Intro To Psych
Intro To Psych PSYC 1310
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Human Development 7 Major Stages of Development Prenatal Infancy Childhood Adolescence Young Adulthood Middle Adulthood Late Adulthood Conception Birth Birth 2 years 2 12 years 12 18 years 18 40 years 40 65 years 65 years and over Lifespan development needs to be taken into account as people deal with different changes at different ages and we re all living longer now Equifinality different initial conditions lead to similar effects Multifinality similar initial conditions lead to different effects Genetic Information The Gene The basic unit of genetic instructions Genes are short segments of chromosomes molecules of DNA that hold the genetic instructions for every cell in our body Chromosome threadlike strand of DNA in the nucleus of cells that carry genes and functions of heredity Every cell of a normal human has 23 pairs of chromosomes one of each pair coming from the mother and one from the father It is the 23rOI pair of chromosomes that determines a person s sex In a female there are two Xshaped chromosomes XX In a male there is one Xshaped chromosome and one smaller Yshaped chromosome XY The Y chromosome leads to development of a male so the sex of the zygote is determined by which sperm X or Y fertilizes the egg Nature vs Nurture Come on Nature Nurture The question is how much of each for any characteristic Zygote 1celled organism by union of sperm amp egg Prenatal period conception to birth approx 9 mos Germinal stage 1st two weeks zygote Embryonic stage 2 weeks to 2 months embryo Fetal stage 2 months to birth fetus 1 in 5 pregnancies spontaneously abort during germinal stage zygote rejection Placenta structure providing oxygen amp nutrients to fetus and removing wastes begins to form during implantation Vital organs and body systems begin to form during the embryonic stage cell division becomes specialized Most miscarriages and structural birth defects occur during the embryonic stage Physical movement begins in the fetal stage with the rise of the skeletal system amp organs start to function Sex organs start to develop during the 3rd month Prenatal healthcare is vital to minimize risks for nongenetic birth defects and is often inadequate for the poor Respiratory and digestive systems mature in the last 3 months of gestation and brain cell multiplication increases Critical periods developmental time window when we are more or less reactive to a situationinfluence in prenatal called critical once born called sensitive periods because a problem less likely to have devastating effects Maternal Malnutrition increases risk for birth defectscomplications Teratogens substances that can produce birth defects Maternal drug use most drugs cross placental membranes and the unborn offspring can become damaged andor dependent Narcotics T in chance of early death due to prematurity birth defects respiratory problems and addiction Cocaine many defects including heart problems amp brain seizures Alcohol Fetal Alcohol Syndrome includes microcephaly small head heart defects irritability hyperactivity mental retardation etc Smoking reduces oxygen amp nutrient flow to fetus includes increased risk for miscarriage still birth prematurity and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Maternal illness diseasesickness affects the unborn child depending on the type of illness and time of contraction stage Herpes and AIDS can be transmitted to the offspring during birth Herpes via lesion contact AIDS via blood contact Herpes microcephaly paralysis deafness blindness brain damage amp possibly death in newborns AIDS 30 of AIDS mothers pass the disease progress is rapid in infants and death occurs usually within the 1st year Development is an orderly predictable amp gradual process Newborns can distinguish mother s voice in 1st week of life Motor Development progression of muscular coordination Cognitive Development transitions from lower to higher forms of thinking reasoning prob solving memory etc Cephalocaudal Trend gain control of upper body 1st Proximodistal Trend gain control of torso fore extremities Bursts of growth punctuate lengthy periods of no growth Maturation gradual unfolding of genotype into phenotype Newborns have poor visual acuity Eye muscles must develop to control lens curvature focus 2020 vision can be attained by age 6 months Visual Cliff clear platform over real drop off research using this method suggests that depth perception begins to evolve around 6 months Developmental Norms average ages for development of different abilities behaviors and physical growth Longitudinal Study conducted over a long period of time with same samples Crosssectional Study conducted at one point in time comparing different samples of differing ages Temperament characteristic mood activity level amp emotional reactivitiy established between 23 months which remains relatively stable Reciprocal determinism temperament interacts with parent attitudeperception to create the environment that promotes or detracts from attachment Attachment close emotional bonds which develop between infant amp caregiver Secure happy around caregiver upset when not Insecure 2 subtypes Anxious anxious around caregiver lose it when not Ambivilent uninterested around caregiver not upsetwhen not Mary Ainsworth came up with the Strange Situation to measure attachment Put kids in a room with a stranger and see how they act Bowlby idea that babies are biologically programmed to produce behaviors that parents are programmed to love Attachment Harlow s Monkeys Half of the monkeys received their nourishment from a milk dispenser in the wire and half from a dispenser in the terry cloth mother The monkeys being fed by the wire mother would only go to the wire mother to eat and then return to the cloth mother quickly when in fear Thus contact comfort not reinforcement from nourishment was the crucial element for attachment formation Pubescence 2 yr period or so prior to puberty Puberty prompted by release of sexspecific hormones Androgens main class of male sex hormones triggered by Ychromosome Estrogens main class of female sex hormones Sex Characteristics Primary development of physical sexual structures needed for reproduction a Female ovaries vagina uterus etc a1 menarche 1st menstration period b Male testes penis etc Secondary sexspecific physical features develop as well eg breasts pubic hair voice change facial hair musclesfat Gender role expectation for how females and males should think act amp feel Adolescence transition between childhood and adulthood A very new concept relatively speaking Public education came about as a means to keep kids out of the job market Child labor laws amp public education as a right are relatively new as well Whether adolescence is more tumultuous than any other period of life depends on the individual amp hisher situation Piaget s 18961980 Stage Theory development occurs through Assimilation incorporating new experience into existing mental schema And Accomodation changing existing mental schema to explain new experience Piaget identified 4 stages of cognitive development thru observing his own kids 1 Sensorimotor 02coordination of senses amp abilities a Object permanence still exist when out of sight 2 Preoperational 2 7rise of symbolic thought a Egocentrism inability to take another s view b Animism belief that all things are living 3 Concrete Operational 71 1 development of mental operations images of objectsreal events a Conservation quantity of substance remains same even when changing shape or form number mass length area volume b Decentration focus on gt1 aspect of a problem c Reversability able to foresee reversal of action 4 Formal Operational 11on develop ability to think abstractly and systematically logic Piaget s Assimilation amp Accommodation Consistent input falls into line with existing cognitive knowledge structures Inconsistent input requires the adjustment of old cognitive knowledge structures or creation of new cognitive structures Vygotsky s Sociocultural Theory Child isn t island but part ofa social network Kids actively try to construe meaning from society First directive interaction is where they get meaning Then preschool kids engage in private speech Then they move to inner speech not voiced Speech and activity merge advanced cognition Here cultural context is what gives the world meaning Vygotsky s system advocates for interdependent learning team approach