U.S. since 1877
U.S. since 1877 HIST 2020
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The Vietnam War 19551975 USin Uniform N UNIFORM AND IN COUNTRY viexnanr Vex 7 at meir generaliun 3037990 m ary persnnnel served on anive duty during me Vietnam Era Aug 5 1354May 7 1375 3744990 Gl5 were on anive duty during me war Aug 51354 March 231373 3403190 I nclu 514390 wffshnre persnnnel served me 50m asmsia rneaxer Viema a95 Camhndia fligm crews based in Thailand and sailnrs in adjacem 5mm China 39 waxers 39 2534990 persnnnel servedw nme hurders at Snulhvietnam Jan1 1355 7 March 23 ne n h n m 39 n 407 59 eixnerleugm in annmax pnw dedclnse suppnn M were ax leasx fairly regularly expnsedm enenry anaak 7434 warnen 5250 Dr 335 were nurses served in Viemam Peak mmp sxrengm in Viemam 543432 April 301353 Statistics for Vietnam War CASUALTIES Hostile death 378 Nonhostile deaths 10800 Total 58202 Includes men formerly classi ed as MIA Men who have subsequently died of wounds account for the changing total 8 nurses died 1 was KIA Married men killed 17539 61 of the men killed were 21 or younger Highest state death rate West Virginia 841 national average 589 for every 100000 males in 1970 Wounded 303704 153329 hospitaliled 150375 injured requiring no hospital care Severely disabled 75000 23214 100 abled 5283 lost limbs 1081 sustai ed multiple amputations Another Issue with Containment Southeast Asia d uring WWII a Vietnamese nationalist named Ho Chi Minh had founded a coalition called the Vietminh The goal of Ho Chi Minh was to fight both the occupyin Japanese and the French colonial rulers Since Ho Chi Minh declared himself a Communist the Truman ad ministration quietly bepn to give aid to the French Communism in Vietnam Eisenhower saw Communism in Vietnam much as Truman had viewed its threat in Greece A Domino Theory By 1954 the US was contributing 75 of the cost of France39s war in Vietnam but the US refused to play a larger role When France asked for more planes Eisenhower said quotNoquot Hnimm my l lmm m A mlquotV mm g3 mm 3nn 1 Inlle The US and Vietnam 1954 the French colony in Dien Bien Phu fell to the Communist Two months later in Geneva France signed a truce Some officials warned against the US involvement in Vietnam September 1954 the US along with Britain France Australia New Zealand Thailand Pakistan and the Philippines committed to the defense of Cambodia Laos and South Vietnam Gun 1 I limluml Phu l 4 nl m m Mm rmm mm Buan M L39Amu mA TlLum a H I h quot c vistl 39a39nfi g f F re litl zwlw TU Oul who l J er Tram VT Cam my l l Znnlmli Mariam m The US and South Vietnam The US then began to send weapons and military advisors to South Vietnam The US also sent in the CIA to work infiltrating and destabilizing North Vietnam Between 19551961 the US provided 800 million to the South Vietnamese Army The Army of the Republic of Vietnam or the ARVN THAILAND Kennedy and Vietnam By the time Kennedy took office more than 1 billion in aid and 700 US military advisors had failed to stabilize South Vietnam Two major obstacles 1 South Vietnamese insurgents called Vietcong their power came from within not Russia or China 2 the South Vietnamese government and army refused to satisfy the demands of the insurgents but could not defeat them militarily 2mquot s 9 l m 151 M um v 39 5mm emo g 5 a marmes gt3 Hangman l Fmgmaer r 0 Vietnam 1960 the Hanoi government North Vietnam established the National Liberation Front composed of South Vietnamese rebels but directed by the northern army Hanoi also constructed a network of infiltration routes called the Ho Chi Minh Trail in neighboring Laos and Cambodia through which it sent people and supplies to help liberate the south Violence escalated between 1960 1963 bringing the Saigon South Vietnam government close to collapse Ken nedy s Decision 0 Kennedy takes the middle ground gradually escalating the US commitment Spring 1963 military aid had doubled and the 9000 Americans serving in Vietnam as military advisors occasionally participated in actual combat Vietnam The war in Vietnam was different than any the US had experienced Advanced weapons were ill suited to the guerilla warfare ofthe enemy November 23 1963 President Kennedy was assassinated The War on Vietnam would be handed over to LBJ President Johnson and Vietnam Most international leaders at this time did not consider Vietnam to be vital to stopping communism French