U.S. To 1877
U.S. To 1877 HIST 2010
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HIST 2010 Study Guide V39 4 9 N gt19 0 9 O D ID I D ID I D I ONUI ALA N 00 N O EXAM 2 Second Continental Congressl Raise an army 2 Need to have something written to get in contact with the King Bunker HillAmericans lose because they ran out of ammo Common Sense Jan 1776 Thomas Pain author Most effective piece of propaganda against the monarch Easy language for American s to read Declaration of Independence What was the authority for asserting that all men are equal Declaration of IndependenceWhat were the inalienable rights Life Liberty Pursuit of Happiness Declaration of IndependenceWhat justified the revolution The men had been elected to write the Declaration American Strategy 7 Revolutionary WarKnew the homeland Militia Warfare British Campaigns in New York New Jersey and PennsylvaniaPlay to the strength of the loyalists Isolate the northern colonies Take control of the Hudson Washington in New Jersey Washington leads the troops to ght Americans run British win Cross the Delaware surprise attack on the British Americans Win Saratoga Burgoyne British officer Gates American Officer Benedict Arnold Gates Assistant The rst day of battle the British seemed to win But the Americans would defeat Burgoyne he surrenders First decisive win for Americans Allies of America in the Revolutionary WarFrance Spain Netherlands The league of Armed Neutrality7 nations They protected the Americans ships if attacked at sea CherokeeFormed a collation with the British Were to attack the Americans at the Battle of Long Island Flats Kings s Mountain surround Ferguson Makes mad dash down the mountain Gets killed The rest of this troop are captured and surrendered Yorktowntrapped the British The Americans lay siege to Yorktown Treaty of Paris 1873marks the end of the war Meet with other nations Americans become recongnized Colonies will be called states Articles of Confederation There was no Executive branch it could not taX State Constitutions republicanismgov by the authority of the people Balance of power bill of rights Suffrage limited Slavery issuenorthem states emancipation laws Vermontslavery illegal Pennabolishes slavery Northwest Ordinances 1785 1787 5000 men to be aterritory 60000 inhabitance they have a gov but can t vote in laws Slavery prohibited in northwest territory J ayGardoqui Treatybetter access to the river After 25 years they will consider lowering barter Shay s Rebellionmass In debt raising taxes on small farmers Shay organizes farmers they start burning court house to get ride of their records The Great Compromise2 senators per state 35 s clause every slave counted at 353911 ofa person To allow the southern states to have the same person count as the northern states U U U 4 LA LAMB OOO J J bl D I CW 4 International Slave TradeAfter 20 years there would be a ban of international slave trade Article 1 Sect 18legislatice powers will be controlled by congress What the legislative branch can do Article II Sect 23 President and vice president Recess appointments Article III Sect 12federal courts trial by jury F ederalistPapers published to get more Americans to want the constitution That is was going to be a good gov they explained why the articles of confederation didn t work The Bill of Rightswas included to have basic rights for all people Amendment Ifreedom of speech religion and press Amendment IIright to bear arms Amendment V right to a fair trial Innocent until proven guilty Hamilton s Economic ProgramThe Bank of the United States Revote every 10 years to see ifbank is needed Loose vs Strict Interpretationif it is not speci ed then it is not what the founding fathers wanted Whiskey Rebelliontax on whiskey GW wanted to establish authority lead a group of men to en the rebellion French Revolutionwashington tried to remain independent jay s treaty mixed support Development of Political Parties HamiltonFederalists Northern merchants small business owners n the north Loosely interoperated the constitution Thomas JeffersonRepublican They supported the whiskey rebellion Supported France Strict interpretation Southern Western farmers Washington s Farewell Addressl Keep unity of government 2 Avoid foreign promises and alliances 1796 ElectionJohn Adams is elected president XYZ affair2 federalists l republican show up at the French gov Alien and Sedition ActsWas to repress the republicans Alien Act gives president power to arrest and deport any illegal alien Sedition Act illegal to criticize government Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions The Issue of the Virginia and Kentucky ResolutionsThey declare the laws unconstitutional Nullifying the laws Election of 1800jefferson wins because of the tie in electoral votes The house of representatives votes Jefferson in to presidency Jefferson stood forA small government A nonintrusive government A government that honored individual freedoms Midnight Judges midnight hour appointments They did everything in their power to keep power in the republicans 44 M arbury vMadz39son gave Supreme Court judicial review Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the US Peaceful equitation Red river to Canada down the Mississippi River Lewis and Clark s EXpeditionGoalfind a way to go by sea east to west Had to take smaller boars by land to meet up with the snake river Then meet up with the ON UI Columbia where they spent their second winter