Scaffolding a skilled person provides a platform for a child to learn and then helps less until the child masters the task Authoritarian Authoritative Permissive Uninvolved Parenting Styles Parents are demanding expect unquestioned obedience are not responsive to their children s desires and communicate poorly with their children Parents are demanding but set rational limits for their children and communicate well with their children Parents make few demands and are overly responsive to their child s desires letting their children do pretty much as they please Parents minimize both the time they spend with the children and their emotional involvement with them doing little more than providing for basic needs An authoritative parenting style seems to have the most positive effect on cognitive and social development as children are the most independent happy selfreliant and academically successful of the four parenting styles Resilience ability for a child to copethrive in spite of adverse circumstances eg war poverty abuse neglect Contributing factors include high self esteem good intellectual functioning talents faith close relationship to a caring authoritative parent bonds to caring adults outside the family connection to positive organizations attending effective schools Stage period of development when characteristic patterns of behavior are established andor abilities are established Erikson s Stage Theory life span covers 8 stages ending in a psychosocial crisis between 2 opposing tendencies 1 Trust vs Mistrust year 1predictability of world Autonomy vs Shame 23 selfrule vs reliance Initiative vs Guilt 46 self concept of goodbad Industry vs lnferiority 6puberty competence Identity vs Confusion adolescence who am I Intimacy vs Isolation early adult relationships Generativity vs SelfAbsorption producertaker Integrity vs Despair late adult resolvegloom 00IO70 lPOOIJ Marcia s 4 Identity Statuses Foreclosure premature commitment based on parental directives Moratorium delaying commitment to experiment Identity Diffusion refusal to commit directionless Identity Achievement committing to sense of self amp direction not in stone Foreclosure and diffusion speak to a lack of personal crisis to decide while moratorium has crisis without decision eg experimenting with majors in college and achievement is the resolution of the crisis Kohlberg s Theory of Moral Development developing a sense of rightwrong 3 Levels 6 Stages 1 Preconventional Level a Punishment Orientation determined by what s punished b Reward Orientation determined by what s rewarded 2 Conventional Level c Good BoyGood Girl Orientation significant other s disapproval d Authority Orientation societal lawrules to be obeyed 3 Postconventional Level e Social Contract Orientation societal lawsrules which are negotiated to bring the greatest good and protection from anarchy f Individual PrinciplesConscience Orientation abstract ethical principles emphasizing equityjusticespirituality Carol Gilligan s Criticisms of Kohlberg Moral conflicts are concerned with justice caring and relationships Gender differences exist in resolutions She said females tend to place more emphasis on caring and social relationships people are similar and compassion for others is necessary whereas males tend toward lone justice approach people are different and must do right if not punish them There is no reason to think that caring and relationships should not be the basis of morality just because the male version was forced on the world for centuries But critics of Gilligan say research doesn t support the idea that Kohlberg misses gender issues and that she perpetuates gender stereotypes of females as primarily nurturers and males as logical and unfeeling Social Clock individual s own developmental schedule what you to have done by when based largely on culture Family Life Cycle beginning family childbearing family families w preschoolers amp teenagers families as launching centers families in middle yearslate years Adjustment to MarriageParenthoodEmpty Nest is a gradual process Aging can result in decline of cognitive and physical functioning of older adults Biological theories of aging Freeradical theory unstable oxygen molecules ricochet around damaging DNA and other structures leading to disorders such as cancer arthritis etc Cellular clock theory Hayflick s 77 view that cells can divide a maximum of about 100x amp that as we age they become less capable of dividing Says the upper limit on lifespan is 120 years Major personality changes can occur it usually remains somewhat stable evolving subtly during life Major changes may be related to damage Adjustment to aging varies widely with personal attitude culture familysocial support financial resources health impairments government policies etc Gerontology studies aging processes changes and continuity in cognition personality and adjustment during adulthood and late life Learning Learning relatively durable change in beh ampor knowledge due to experience Change may involve the gain or loss of behaviors Experience event or series of events participated in andor lived through Stimulus any detectable input from the environment Stimulus impact ability of stimulus to produce a response Stimuli vary in intensity and duration and frequency Response any specific instance of behavior Behavior any observable thing an organism does Behaviors vary in intensity and duration and frequency Contingency dependency between events an event can be stimulus contingent or responsecontingent ie if then statements Contiguity relation of events in time andor space Contiguous events imply a relationship though one may not actually exist Classical Conditioning learning where a previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke a physiological response originally evoked by another stimulus Ivan Pavlov Russian Physiologist first to describe classical conditioning Pavlov s 2 Kinds of Reflexes lnborn unlearned permanent and universal or Unconditional Response UCR Not inborn learned through experience relatively impermanent and vary between individuals or Conditional Responses CR Unconditioned Stimulus UCS evokes unlearned and unconditioned response Unconditioned Response UCR unlearnedunconditioned response to an UCS Conditioned Stimulus CS previously neutral stimulus that acquires an ability to evoke a conditioned response CR formerly the UCR via conditioning Conditioned Response CR learned response to a CS Classically conditioned responses are Elicited drawn forth by the UCSCS Acquisition initial learning phase Extinction disappearance or weakening of a conditioned response Spontaneous Recovery reappearance of extinguished response after a period of stimulus absence rest Stimulus Generalization demonstration of a CR to stimuli that resemble the CS Stimulus Discrimination lack of CR to stimuli that resemble the CS These apply to Classical and Operant Conditioning Classical conditioning is important for survival Conditioned taste aversion becoming physically sick after eatingdrinking a specific item produces a physical reaction the next time the item is presented usually this is adaptive used in stemming coyote attacks on sheep important implications for radiationchemotherapy Once wellestablished conditional responses can last years Phobias and taste aversions can be established in one trial and then last for a lifetime However extinction can occur Higher Order Conditioning a CS functions as a UCS for the purposes of conditioning a new CS Eg A light is paired with a shock such that the light alone elicits a fear response eg adrenaline jump Later a bell is paired with the light but never with the shock As the light continues to be paired with the shock eventually the bell elicits a fear response Words looks or static environmental stimuli can all become CS s Happens with emotions and words where emotional experiences tied to a word eg Love can later be elicited by other words Ex I love you feeling of well being Sweety Pooky etc come to elicit similar feelings The same is true of negative words and negative emotions Higherorder conditioning is implicated in addiction where withdrawal originally elicited by lack of drug comes to be elicited by a dealer drug taking environment paraphernalia internal state etc Behaviorism only behavior matters it s observable John B Watson 18781958 father of behaviorism Watson and Rosalie Rayner deliberately attempted to create a conditioned fear reaction in an infant to illustrate the