President Charles de Gaulle openly challenged US policy Most of his advisors wanted the president to reconvene the Geneva Conference that partitioned Vietnam in 1954 39 Johnson ignored the PresidentJohnson in Vietnam opportunity to disengage and instead expanded the US militaryinvolvement in Vietnam Johnson wanted to keep the US promise to South Vietnam and he also wanted to save face himself He agonized over sending troops to Vietnam Johnson and Vietnam August 1964 Johnson continued to dispatch military advisors weapons and economic aid During a routine espionage mission in the Gulf of Tonkin off the coast of North Vietnam two US destroyers reported that North Vietnamese gunboats had fired on them on August 2 and 4 Johnson and Vietnam After the attacks Johnson ordered air strikes on North Vietnamese torpedo bases and oil storage facilities Johnson also sought the approval of Congress There is some debate as to whether or not Johnson covered up whether or not the second attack actually happened President Johnson and Vietnam Soon after winning re election Johnson widened the war He rejected peace overtures from North Vietnam which insisted on US withdrawal and a coalition government in South Vietnam Johnson began a bombing campaign Operation Rolling Thunder 1965 this bombing campaign of North Vietnam was known as Operation Rolling Thunder Less than a month later Johnson ordered the first US combat troops to South Vietnam July Johnson shifted from defensive to offensive operations dispatching 50000 more soldiers The War Escalates During Operation Rolling Thunder from 19651968 the US gradually escalated attacks against the North Vietnamese and their Vietcong allies Over the course of the War US pilots dropped 32 million tons of explosives more than we dropped in all ll 7 of WWII The War in Vietnam Because there was no battlefront as in previous wars officials calculated progress in body counts and kill ratios this meant the number of enemies killed relative to the cost of American lives This war also had teenagers in the battle Vietnam War 1967 the Johnson administration doubted the effectiveness of this war Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara a principal architect of US involvement now believed that the North Vietnamese would never quit no matter how much we bombed them Vietnam War January 30 1968 a critical turning point came with the Tet Offensive The North Vietnamese and the Vietcong had attacked key cities and every major American base in South Vietnam This was the biggest surprise of the war Both sides had observed a truce during the Vietnamese New Year holiday called Tet Militarin the enemy suffered a defeat losing more than 30000 Tet Offensive The Tet Offensive underscrored the credibility gap between official statements and the war s actual progress The attacks created a million more South Vietnamese refugees President Johnson s approval fell to 26 PostTet Offensive March 31 1968 President Johnson announced on television that the US would reduce bombing in North Vietnam and prepare to begin peace talks Then Johnson announced that he would not be running for re election Negotiations began in Paris in May 1968 The US would not agree to recognize the Hanoi government39s National Liberation Front and would not agree to withdraw North Vietnam would settle for no less Fighting continued Nixon and Vietnam 0 Richard Nixon won the election of 1968 he then aggressively pursued the war in Vietnam Nixon expanded the fighting into Cambodia and Laos and ferociously began bombing North Vietnam Nixon in Vietnam 19691972 Nixon and Kissinger pursued a four pronged approach to Vietnam 1 They tried to strengthen the South Vietnamese military and government 2 Disarm the antiwar movement at home 3 Negotiated with both North Vietnam and the Soviet Union 4 The military applied heavy bombing to persuade Hanoi to accept American terms at the bargaining table Nixon and Vietnam Spring 1969 Nixon began a major air war in Cambodia carefully hiding it from Congress and the public for more than a year Duringthe fouryears that it took Nixon to end the war he had increased battle significantly Congress passed the War Powers Act in 1973 requiring the president to report to Congress within 48 hours of deploying military forces abroad This law did little to gain US civilian trust back Vietnam War The Long pursuit of victory in Vietnam complicated the US relationship