo displayStandardTimeo The class name appears in the top section of the class box and consists of text The class name is a noun or noun phrase Typically the rst letter of each word in the phrase is capitalized Class Attributes Class Methods Visibility Scope Relationships The middle section of the class box contains the class attributes An attribute represents some property of the class The attribute name consists of text and is a noun or noun phrase Typically the first letter of each word in the phrase is capitalized except the first You can optionally specify the type of the attribute and possibly a default value For example to specify that the attribute hour is of type integer and has an initial value of 12 replace hour in the above diagram with hour Integer 12 Collections or arrays of attributes are indicated by giving the multiplicity Refer to the discussion of multiplicity in the Association section below Nata Bene By specifying the type and default values you are increasing the information content of the diagram at the possible expense of cluttering the diagram This same comment is applicable to other optional information The bottom section of the class box contains the class methods A method is an abstraction of something that an object can do or have done to it The method name consists of text and is a verb 0r verb phrase followed by left and right parenthesis Typically you capitalize the first letter of each word in the name except the first You can optionally specify the names types and default of all method arguments as well as the return type of functions For example a full specification of the setTime method might look like setTime newHour Integer 12 newMinute Integer 0 newSecond Integer 0 The UML provides symbols to indicate the visibility of attributes and methods The following symbols when place immediately before either an attribute name or method name define the visibility of the attribute or name public private protected For example to give the attribute minute protected visibility you would write minute You can specify the scope of an attribute using the UML By default an attribute has instance scope That is each object created from the class has its own value for the attribute You can give an attribute class scope by underlining the attribute name and type and default value if present The most common use for class scope is to share a private variable among all instances of the class You might do this for example if you needed to give each instance a unique identifier The UML provides graphic symbols to represent the following relationships 0 Dependency 0 Association 0 Generalization between classes Dependency Association A dependency is a relationship between two classes in which a change to one called the independent class causes a change in the other called the dependent class A dependency is represented by a dashed line from the dependent class to the independent class For example if you have a CDPlayer player class and a RemoteControl class you would indicate the dependency by the following diagram CDPIayer RemoteControl An association is a relationship that specifies that the objects of one class are connected to objects of another class An association is represented by a solid line connecting the two classes For example suppose you have an Employee class and a Company class An association is depicted by the following diagram Employee Company The notations above the solid connecting line indicate the multiplicity or how many The above diagram indicates that an instance of the Employee class can work for many companies and that an instance of the Company class has one or more employees Some examples of multiplicities and their meaning are 4 exactly four 1 3 one to three many The same notation is used to indicate a collection or array of attributes For example port4 SerialOPort indicates that there are 4 ports of type SerialOPort One particular onetomany association aggregation frequently arises in obj ect oriented modeling the wholepart relationship An aggregation is represented by a solid line connecting the two classes with an open diamond at the end of the line adjacent to the whole class An example is the aggregation of family members within a household The UML diagram is shown below Household Family Member Generalization Notes Constraints There is a variation of aggregation which is called composition Composition is a relationship that has strong ownership and simultaneity of lifetimes of the classes That is if the part class belongs to just one whole class and cannot exist outside the whole object the relationship is composition An aggregation is represented by a solid line connecting the two classes with an solid diamond at the end of the line adjacent to the whole class An example of composition is the relationship between a college and its departments The UML diagram is shown below College Department A generalization is a relationship between a general class and a more speci c class Generalization is the inheritance relationship A generalization is represented by an arrow with an un lled head from the speci c class derived class to the general class base class For example suppose you have a GraduateStudent class and a Student class The generalization is depicted by the following diagram GraduateStudent Student A note is used to place comments on the class diagram If the note applies to a speci c item on the diagram connect the note with the item by a dashed line An example of a note See algordoc for a description of this algorithm Constraints are speci c conditions that must be true for the model to be valid Constraints are enclosed in braces For example suppose that we had a PlayingCard class and one of the properties is the suit We would like to constrain suit to hold only the values clubs diamonds hearts or spades An example ofa constraint is PlayingCard suit clubs diamonds hearts spades Constraints can apply to other items in the diagram in addition to attributes 4 Summary This brief guide is only an introduction to class diagrams it is by no means complete Further more class diagrams are but one of the nine diagrams supported by the UML For more details on class diagrams or information on the other eight diagrams refer to The Unified Modeling Language User Guide by Grady Booch James Rumbaugh and Ivar Jacobson CSCI 2230 Test 2 Topic Outline Spring 2009 Test Date 20 April Test Format Part 1 7 True or False Read carefully these questions are not designed to be deliberately misleading but words have meaning N20 points Part 2 7 Short answer questions Brief to the point answer 13 sentences 7 20p0ints Part 3 7 Computations Must show work to receive credit 7 40 points Part 4 7 Analyze compare and contrast Thought required Discuss pros and cons pluses and minuses advantages and disadvantages support with speci c examples N20 points Topics The test will cover material from the lectures textbook handouts and projects Otherwise any topic is fair game The following is a high level overview of the topics that were covered it is not intended to be an all inclusive detailed list of the test questions Lectures Covered Lectures 6 9 1 UML 11 Class Diagrams 111 Representation of classes 1111 Name 1112 Attributes 11121 Types 11122 Default values 11123 Visibility 11124 Scope 1113 Methods 11131 Name types Default values of the arguments 11132 Visibility 11133 Scope 112 Relationships between classes 1121 Dependency 1122 Association 11221 Aggregation 11222 Composition 1123 Generalization 113 Notes 114 Constraints 12 Sequence Diagrams 121 Involved objects 122 Lifelines 123 Messages 13 Consistency between Class Diagram and Sequence Diagram 2 E 4 Elementary File Structures 21 Algorithms for Unsorted Master File Sorted Master File 211 Search for a record 212 Insert a new record 213 Delete a record 214 Modify a record 215 Create the appropriate le 22 Amortization of Sorting Cost Sorting 31 0N2 Sorting 311 Be able to demonstrate apply the algorithm to a sample data set showing the results at each step 3111 Bubble Sort 3112 Insertion Sort 3113 Selection Sort 32 ON lg N Sorting 321 Be able to demonstrate 3211 Quick Sort 3212 Merge Sort 3213 Heap Sort 33 Miscellaneous Sorting 331 Be able to demonstrate 3311 Shell Sort 3312 Radix Sort 34 Replacement Selection 341 Be able to demonstrate 35 Be able to reproduce the Sorting Summary Chart Testing 41 Preconditions and Postconditions 42 Defensive programming versus design by contract 43 Black Box 431 Coverage Models 432 Given a speci cation and coverage model generate the appropriate test cases 44 White Box 441 Coverage Models 442 Give a speci cation and coverage model generate the appropriate test cases Computations and Analysis 959 Blocking factor calculations on master le Analyze an inmemory sorting method for performance Analyze one of the four basic algorithms for unsorted master le or sorted master le Generate a test suite for black box testing Generate a test suite for white box testing


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