conditioned nature of emotions Little Albert 9 mos became averse to a white rat after a loud noise was sounded when he reached for it and this fear was generalized to a rabbit dog seal fur coat Watson s hair and a Santa Claus mask They never tried to remove the fears Operant Conditioning learning where responses come to be controlled by consequences aka Instrumental learning Law of Effect Thorndike associations between a response and a stimulus followed by pleasant consequences will be strengthened and associations followed by neutral or unpleasant consequences will be weakened BF Skinner demonstrated organisms tend to repeat responses followed by pleasant consequences and not to repeat responses followed by negatives Operant Chamber aka Skinner box enclosure where responses can be recorded and consequences can be systematically manipulated Primary reinforcer inherently gratifying because it satisfies a biological need eg food air shelter basic clothing sex touch Secondary reinforcer acquires gratifying qualities because it is associated with a primary reinforcer eg money most common dress clothes vehicles Emit a voluntary response Reinforcement an event occurring after a response which increases the chances of that response occurring again Reinforcement contingency circumstances determining what responses lead to Wthh consequences Shaping reinforcing successively closer approximations to a target behavior Operant extinction disappearance or weakening of a response because it is no longer followed by a reinforcer Operant spontaneous recovery reappearance of a previously reinforced behavior without having had any subsequent reinforcement post extinction Positive reinforcement response is increased due to presentation of pleasurable stimulus after the response Negative reinforcement response is increased due to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus after the response Punishment response is decreased due to either the presentation of an unpleasant stimulus positive punishment or the removal of a pleasant stimulus after the response neqative punishment Punishment side effects suppression of desired activity triggering strong emotional responses often leads to aggression Punishment Rules apply it quickly after the behavior use only the lowest effective level always be consistent give an explanation for the punishment reinforce alternative desired behaviors use physical punishment rarely and carefully Escape learning acquisition of a response that decreases or ends an unpleasant stimulus Consequences and learning did you just now behave in a manner consistent with previous reinforcement of writing down white fonted material Avoidance learning acquisition of a response that prevents an unpleasant stimulus from occurring Punishment or Reinforcement Stimulus Stimulus Look at the behavior in APPied Removed question and its direct POS39t39Ve Negat39Ve 39 consequences Additive Subtractive Behavior Increases Positive Negative Reinforcement Reinforcement Reinforcement Behavior Decreases Positive Negative Punishment Punishment Punishment Schedules of Reinforcement how often and when a reinforcer is delivered for a particular response Intermittent reinforcement delivered sometimes if a target response occurs Continuous reinforcement CRF delivered every time a target response occurs yields quickest learning steady responding and quick extinction Postreinforcement pause response pause following reinforcer Fixed ratio reinforcement after fixed of nonreinforced responses Makes for a high steady rate of responding with a postreinforcement pause The higherthe reinforcer value the longer the pause eg FR 100 a piece worker in a factory gets paid for every 100 items she makes Variable ratio reinforcement after variable unpredictable of nonreinforced responses This produces the highest rate of responding and eliminates the postreinforcement pause The most powerful schedule as it is resistant to extinction eg VR 1000 gambling at a slot machine where on average one wins every 1000th time she pulls the lever but it varies unpredictably Schedules of Reinforcement cont Fixed interval reinforcement after fixed amount of time has passed This produces a scalloped effect on a graph The rate of responding increases gradually through the interval until reinforcement and then get a response pause The higher the reinforcer value the longerthe pause eg most pay days Fl 1 day going to the mailbox will be reinforced with finding mail but only once daily Variable interval reinforcement after a variable unpredictable amount of time has passed lower rates of responding but steady eg checking your e mail or answering machines Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement Often we engage in a variety of different behaviors at any particular moment each of which may be operating on a different schedule of reinforcement Mowrer s 2 Factor Theory where a classically conditioned fear paired with operantly conditioned response produces an avoidance of fearful stimuli very resistant to extinction Phobia irrational fear of a specific objects or situation Systematic Desensitization gradual exposure of people to the objects or situations they fear either imaginally or in vivo in life Based on twofactor theory it is the process of extinction classical conditioning facilitated by teaching by eliminating the avoidance response operant conditioning Counterconditioning weakening a conditioned response by associating a fear provoking stimulus with a new response incompatible with fear Learned Helplessness when punishment is delivered inconsistently or without reference to the organism s behavior they learn to become helpless and apathetic and thus giving up completely or not responding to punishment Supersitious behavior behavior learned by coincidental association with reinforcement AKA Noncontingent reinforcement response strengthened by a reinforcer that was not truly produced by the response Wear your lucky socks for every game Habit related to superstitious behavior when the manner of behavior doesn t matter in the reinforcement contingency Cats amp levers Observational learning learning that occurs by watching another organism model a behavior so that the behavior can then be demonstrated Basic Processes of Observational Learning attention is required mental retention is required reproduction must be possible motivation must exist Latent Learning learning that occurs but is not demonstrated until there is motivation to do so Vicarious ReinforcementPunishment watch it happen to someone else check out Bandura s Bobo doll study Insight Learning organism develops a sudden understanding of the solution to a problem An Overview of Psychology Psych soul Logos the study of a subject ie ology P Psychology Psychology the scientific study of behavior and mental processes A Quest for Answers to Ancient Questions Early Approaches to Psychology Structuralism Idea that consciousness is made up of basic elements which can be studied and understood Wilhelm Wundt 18321920 Founding father of T 1879 Opened the 1st 11 Lab at Univ of Leipzig Said T should be modeled after hard sciences Studied Consciousness awareness of one s experiences lntrospection looking inside subjects by training them to be objective about their own experience of stimuli and to report it Wundt had many students who began to spread 11 world wide Functionalism School of thought which asserted that the function of consciousness rather than its structure is more important to its understanding William James brother of Henry James novelist led this school of thought Formally trained as a physician Published Principles of Psychologyin 1890 perhaps the most influential 1 text James believed consciousness was a continual flow of mental activity which could not be done justice by attempting to break it down into bits Coined the term stream of consciousness and wished to study consciousness as a whole Functionalists wished to understand how consciousness enables people to adapt to various environments its essential function Psychodynamic Approach attempts to explain personality motivation and psychiatric illness by exploring unconscious mental processes Sigmund Freud 18561939 Austrian physician who developed Psychoanalytic Theory while treating mental disorders He made up a theory to explain the development of disorders and to guide treatment His theory was based on his own experiences with patients almost exclusively Victorian middleclass middleaged white females