Split up on the way back to nd other river route but no luck Jefferson s Embargohurt the US more than England US will not import or sell European products Nor will they export items to Europe War Hawkswere from the west and south All com into power in 1810 They want war with Britain The increased the my The Battle of New OrleansThe US looses the Battle of New Orleans AdamsOnis Treaty of 1819 Missouri Compromise The Monroe Doctrine 1824 ElectionAndrew Jackson democratic Republican John Q Adams National Republican No clear majority Components of Henry Clay s American System a national back Protective tariff Internal improvements Henry Clay s American System The Erie Canal Lowell Plants Andrew Jackson The Common Man war hero Self made manknew how to manage his money Individualism The Trail of TearsCherokee Indians Troops forced the Indians from Georgian to what is now Oklahoma Nullification Crisis south thought high tariff hurt the cotton business Doctrine of Nullification the right as president to force the law Jackson s Bank Warsheld federal funds Sold gov bonds Made commercial loans Controlled state banks Separate Sphereswomenstay in the home Homemaker Men going out and working outside the home The Second Great Awakeningappeal to the emotions Spread inthe west and settled areas Armenian in doctrine The temperance movement alcohol William Lloyd Garrisonpublished The Liberator First antislavery journal 66 Differences of Whigs and Democrats Democrats southwest middle class farmers No gov interference Slavery Anti temperance Small gov army Whigs New England upperclass factories active gov for temperance anitslavery large anny Kelley Bumgarner Section 004 Seat 103 Document 45 Words of the Bewitched Pg 76 1Cotton Mather 1692 published in 1991 The intended audience was those in the towns reading about the witch trials that were going on 2Reading and Discussion 1 I There were many person s who came forth with testimonies again Bishop back during this time word of mouth was a main source of evidence against a person Because Bishop pled not guilty this allowed the court to bring in many people to testify against her The reason everything that Bishop had done that involved witchcraf only came out in 1692 and not before then is because no one had a way to explain the occurrences Then after others had been accused of witchcraft then those who had taken notice of similarities in the actions figured Bishop also was performing witchcraf According to her accusers she had a number of instances where she had witch like occurrences One instance is where her shape appeared and tormented the person or persons Other times where her shape would appear and it would bite hit or abuse the person I believe the reason the town would place blame on someone rather that reasoning with chance or accident is because people like to be able to have a solid reasoning to explain what happened It makes things easier to cope with if you have a reason to what happened rather than just having to deal with the what if ofthe reason of chance A Bishop s gender to me played a huge role considering 45th of the 300 people that were accused ofwitchcraft were women The reason the poppets were used as evidence against her is because the poppets look to be vodo dolls Which is how most people could assume that it is how Bishop attacks people without her actually being there in person A Being a man would help protect a person from being accused of witchcraft since the majority of the accused were women 80 you can pretty much assume that if you are a women and something strange happened around 1692 to you that more than likely you d get accused of being a witch Also if word gets out then once one person believes that you have committed witchcraft then they will convince others of the same 3 I m a big fan of reading about the Salem witch trials so I found the document to be very interesting I thought it was funny how not one of the people giving a testimony had any recent accounts against Bishop everything was from years before witchcraft even came into the picture 14 We had smaller army but we learned how to fight bravely and we were organized we had the Marine Corps Americans won the war 16 Huge number of people that hear there s lots of gold in CA and rush to go there Minors did not make money in the gold rush People who knew how to design a pan and tools made money merchants bankers etc they were told if they put a pan in the stream they would see gold so many went to do that By 1850 village grew from 150 people to 50 thousand Crime rate went up CA came in as a state the pop grew rapidly city of SF was developed and not many people made money off of gold 17 People joined together and joined utopian communities Up to 1800 the north and south had many similarities common ancestors from Europe Great Britain and Western Europe they all spoke English predominantly protestant Christian What makes these two regions become very diff The N develops manufacturing the S develops labor forces Nfree labor Sslaves this is what divides this country South separated into three sections Deep lower south FL SC GA AL MS TX Upper south TN NC VA ARKANSAS Border states DEL MD KY MISSOURI Slaves outnumber whites More than half lived in the Deep South 64 of all white southerners did not own slaves Planter class were the minority but they were dominant in society they controlled their wives and families 75 of all slaves men women and children all had to