Intro To Psych
Intro To Psych PSYC 1310
Popular in Course
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ole Bogan on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1310 at East Tennessee State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/221381/psyc-1310-east-tennessee-state-university in Psychology (PSYC) at East Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
I Pg 24 in your book I Surprisingly the answer is FALSE to all 15 questions I But shouldn t common sense indicate that most ofthem are true Common vs Uncommon Sense Takehome message that will be emphasized throughout this course Although common sense can be enormously useful for some purposes it s sometimes completely wrong Keep an open mind when reading about research findings that challenge your common sense and preconceptions Na39I39ve Realism What is naive realism f The beliefthat we see the world precisely as it is Although there are times when we should trust our perceptions appearances can be deceiving ie the earth seems flat In addition nai39ve realism can effect us when it comes to evaluating ourselves and others resulting in erroneous conclusions about human nature El Popular Psychology r TV and movies r Radio r Selfhelp books r Magazines r Internet r Talking with friends 2 Note Although popular psychology has provided access to psychological knowledge it has also resulted in an excess of misinformation because of a lack of quality control Popular Psychology and Misinformation D The industry is a mix of accurate and inaccurate information El You must insist on evidence before you believe a psychological claim or consider something to be true DThe best way to separate the accurate from the inaccurate popular psychology information is SCIENCE Psychology as a Science Science is a toolbox of skills designed to prevent us from fooling ourselvesessentialy a safeguard against bias The scientific community is driven by communalism willingness to share ourfindings with others Researchers must be aware ofand overcome confirmation bias the tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypotheses and neglect or distort evidence that contradicts them Researchers must also avoid belief perseverance the tendency to cling to our beliefs despite contrary evidence The scientific method is a set of safeguards against both ofthese errors CriticalThinking quot Scientific skepticism an approach to evaluating all claims with an openmind but insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them 7 Pathological skepticism a closeminded tendency to dismiss any claims that contradict our beliefs Critical thinking is at the center of scientific skepticism Critical thinking is a set ofskills for evaluating all claims in an openminded and careful fashion CriticalThinking Basic Principles of critical thinking Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence Falsifiability capable of being disproved Occam s Razor if 2 explanations account equally well for a phenomenon we should select the more parsimonious one Replicability a study s findings can be duplicated consistently Rule out rival hypotheses have other plausible explanations been excluded Correlation isn t causation bc 2 variables are correlated does not mean that 1 causes the other Psychological Pseudoscience El Pseudoscience a set of claims that seems scientific but isn t El Metaphysical claims assertions about the world that are unfalsifiable ie the existence ofGod the soul the afterlife These claims cannot be falsified using scientific methods and fall outside the scope of science but differ greatly from pseudoscience Warning Signs of Pseudoscience Overuse of adhoc immunizing hypotheses excuses that defenders of a theory use to protect their theory from being falsified Lack of selfcorrection incorrect claims are held on to despite contrary evidence Exaggerated claims Overreliance on anecdotes secondhand evidence I knew someone who Evasion of peer review Absence of connectivity findings don t seem to build on previous findings 7 Psychobabble overuse of highly scientificpsychological language Pseudoscientific Beliefs quot We are all prone to pseudoscientific beliefs Scientific illiteracy only a small portion ofAmericans can distinguish scientific from pseudoscientific claims quot Rational thinking thinking that relies on careful reasoning and objective analysis Experiential thinking thinking that depends on intuitive judgments and emotional reactions Rational thinking is slow and effortful while experiential thinking is fast and easy quot While both are important and necessary in everyday life we must be sure to differentiate the two when evaluating scientific claims Logical Fallacies in Psychological Thinking El Logical fallacies traps in thinking that can lead to mistaken conclusions Emotional reasoning fallacy error of using our emotions as guides for evaluating the validity of a claim Bandwagon fallacy error of assuming that a claim is correctjust because many people believe it Either0r fallacy error of framing a question as though we can answer it in only 1 of 2 extreme ways Not me fallacy error of believing we re immune from thinking errors that afflict others Bias blind spot lack of awareness of our biases but aware of others biases
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