A controversial theory motivated many researchers to attempt to prove Freud correct or incorrect Many of his students developed theories Suggested we are not masters of our minds but that our unconscious and subconscious minds control most of our behavior Suggested we all have primitive drives and internal conflicts arise when urges cannot be expressed or fulfilled and this causes disorders Contemporary Approaches to Psychology Behaviorism asserts that behavior is governed by the environment which serves as stimulus detectable input from the environment John B Watson 18781958 father of behaviorism Thought it unworthy of W to study consciousness as it s unobservable subjective reports of subjects Wanted to study behavior as it can be measured objectively verifiable Forced to resigned from Johns Hopkins in 1920 due to his affair with Rosalie Rayner grad student and his divorce from his wife He married Rosalie went into advertising and made a fortune Behaviorism got a big boost from Pavlov s experiments where he trained dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell alone Behaviorism triggered a lot of animal research and is the basis of many educational and treatment practices BF Skinner 19041990 Behaviorist Failed writer turned Ll ist Became prominent in the 50 s and 60 s Emphasized environmental factors in determining behavior A very controversial theorist Demonstrated Thornkike s Law of Effect Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes but don t repeat responses that lead to negative or neutral outcomes Advocated that all behavior is governed by external stimuli For Skinner Free Will is an illusion as previous experiences with reinforcement and punishment learning history along with perceived current contingencies dictate behavior During the 50 s Psychoanalytic Theory and Behaviorism were the dominant schools of thought Both took a very pessimistic view of human nature in that they believed that humans were either bad by nature or that they had no free will and were basically predictable animals Others disagreed and this disagreement led to the rise of Humanism emphasizes individuality capacity for personal growth freedom to choose a destiny free will amp positive qualities Carl Rogers 19021987 was a major figure in the humanistic movement He believed that behavior is governed by one s Self Concept a collection of beliefs about one s own nature unique qualities and typical behavior Huge impact on counseling Abraham Maslow 19081970 Believed all humans have a drive to grow to their full potential The drive is limited by one s ability to meet hierarchical needs starting with biological amp safety needs and moving up to needs for self fulfillment Humanism took an optimistic view of human nature and its orientation led to innovative developments in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders Not a contemporary approach but one that contributed heavily to humanism was Gestalt P German school of thought that states the whole is greater than the sum of its parts Gestalt means shape or form Started as a reaction against structuralism and also attacked behaviorism for breaking whole into parts Was primarily interested in consciousness Contributed to Cognitive T and Humanism but has otherwise largely faded away Max Wertheimer 18801943 was the founder Contemporary Approaches The Cognitive Approach Focuses on the mental processes involved in knowing and how we direct our attention perceive and solve problems The Biological Approach Views understanding the brain and nervous system as central to understanding behavior thought and emotion Also looks at genetics The Sociocultural Approach Emphasizes the social and cultural influences on behavior The Evolutionary Psychology Approach not in book Emphasizes the importance of functional purpose and adaptation in explaining why behaviors are formed are modified and survive The Positive Psychology Movement not in book Emphasis on the experience that people value subjectively eg happiness positive individual traits eg capacity for love and positive group and civic values eg responsibility Others Clinical View Trait View etc There are lots of ways to view psychology Psychology s Areas of Specialization Clinical and Counseling Psychology Experimental Psychology Behavioral Neuroscience and Comparative Psychology Developmental Psychology Social Psychology Personality Psychology Health Psychology Community Psychology School and Educational Psychology Industrial and Organizational Psychology Environmental Psychology CrossCultural Psychology Psychology of Women Forensic Psychology Sport Psychology Jobs with an Undergraduate Degree in Psychology SocialHuman Services Case worker Business Youth counselor Personnel administrator Employment counselor Public relations Fundraising specialist Sales representative Alumni affairs coordinator Admii0ns recrUiter Mental health aide Textbool representative Parent educator Advemsm9 lnsurance agent oManagement trainee Retail sales management Loan officer Drug abuse counselor Research Research assistant Trainee for product research companies Marketing researcher Grant and report writer Research analyst Statistical assistant Getting the Most out of Psychology amp College Good Study Habits Plan and Manage Time Effectively Choose an Effective Study Environment Maximize Reading Effectiveness out loud frequent notetaking Be a Good Listener and Concentrate in Class SelfTraining Prepare Effectively for Tests Distributed Practice Thinking Critically What is Critical Thinking Openminded intellectually curious intellectually careful looking for multiple determinants of behavior Think like a scientist Maintaining a Healthy Skepticism Think Critically About Controversies Psychological Science Goals of Science 1 Measurement 2 Description 3 Understanding 4 Prediction 5 Application Empiricism accumulation of knowledge resulting from objective observation Hypothesis a tentative statement about the relationships between 2 or more variables aka educated guess Research question and possible answer based on theory and previous research Variables any measurable condition events characteristics or behaviors that are controlled or observed In a study Operational Definition describes the actions or operations that will be made to measure or control a variable Created by the researcher the ideas and variables being studied are given specific definitions so that others will know exactly what the researcher means by terms used in their study Theom a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations Theories can never be proven by research Research results either support or fail to support the ideas espoused by the theory Scientific Method 1 Formulate a hypothesis a research question based on theory 2 Design a study method of attempting to answer the question 3 Collect data the information the study provides 4 Analyze data statistical methods for determining significance of results 5 Draw conclusions based on the data is the hypothesis supported or not supported 6 Revise hypothesis andlor theory to help explain the data analysis 7 If necessary repeat steps 16 then report findings usually done by publishing in professionaljournals Journal periodical which publishes technical and scholarly material usually in a narrowly defined area of interest Alternatives are available but often shunned by academia Research Methods differing approaches to the observation measurement manipulation and control of variables in empirical studies Data Collection Techniques 1 Direct Observation 2 Questionnaire 3 Interview 4 Psychological Test standardized measure 5 Physiological Recording 6 Examination of Archival Records Experiment when at least one variable is manipulated by a researcher under controlled conditions and observations are made to record any corresponding changes in at least one other variable lnde endent Variable the variables manipulated by a researcher to see the e ect it has on the dependent variables Dependent Variable the variables thought to be affected by the varying o the independent variables Issues In Research Sample Bias occurs when the sample studied is not truly representative of the population from which it was drawn Social Desirability Bias when subjects give what they think to be socially appropriate responses and are not what they truly feel Experimenter Bias tendency researchers to influence subjects by subtly communicating what they believe should happen though not deliberately which would be