work in the fields to make money for the planter Child mortality was estimated to be twice that ofwhites They died ofinfectious diseases poor living conditions and parasitic conditions Life expectancy ofwhites in the south weren t much better anyone could get disease Death of a spouse was the primary reason for the end ofa marriage second reason is being sold reasons for slave families being broken up Most slave children grew up in a two parent home HIST 2010 Study Guide for Test Three 54 tquot NF EJ39P 9 p t M NH CW Factors of economic growth in the mid 1800 s Shift from farm to city 16 major cities in the north 1 major city in the south John Deere s plow the singing plow ususe of39 39 39 39 American System of production Railroad growth in the 1850 s iron coal telegraph Free Labor movement Free to quit not slaves Immigrants Cheap labor workers Germany will bene t Ireland will not John L O Sullivan American columnist and editor who marketed the term Manifest Destiny to promote the annexation of texas and the Oregon trail Manifest Destiny expansion driven by pride and nationalism Move to the west The Oregon Trail Oregon fever desire for land 2quotd and 3rd sons of families Woman has many responsibilities parts Mass Mormons Joseph Smith His followers believe that n angle had given him golden plates and he published the Book of Mormon Mormons Brigham Young known for polygamy practice President of LDS church Founder of Salt Lake City Battles for Texas Independence The Alamo Golidad more Texans are killed San Jacinto Immediate Cause of the Mexican war The Rio Grande Incident started in 1846 Opponents of the Mexicali War Northern Whigs condemned the war as the bulling of the weak neighbor It was fought to extend slavery strengthen slave power and a way of obtaining control of the free states Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo US acquired Texas Paid 15 million to the Mexicans California Gold Rush not many people made money of the gold rush States located in the Upper South Lower South and the Border states Upper S0uthTNNCARVA Lower S0uth GAFLALLATXMSSC Border States DEMDKYMO Reasons for the expansion of the Cotton Kingdom Cotton Gin Expansion west Pro t Margin Public school systems in the south Planter class dominated in society but minority in the land Mortality among black children They were not friends they were taught like animals to survive like animals The harder they worked the better they were treated Where slaves worked women could work in the house or field Men worked in the field Family life of slaves men acted as husbands women acted as wives They created their own community and culture Nat Turner gathered revolting slaves Killed 57 white men women and children Slave owners 26 27 N 00 N O M O M N 93930 M hillB M M l M 00 uhuhuhuhm MNHCW uh uh UI uh uhuh IQ uhuh W00 Southern defense of the slave system It is needed to keep the cotton production kept up with the growing country How slavery affected everyone U3 of the south s population was enslaved The south depended on slavery for their cotton production The north was completely against slavery which caused con ict Free Soil Party Martin Van Buren slavery not allowed in the territory No African Americans in the territory Presidential campaign of 1848 Democrats adopted a platform that avoided a rm position on slavery in the territories Whigs were antislavery Free Soil Party s platform was free soli free speech free labor and free men the Great Debate of 1850 slave trade ended in Washington DC Stronger fugitive slave laws to be enforced the controversy over the Compromise of 1850 Texas as a slave state or free state The Compromise of 1850 Slave trade ended in Washington DC Stronger fugitive slave laws to be enforced Uncle T 0m s Cabin The story that told the true life of a slave Harriet beecher stowe Split in churches Kansas Nebraska Act reopened the issue of slavery in the expansion the American Party know nothing antiimmigrant antiirish anticatholic They were opposed to drinking Party split over the slave issue the Republican Party northern whigs freesoilers reformers Minority wanted to do something about existing slavery No southern support Bleeding Kansas Kansas split 5050 over slavery Indians forced to leave Election in dispute John Brown lead a group w guns killing ghting the pro slavery men Dred Scott decision Scott will remain a slave even though his owner is dead the Panic of 1857 mild recession Caused mainly foreign Sectionalism the Lincoln Douglas Debate Lincoln wins the debate John Brownhated slavery Republican Party s platform protection of American Industry ithe union must and shall be preserved 7 no secession 7 no slavery in the expansion the Election of 1860 4 candidates The democratic party had a split party Lincoln wins election Secession The south secedes from the north Jefferson Davis is elected president of the new nation South Carolina was the first to secede Lincoln s Inaugural Address March 1816 cautious and moderate Upper Southern States VAAKTNNC join the confederacy after the fall of fort Sumter Border States DEMDKYMO went to the union Comparative strengths of the North and the South south had power over the cotton industry without cotton But the north had power over basically everything else European support for the war Confederacy was going to boycott the sale of cotton to Europe to get them on their side Ul 5 0 0 5 0 6 6 MN South s financial dif culties south only had cotton and fa1mers North had everything else and more people Southern strategy Defense and stalemate OffensiveDefensive Win by not losing N01thern strategy Blockade and Invade Anaconda Planto cut off the Mississippi split the south in two and set up a blockade so the south would eventually run out of supplies Theaters 0f the Civil War East south trying to take over Washington DC West whoever controlled the river controlled the west TransMiss West take control of the Mississippi river Sea northMonitor vs south Merrimack North blockaded the southern coastline Battle of Bull Run Southemers it con rmed the superiority of rebel ghting men and the inevitability of confederate nationhood Taught Lincoln that victory would neither be quick or easy Antietam Bloodiest battle More men died in it than the Revolutionary war South thought they would win and be able to take over Washington DC but lost 57 Grant s campaign in the west 58 the Emancipation Proclamation 59 60 61 Steps toward freedom of slaves African Amelich troops in the Union Peace Democrats A1mistice and a negotiated peace Opposed tariff Racist Opposed Draft Gettysburg East Battle Union wins Vicksburg West Battle Pemberton39s surrender ended the Vicksburg Campaign 64 65 Grant s 1864 offensive Deaths in the Civil War HIST 2010 Supplement notes Chapter 8 The Confederation s Problems The Confederation s Problems 262 Financial Chaos anal Paper Money 263 Remember the Confederation government had severe nancial problems Continental dollars had almost no real value The colonial economy was devastated by the war In ation began and prices soared There was not much hard cash currency Continental dollars lost value In ation usually occurs when currency loses its value its worth Debt Some estimates were that the US owed as much as 50 million The real problem with the Articles of Confederation was that the states had all the economic functions The government could do nothing The Government was paralyzed They had no source of money there was no way to regulate trade and we had large trade deficit Shay s Rebellion 269 The trouble began in Massachusetts Western farmers were close to ruin The lower house of Massachusetts tried to ease their problems with a law containing relief measures Massachusetts had one of the strongest and fiscally conservative upper houses in the country and continually vetoed laws passed by the lower house to ease farmers plights In 1786 as more and more farmers were losing their farms because they could not pay the taxes a taX revolt began Daniel Shay a small farmer who was in debt led it 2000 farmers rose in armed rebellion stormed county court houses to burn the mortgages They were stopped but the event scared the founding fathers of our country The farmers were respectable members who felt mistreated by their government who had failed to protect their property See page 271 about the reaction of the older reactionaries such as George Washington and Benjamin Franklin The United States Constitution 271 From Annapolis to Philadelphia 271 Constitutional convention carefully read pages 271 7 273 Note who attended the Constitutional Convention The delegates to this Convention created a Constitution based upon many compromises Compromises In text book read page 274 carefully Representation 7 Large States vs Small states The Virginia and New Jersey plans were proposed as a solution to the questions about how to balance representation fair to both large and small states and northern and southern states The Great Compromise proposed by Ben Franklin nally resolved this Representation would be equal in the Senate each state would have two and in the House of Representatives representation would be based on population Representation 7 Slave vs Free The discussion about population brought up a debate on exactly who would be counted The decision was the threefifth clause a slave was to count as three fths of a free person in the calculation of population this became a euphemism for slavery The word doesnot appear in the constitution Slavery as an institution Certain decisions were made in an attempt to appease both slave owners and nonslave owners There would be no ban on importation for 20 years international slave trade This would stop after 20 years Fugitive provisions were included The return of runaway slaves was guaranteed D m J vs I 39 quot 39 275 The 39 would have total decision via elections for congressmen which would be held every 2 years There would be limited decision via the Senate Initially Senators were to be elected for a 6 year term by the state legislators The Electoral College was established for the election of the President Each state would have their total number of senators plus representatives determining the Number of electors These would then elect the president Christianity and the Constitution 280 Provisions of the Constitution See A7 Please carefully note Preamble Article 1 Sections 1 8 Article 11 Sections 2 3 Article III Sections 1 2 Rati cation of the Constitution 275 It was agreed that the constitution would go into effect after 9 states approved it Special conventions were held where the people could vote directly on it The Phrase quotwe the people in order to form a more perfect unionquot began the constitution as a way of explaining it In three of the most populous states many opposed the idea of creating a strong national government Two groups emerged The F ederalists This group was strongly in favor