fraud Response Set tendency to respond to items in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the questions eg yeasaying Placebo Effect when the subject s expectations cause them to experience perceived or real effects when in actuality they receive no treatment at all Doubleblind Procedure when neither subjects nor experimenters are aware of who is in which group in the study this is to reduce any bias that might come from researchers or subjects as a result of their beliefs about various conditions or groups Population group of anything that have some characteristic in common human beings are an example It is impossible in the case of humans to measure any variable in all members of the population Sample a smaller group of the population selected as to represent the population in question Random Sampling where any member of the population has an equal chance to be selected as a member of the sample It is an ideal and we can only approximate a true random sample Instead we settle for Random Assignment where any member of a sample has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the experimental or control groups Experimental Group subjects are assigned to a group which receives some level of the independent variables treatment group Control Group subjects are assigned to a group that does NOT receive any level of the independent variables This group should be very similar to the experimental subjects on all other variables Extraneous and Confoundinq Variables any that are not the independent variables in question which might also produce an effect of some kind in the dependent variables extraneous variables may be known and reduced confounding variables may not be known DescriptiveCorrelational Research where variables are measured and statistically analyzed but there is no manipulation of the variables gt Naturalistic Observation gt Case Studies gt Surveys Descriptive Statistics numerical data used to describe observed events Central Tendency based on a normal distribution the idea that a great amount of the data lies toward the middle values of the data set measures of central tendency include gt Mean numerical average of the data set ie the sum of all the measures divided by the number of measurements gt Mode the measurement value that appears the most often in a data set can be gt1 if 2 then called bimodal gt Median the middle value of a data set when that set is placed in ascending or descending order if even number of measurements then it is the average of the 2 middle values Variability the spread of the values or how the values vary from one another measures of variability include Range the difference between the largest and smallest values subtract the smallest value from the largest Deviation the distance of the measurements away from the mean Variance the sum of the Squared Deviations of n of measurements from their mean divided by n 1 Standard Deviation o the Positive Square Root of the Variance The Normal DistributionCurve in any given population z 68 of the measurements will fall within 1 c of the mean z 95 within 2 c of the mean z 2997 within 3 c of the mean If the sample is representative of the population and you have a large enough n of measurements data should conform to these normal distribution rules Need an n of gt30 to get a valid normal curve Inferential Statistics math methods used to draw conclusions about the data Correlations Correlation when 2 or more variables are related to each other Correlation Coefficient that falls within the range of 1 to 1 Denoted as r 000 Either 1 or 1 is a perfect correlation and 0 is no relation The closer ris to 1 or 1 the stronger the relation Pvalue Probability a given result is due to chance that falls within the range of 00 and 10 p 01 means the result could have happened by chance 1 out of 100 times We like to use 05 as the minimum acceptable probability for significance Negative Correlation an inverse opposite direction relationship ie as value of 1 variable goes up the value of the other goes down eg as temp goes up wearing of coats goes down Positive Correlation a same direction relationship ie as value of 1 variable goes up the value of the other goes up and vice versa eg as temp goes up ice cream sales go up CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION It only indicates whether a relationship exists Facing Up to Research Challenges Conducting Ethical Research Ethics Guidelines Informed Consent Confidentiality Debriefing Deception The Ethics in Research with Animals Only 5 of APA members do animal research Balance between beneficence and humane treatment Values Who judges what s worthwhile Can scientists really be valuefree in research Facing Up to Research Challenges Gender Bias Gender stereotypes can affect research where male experience is researched more than female Conclusions are drawn on females from male sample Gender differences are often magnified when found Cultural and Ethnic Bias The same problem exists with researchers from one culture exploring issues in another culture Overgeneralizations tend to be made by researchers Ethnic Gloss using ethnic labels such as African American or Asian or Latino in a superficial way making the group seem more homogenous than it is I Be a Wise Consumer of Info about Psychology Distinguish between group results and individual needs Don t overgeneralize from a small sample Look for answers beyond a single study Don t attribute causes where none have been found don t assume causation from a correlation Consider the source of the information and evaluate its credibility does it come from a peer reviewed journal Biological Foundations of Behavior What Are We Made Of Recall that the body can be considered conceptually at 7 structural levels chemcal organelle cell tissue organ organ system and complete organismquot Seely R Stephens T amp Tate P Anatomy amp thsioloqv 3rd Ed Pq4 1995 Thus can any behavior be independent of a biological influence Nervous System Complex Integrated Adaptable amp Electrochemical Neurons individual cells that receive organize and transmit information Sensory Neurons perceive messages from outside the nervous system gtAfferent carm info to the Central Nervous System CNS nterneurons communicate only with other neurons gtNeura Network Motor Neurons transmit the signals to the muscles gtEfferent carm info away from CNS to effector organstissue Soma Cell body containing nucleus and organelles Dendrites receive specialized info from other neurons Axon antennalike structure that transmits signals to other neurons Glial cells support network of neurons nourishment structure support Myelin Sheath insulates some types of axons divided like tiny perforations by gapsknown as Nodes of Ranvier Signals jump the gaps and are speeded on their way Terminal Buttons at the end the axon branches in many places and are capped by knobs which secrete neurochemicals Action Potential electrical impulse inthe book stimulated neuron destabilizes allows in pos charged ions briefly T neuron s charge in a pos direction Resting Potential negatively charged neuron inactive 70millivolts Absolute Refractory Period a very brief couple of milliseconds time after the action potential fires that it must rest before being fired again All or None Law that the action potential must reach a threshold before firing and once its reached the neuron must fire its action potential Synapse Microscopicjunction area where terminal knobs of a neuron intermingle with the dendrites of the next neuron membrane to membrane Signals must cross this area and be received Neurotransmitters chemicals stored in the pre synaptic vesicles of the terminal knobs released into the synaptic gap cleft which transmit the signals across the gap to the dendrites Postsynaptic Potentials PSP receptor site gets neurotransmitter that causes an electrical change in the post synaptic neuron s membranes Excitatory PSP shift in voltage that increases the probability that a neuron will reach its threshold and fire its action potential Inhibitory PSP shift in voltage that decreases the probability that a neuron will reach its threshold Neurotransmitters are synthesized and stored then released and then are bound to a rece tor site destroyed in the gap by enzymes or experience reuptake being recovered by the terminal knob Acetylcholine Ach activates motor neurons movement 1st discovered Dopamine DA has to do with voluntary movement sensitivity to reward Norepinephrine N E deals with mood and