of the constitution Among their members were George Washington Thomas Jefferson James Madison Alexander Hamilton John Jay The federalists supported a strong central government The Anti federalism The AntiFederalists Some of the problems this group had was a fear of a loss of republicanism direct voice in government They felt that the expansion of the central government would lead to a corrupt and arbitrary rule of the elite The country was too big to keep direct oversight Remember the Articles of Confederation differed radically from the Constitution The Antifederalists favored a confederation They feared the distant power of a strong central government might infringe on people s liberties They had many fears 7 a single member of Congress could not know his constituency It favored the elite it might lead to having one inconvenient polling place that would be inaccessible there were no guarantees of personal freedoms No real mention of the rights of citizens etc The Big Holdouts Virginia and New York 279 Virginia although Washington Jefferson and Madison were from there there was a huge antifederalist group led by Patrick Henry George Mason They were finally won over by the Federalist arguments New York Alexander Hamilton and John Jay were F ederalists but the governor George Clinton feared a state as large as New York would give up too much They were promised a Bill of Rights and voted for the constitution The Federalist Papers 2 79 written by John Jay Madison and Alexander Hamilton These papers clearly explained the failure of the Articles of Confederation and explained how a largescale government could work They argued that a large and diverse population was a guarantee of liberty That way no single faction or selfinterest group would ever be strong enough By 1790 all of the states had rati ed the Constitution Richa Shah December 2 2010 History Notes 43 Republican Party s Platform Abraham Lincoln was the one that ran under the Republican Party 44 The Election of 1860 Republican Party stuck together but the other party split in 4 ways Abraham Lincoln won 45 Secession The American territory where the south was becomes Confederate States of America South Carolina seceded from this 46 Lincoln s Inaugural Address He was inaugurated in March He would not allow the slavery to expand He appealed to southerners His inaugural address was not affective Right after this address Fort Sumter bombing happened 47 Upper Southern States The four upper south states decided to join in with the rest of the south The entire state of TN seceded from the Union Arkansas joined and seceded from the Union North Carolina does the same thing Virginia 48 Border States Delaware has less than 2 of their population that owned slaves so they voted and stayed with the Union Maryland does not secede from the Union Kentucky decided they would be neutral but did not secede from the Union Missouri stays in the Union So all four Border States stay in the Union 49 F 39 strengths of the North and the South Border States have adequate railroad lines The North had the clear advantage in everything except cotton North were strong in industry factory production textile production firearm railroad iron coal livestock etc South believed their strength was their morale Lincoln didn t need to go to school His books were his school He would read certain books and if he didn t know certain information he would look that up by reading another book He educated himself and soon started educating himselfabout laws and such He turns out to be a masterful politician He was very funny and full of humor 50 Republican Party s platform He ran on a platform on supporting industry supporting tariff keeps the territories free of slavery He didn t want war department to be increased but it did Edward Stanton become head of war dept He was good at financing war used war bonds He printed paper money for the first time He got green backs printed green on one side and white on the other He passed an income tax He was taxing the wealthy mainly Jefferson Davis was the president of the Confederate states of America He had a lot more experience than Lincoln He created the country confederate states of America and based their entire constitution on the articles of confederation Not a good idea because he could not tax money which was part of the articles He couldn t tax but he started printing money anyway which increases inflation rate South s inflation rate was at first 12 in the beginning of the war and 9000 at the end of the civil war South had hoped to build factories but there were problems with coal etc Civil war was huge It was nicknamed the Brother war It was the first modern war South will use submarines war will used railroads steampowered ships telegraphs battles were bought all the way from VA to Santa Fe 51 European support for the war 55 Theaters of the Civil War War is divided into four fronts Fourth one was the sea and North had the clear advantage Eastern front was Appalachian Mtns to sea near NC and SC Western front is between App Mtns and Miss River TransMiss West Front which goes all the way to Santa Fe North had clear advantage here North has advantage on war materials In the first two years of the war North takes over MissArkansas side They are slowly squeezing the south Only two major battles fought on the Eastern front They moved the confederate capital from Montgomery to Richmond First battle was called First Bull Run