arousal Serotonin helps regulate sleep and wakefulness involved in mood GABA inhibitory transmitter low levels are linked to anxiety Endorphins similar to opiates associated with pleasure and pain suppression Drugs are chemicals 1 Agonist effectively substitutes for a neurotransmitter mimicsincreases 2 Antagonist suppresses the function of a neurotransmitter 3 Neuromodulator changes the activity level of a neurotransmitter Nerves bundles of neuron axons Pathways in the Nervous System Afferent in Efferent out amp Networks Nervous System breaks into 1 Central Nervous System CNS brain and spinal cord 2 Peripheral Nervous System PNS all nerves outside brain and spinal cord gtfunction is to connect the rest of the body to the CNS A Somatic Nervous System SNS nerves communicating w voluntary muscles A1 Afferent Nerves go to the CNS sensory neurons A2 Efferent Nerves sent out from the CNS motor neurons B Autonomic Nervous System ANS nerves communicating w involuntary muscles and taking care of involuntary body functions B1 Sympathetic Division fight or flight adrenaline rush BZ Parasympathetic Division conserves body resources Hindbrain ancient brain responsible for physical survival 1 Cerebellum coordinates muscle movement and balance 2 Medulla regulates automatic activities eg breathing heart beat 3 Pons regulates sleepwake patterns Midbrain small area dealing with DA regulation concerned with voluntary muscle control and some sensory perception Forebrain large section with many parts generating higher functions 1 Thalamus all sensory input but smell is integrated and sorted here on the way to the cerebral cortex 2 Hypothalamus a pea sized gland below thalamus that controls basic biological needs eg fighting fleeing feeding and fu the 4 F s Also part of the limbic system 3Limbic System separate but connected structures throughout the brain which help regulate emotion memory and motivation 3a Hippocampus helps formation of new memories 3b Amygdala facilitates learning fear responses 3c Self Stimulation Centers pleasure centers which animal subjects continually stimulate wESB when possible dopamine is involved 4 Cerebrum next page 4 Cerebrum largest and most complex section of brain Cerebral Cortex winding outer layer 15 sqft Cerebral Hemispheres right and left halves each processes info from opposite side of body Corpus Callosum structure connecting the 2 halves Lobes each hemisphere is divided into 4 lobes 4a Occipital Lobe visual processing 4b Parietal Lobe physical sensations touch 4c Temporal Lobe language processing 4d Frontal Lobe largest planning abstraction motor control Cerebral Laterality degree to which each hemisphere controls various cognitive functions or behavior Language is thought to be housed in the left hemisphere Aphasia language impairment caused by left hemisphere damage Broca s area speech production frontal Wernicke s speech comprehension temporal SplitBrain Surgery corpus callosum is cut to reduce epileptic seizures Endocrine System collection of glands that carry out a wide variety of physiological processes by producing chemical messengers called hormones Pituitary gland quotmaster glandquot that secretes many hormones affecting virtually all cells and physiological processes Hormones chemical substances that regulate metabolism growth and sexual development The glands release the hormones directly into the bloodstream to be transported to organs amp tissues through the entire body The system includes the pituitary gland thyroid and parathyroid glands pancreas adrenal glands and gonads However it is the hypothalamus that drives the pituitary Endocrine System The hypothalamus has several neuron types that release different hormones Examples include Thyrotropinreleasing hormone TRH Gonadotropinreleasing hormone GnRH Growth hormonereleasing hormone GHRH Corticotropinreleasing hormone CRHquot Split Brain Research What Came Out of the Split Brain Experiments The studies demonstrated that the left and right hemispheres are specialized in different tasks The left side of the brain is normally specialized in taking care of the analytical and verbal tasks The left side speaks much better than the right side while the right half takes care of the space perception tasks and music for example The right hemisphere is involved when you are making a map or giving directions on how to get to your home from the bus station The right hemisphere can only produce rudimentary words and phrases but contributes emotional context to language V thout the help from the right hemisphere you would be able to read the word quotpigquot for instance but you wouldn39t be able to imagine what it is Source httpnobelprizeorgmedicineeducationalsplitbrainbackgroundhtml Personality Personality an individual s unique assortment of stable behavior patternstraits Dueling theories abound starting with Freud Sigmund Freud s Psychoanalytic Theory 3 Levels of Mind 1 Conscious 2 PreSubconscious 3 Unconscious biggest influence 3 Divisions of Mind 1 Id primitive basic drives wishes amp wants dominates in early childhood Operates on the Pleasure Principle of immediate gratification Libido life forceinstinct Thanatos death force instinct causing all acts of aggressiondestruction Primary Process create wishful images amp fantasies wout realistic means 2 Ego develops as adjunct to ld to mediate the ld Operates on the Reality Principle Secondary Process adaptive measures taken by mind to assess needs amp ability to get desires 3 Super Ego Operates on the Morality Principle Conscience develops as one learns what society and others expect of behaVIor and desires Ego ldeal what we believe we should aspire to to be a perfect person Id and Super Ego both strive to dominate and the Ego mediates between them Intrapsychic Conflicts disharmony between the Id Ego andor Super Ego which was thought to be at the root of all mental illnesses and neuroses 3 types of Anxiety Reality Anxiety real threats in environment Neurotic Anxiety ld breakthrough threatens Moral Anxiety Super Ego conflicts Defense mechanisms to prevent being overcome with anxiety the ego uses processes that distort reality and protect us from anxiety Defense Mechanisms Repression Unknowingly placing an Not remembering a unpleasant memory or thought in traumatic incident the unconscious so that we are not anxious about them the primary defense mechanism Regression Reverting back to immature Throwing temper tantrums behavior from an earlier stage of as an adult when you development don t get your way Displacement Redirecting unacceptable feelings Taking your anger toward from the original source to a safer your boss out on your kids SUbStitUte target or spouse by yelling at them and not your boss Reaction Transforming an unacceptable When uncomfortable with Formation motive into it s opposite your own sexual desires lambasting others as being promiscuous perverts Sublimation Key in socially appropriate personality development Projection Rationalization Denial Defense Mechanisms Replacing socially unacceptable impulses with socially acceptable behavior Attributing one s own unacceptable feelings and thoughts to others and not yourself Creating false excuses for one s unacceptable feelings thoughts or behavior Refusing to accept anxiety producing realities Channeling aggressive drives into playing football or inappropriate sexual desires into art Accusing your boyfriend of cheating on you because you have felt like cheating on him Justifying cheating on an exam by saying that everyone else cheats Someone diagnosed with lung cancer doesn t believe smoking is connected Fixation failure to resolve stage 1 or 2 conflict stereotyped behaviors 5 Stages of Psychosexual Development Oral Stage 01yrs pleasure centers on mouth Erogenous Zone Anal Stage 13yrs pleasure centers on anus EZ amp eliminative functions Anal RetentiveAnal Expulsive Phallic Stage 36yrs pleasure centers on genitals EZ amp selfstimulation OedipusElectra Complex young child s development of intense desire to replace the samesex parent and enjoy the exclusive affections of the oppositesex parent Females realize they have no penis penis envy subservience Latency Stage 611yrs no EZ child represses interest in sexuality amp sublimates energy into emotionally and socially safe outlets Genital Stage 11on rediscovery of sexuality EZ amp sexual pleasure now is sought through contact with others unresolved parental conflicts can interfere with development of new relationships Carl G Jung s Analytical Psychology Psychoanalytic Personal unconscious inaccessiblerepressedforgotten material Collective unconscious latent memory inherited from entire human race Archetypes symbols ampor thoughts with universal meaning wise old man motherly old woman etc eg Star Wars Yoda Darth Vader Skywalker lntrovert preoccupied with inner world thoughts feelings experiences Extrovert preoccupied with external world of people experiences etc Alfred Adler s Individual Psychology Psychoanalytic Dealing with feelings of inferiority plays an important role in our adaptation and striving for goals Striving for superiority universal drive to adapt improve and master life challenges which guide a1 Social Interactions and Interests a2 Goals Compensation overcoming imagined or real inferiority Inferiority Complex exaggerated feelings of inadequacy Overcompensation concealing feelings of inferiority Birth Order place in sequence of siblings affects personality research shows it s not as strong an influence as Adler thought Karen Horney Psychoanalytic Caregivers must provide a sense of security for a healthy personality to develop or get anxiety helplessness and insecurity 3 neurotic personality patterns Moving toward compliant submissive Moving against aggressive domineering Moving away detached aloof Countered Freud s penis envy w womb envy that males covet females ability to create life so they subjugate them and build and destroy things BF Skinner s Behaviorism learned beh is personality Operant conditioning Determinism beh determined by environmental stimuli Response tendencies stable patterns of beh Albert Bandura s Social Learning Theory CognitiveBehaviorism Overarching goal is to develop appropriate social relations Observational Learning knowing via viewing Reciprocal Determination cognition behavior amp environment interact and Influence one another Self Efficacy situation specific beliefs about one s ability to effectively master a situation and produce positive outcomes Walter Mischel CognitiveBehavorism Also a social learning proponent Situational Specificity we behave differently depending on the situation Started debate about whether personality is unstable Psychoanalytic amp Behaviorist views are rather pessimistic about human nature Humanism humans are unique freewilled amp need growth Stresses lnner Directedness amp Phenomenological Subjective Reality Carl Roger s Person Centered Theory Humanistic Self Concept one s own collection of beliefs about one s uniqueness nature and behaVIor Self ldeal what you would be at your best similar to Super Ego Congruencelncongruence disparity between selfconcept and expenence Self Esteem one s belief about one s goodness as a person selfworth Conditions of Worth whether receiver of love feels it is given conditionally Unconditional Positive Regard giving complete emotional support and approval separating behavior from person facilitates high selfesteem Anxiety is a product of incongruence threat to self Defense attempts to force congruence distortions Abraham Maslow s Self Actualization Humanistic Heirarchy of needs we take care of needs in a progression from basic to more esoteric physiological safety lovebelonging esteem self actualization Self Actualization an innerdirected need to fulfill one s potential Peak Experiences emotional highsmomentary revelations SelfActualizers healthy spontaneous perceive reality accurately appreciative more peak exps Personality trait enduring disposition to behave in particular manners in a variety of situations Gordon Allport identified more than 4500 traits on 3 levels Cardinal trait dominant trait figuring into most behavior these are relatively rare GhandiMLKJr total pacifism Central trait prominent and general building blocks of personality most people have 5 to 10 Secondary trait disposition that varies from situation to situation displays itself occasionally Raymond Cattel used factor analysis to reduce Allport s list to 16 dimensions Motivational Traits Ability Traits Temperament Traits Two levels of traits a Source Traits 16 main traits of personality b Surface Traits clusters of behaviors that go together which are not very important Locus of Control Julian Rotter generalized expectancy regarding an individual s degree of perceived control over outcomes External belief that fate luck chance andor authority determines whether one succeedsfails Internal belief that one s own actions abilities andor efforts determines whether one succeedsfails Selfmonitoring degree to which one attends to and attempts to control impressions they make on others Hans Eysenck Personality 3 bipolar trait dimensions determined largely by heredity Extraversionlntroversion NeuroticismEmotional stability Psychoticismlmpulse control Higherorder Traits major traits eg extraversion govern lower order traits eg assertiveness which determine habitual and specific responses lntroversionExtraversion predisposed physiological arousal levels introverts higher arousal levels make these types more receptive to conditioned inhibitions Extraverts lower arousal levels make these types more receptive to conditioning which increases levels of arousal Fivefactor model of personality McCrae amp Costa aka The Big Five Qpenness tendency to be curious flexible creative unconventional etc Qonscientiousness tendency to be organized disciplined dependable etc Agreeableness tendency to be trusting cooperative modest etc Extraversion tendency to be outgoing assertive positive friendly etc euroticism tendency to be anxious hostile insecure vulnerable etc There is solid evidence for relative crosscultural validity Objective Tests Empirically Keyed Self Report Good reliability and validity measure everyone on the same standard enabling comparisons subject to deliberate deception subject to social desirablity bias subject to response sets yeanay sayers Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI the most widely used clinical personality assessment measure 567 statements answered as true or false has validity scales built in Five Factor Inventory NEOPI the big 5 measure Costa amp McCrae 16PF Cattell s measure for the 16 basic personality dimensions Projective Tests ask subjects to respond to intentionally vagueambiguous stimuli to reveal personality themes such as wants needs traits etc Biggest problem is with reliability and validity though you do get lots of interesting and rich data to interpret subjectively Rorschach Test lnkblot Test 10 inkblots tell me what you see Thematic Apperception Test TAT 30 cards picturing simple scenes Menninger Word Association Test free association Rotter Incomplete Sentence finish the sentence Social Psychology Social Psychology studies how people think about interact with influence and are influenced by other people Focus is on proximal vs distal eg childhood personality influences on beh Common proximal constructs are situational goals construal perceptions powerdependence Issues Situational ambiguity andor novelty norms and Situational demands on cognitive resources We re dependent on others in 2 fundamental ways 1 Profound rewards come from others to be liked loved accepted included in meaningful activities affiliation sex intimacy power money To achieve these often requires influence over submission to ampor cooperation with others 2 Information dependence to predict and control the environment we need to understand it When our frame of reference is unclear we depend on others to give a judgmental framework Very powerful in uence Cognitive Misers We use categorizations to save timeeffort Cognitive Conservatism when beliefs and constructs are well established we are reluctant to change them which gives us a sense of stability and order in the world Concepts are used to infer beyond available information and they are the basis for our schemas heuristics shortcuts Schemas are activated by stimulus features contextual salience prior priming and some may be chronically accessible Availability anything in mind that is accessible on some level Accessibility only a subset of potential cognitionsfeelings are available at any given time invoked schemas often direct attention to selective mental material Social Cognition built on and guided by concepts that allow for classification of objects people behavior and events and permit quick communication Implicit social cognition traces of the past influence present behavior operating out of conscious awareness such that we are unable to evaluate or modify the influence Attribution thoughts about why people behave the way they do Attribution Theory we are motivated to find underlying causes of behavior to make sense of behavior relevant to Life There is not a causal relationship tween all attitudes amp behaviors Dimensions of Causality lnExternal UnStable UnControllable 3 Major Construal Errors 1 failure to appreciate constructed nature of our own perceptions we re not unbiased videoaudio recorders 2 failure to appreciate the variability in other people s construal not everyone hearsfeelssees the same thing 3 we underestimate the power of the situation Especially when cognitively engaged we typically lack awareness of situational constraints have unrealistic expectations inflate categorizations of behavior fail to make situational corrections to dispositional attribution Biases Fundamental attribution error observers overestimate the importance of traits and underestimate the importance of situations when explaining an actor39s behavior believe behavior is caused by one s disposition traits Selfserving bias making attributions that allow a positive evaluation of self Positivity bias see ourselves more positively than others see us and memory for life events is better than events Actorobserver effect we attribute others beh to dispositional causes and own beh to situational causes sun was in my eyes shoes untied Selffulfilling prophesy we behave toward others in a way that causes them to behave in the way we expect confirming our original belief Justworld HypothesisBelief Victim Derogation convincing self that another s fate was deserved Attitudes beliefs or opinions about people objects and ideas Evaluative in nature based on experience and guide some behaviors relatively enduring they have affective behavioral amp cognitive components Elaboration Likelihood Model attitude A occurs via 2 routes Central route important message is processed with close attention and deemed logical and convincing Peripheral route unimportant message given by attractive or expert source receives little attention but changes attitude Factors in changing attitudes Communicator credible honest something to gain attractive well knownpopular expert mature looking Communication is the message logical clear convincing Is there a fear appeal Is it heard repeatedly Medium television facetoface radio print speech Audience open to change committed to a position Impression Management SelfPresentation acting so as to present an image of oneself as a certain type of person Self Monitoring degree of attention one makes to impressions on others and the degree to which one fine tunes performances Cognitive Dissonance Festinger motivation to reduce discomfort dissonance caused by inconsistency in attitude and behavior SelfPerception Theory Bem individuals make inferences about their attitudes by perceiving their behavior Thus attitudes can influence behaviors and vice versa quotThis is my second sandwich I was hungrier than I thoughtquot 7 Social Influence Processes Reciprocity Consistency lngratiationLiking Scarcity Novelty Conformity Authority 1 Reciprocity we try to repay in kind what another person has provided us This rule seems to be universal to all societies and can be explained in anthropological terms as an evolutionary adaptive mechanism Cialdini 93 When given something we feel obligated to do something in return 2 Consistency Our nearly obsessive desire to be and to appear consistent with what we have already done or said 3 lngratiationLiking The idea we most prefer to comply with the requests of people we know and like 4 Scarcity opportunities seem more valuable to us when they are less available 5 Novelty opportunities seem more attractive when they are new or unique 7 Social Influence Processes continued 6 Conformity people like to follow the crowd Reasons for conformity when people agree they re more likely to befeel correct and we all want to be correct we want to be accepted by others and conformity works Asch s Line Experiment showed that with confederates saying an incorrect line was longest z75 of naive subjects would agree at least once and z25 would agree almost all the time However adding 1 confederate who dissented and said it wasn t the longest allowed subjects to dissent as well Overall participants conformed about 37 of the time 7 Social Influence Processes continued 7 Authority idea that people obey those viewed as having high levels of knowledge wisdom and power Opposite is Psychological Reactance when told to do something we do the opposite just to reassert our freedomindependence Milgram s Experiment showed in extraordinary situations people can be made to do things that make them uncomfortable as a direct result of authority Question What percentage of participants would deliver the full 450 volts Milgram asked colleagues and they responded with very small estimates Maybe about 4 Milgram himself didn39t believe anyone would go so far Empirical Answer Of 40 people 68 27 went all the way to 450 volts The confederate learner responded in the following manner to the shocks Voltage Confederate Response 75 Grunts 120 Shouts in pain 150 Says he refuses to continue 200 BIoodcurdling screams 300 Won t answer mumbles about heart condition 330 Dead silence As the participant teacher perceives the learner s pain conscience kicks in and he begins to object to continuing Milgram responds with the following 1st quotHe39s fine go on 2 The experiment requires you to go on 3 quotIt is absolutely essential to go on 4th quotYou have no choice You must go onquot Compliance Footinthedoor agreeing to a lesser commitment we are more likely to then agree to a larger commitment related to lowballing given a great deal the salesperson finds out it can t be given we agree to the Tprice Doorintheface starting with a large unreasonable commitment which is turned down a smaller commitment looks more reasonable by comparison Group Effects on Performance Social Facilitation when a task is simplewelllearned a person s performance improves in the presence of others which increases arousal when a task is complex or unfamiliar a person s performance is hindered because of the presence of others recall YerkesDodson law of arousal Social Loafing tendency of individuals to exert less effort in a group working toward a common goal Diffusion of responsibility tendency to feel less personal responsibility for a task when responsibility is spread across members of a group Prejudice unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on the individual39s membership in a group Stereotype generalization about a group s characteristics that does not consider variation between individuals Discrimination unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of group because she is a member of that group httpwwwqlobaImindshiftorqdiscoverfeaturedasp Altruism unselfish interest in helping someone else Bystander Effect individuals who observe an emergency help less when someone else is present than when they are alone March 27 1964 For at least 32 minutes 38 respectable lawabiding citizens in Queens heard amp watched a killer stalk and stab a woman in 3 separate attacks Twice their chatter and the sudden glow of their bedroom lights interrupted him and frightened him off Each time he returned sought her out and stabbed her again Not one person telephoned the police during the assault one witness called after the woman was dead As the details of the killing emerged it became plain that if any one of the 38 witnesses had simply called the police at the first sign of trouble the victim could have survived Bystander Effect Continued 5step Intervention Model answer no to any of these questions and you will very likely not intervene to help Do you notice something happening Do you interpret it as an emergency Do you take personal responsibility Do you know how to provide the right help Do you choose to implement help Group Information Processing Group polarization strengthening a group s prevailing opinion after discussing the topic tends to solidify opinion Groupthink where the desire for group harmony overrides the need for objective discussion and suppresses dissent and alternative views Risky Shift tendency for a group decision to be riskier than the average decision made by individual group members Deindividuation is a state of consciousness where an individual feels less identifiable and thus less accountable for negative behavior due to immersion in a crowd
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