with other nations Great Britain doubted our ability to conduct sound foreign relations The cruelest legacy of Vietnam fell on the soldiers who were greeted with un opened arms The guerilla war nature of the war made combat especially brutal Vietnam was America s longest war The US spent 150 billion dollars and sent 26 million young men 1973 Nixon and Kissinger bowed to the resolutions of the enemy and the limits of US power Chapter 27 quotThe Politics and Culture of Abundance 19521960 The Cold War Heats Up 124 126 1237 North and South Korea Cho 9 75 km June 1950 the Cold War becomesashooting war china Troops from Communist North Korea invaded South Korea Thiswasthefirsttime that America went into battle to implement its policyofcontainment Thisalso marked the militarization of American foreign policy The Korean War The War sprang from 1 the artificial division of Korea after WWII 2 longstanding divisions among the Korean people During WWII the Japanese who had controlled Korea since 1904 were expelled Artificial Division of Korea The US and the Soviets 1 created two occupation zones separated by the 39 38th parallel SOVIETS supported the Korean Communist Party in the North UNITED STATES supported the Korean in ii SOUTH I KOREA 3 n 75 150 mlles v 39 quot l s z Democratic Pa rt in the 5 y lnlerna onal UN oifenswe boundaries 1950 Sept Nov 1950 S O u t h North Korean invasion E Communist Chinese minesepi 1950 onensive Nov 1950 Jan 1951 Korea Neither the US nor the Soviet Union could agree upon a unification plan so in July 1948 the UN sponsored elections in South Korea SOUTH KOREA Syngman Rhee A Korean Nationalist was elected and the US withdrew most of its troops NORTH KOREA Fall 1948 the Soviets est the People s Republic of North Korea under Kim sung and the Soviets also withdrew Korean Civil War June 1950 civil war turned into an international war when 90000 North Koreans swept into South Korea Kim sung was the main instigator sung wanted to be the champion of Korean unification June 30 President Truman decides to intervene Korean Intervention 16 nations including many NATO allies sent troops to Korea The US furnished most of the personnel and weapons deploying almost 18 million troops and dictating military strategy President Truman had failed to ask Congress for a declaration of war therefore Truman s critics called the war quotTruman s War Invasion of Korea The first American soldiers into Korea were unprepared and illequipped The US were heavily defeated in the first three months of the war By September 1950 General MacArthur launched a counteroffensive By midOctober the US had pushed North Korea back to the 38th parallel The Then became invade North Korea or unify the entire country The US Decision I For the first time during the Cold War the US tried to roll back communism I September 27 1950 Truman authorized MacArthurto cross the 38 H parallel I Fearing an invasion from China andorthe Soviet Union the President urged the General to keep the UN troops away from the ChinaKorean border LLSJn General MacArthur ignored the President39s warning The General sent the UN forces to within 40 miles of the When the troops approached the Yalu River separating China from rea there were 300000 Chinese soldiers waiting on the other side The Chinese troops stormed acrossthe border and helped h North Koreans push bac the UN troops Korea a a wow SM 5 F39voueuuc Nam m a smm Kmst H u 1 P Inmuniom From RollBack to Containment General Matthew B Ridgway turned the tide again UN forces fought their way back to the 38th parallel after 3 months of battle Truman decided to seek a negotiated settlement General MacArthur was furious he felt that reverting back to containment meant defeat General MacArthur MacArthur was enraged he took his case to the public challenging the president s authority to conduct foreign policy and the principle of civilian control ofthe military Truman fired MacArthur in 1951 MacArthur s frustration also articulated America s frustration Why do we just not destroy the enemy President Truman and Re Election Congress investigated the firing of MacArthur but they backed the president Truman however was never able to regain his popularity Ceasefire negotiations began in July 1952 with Korea Popular discontent with President Truman s war boosted Republican candidates in the 1952 elections Election of 1952 Republicans Dwight D Eisenhower his Vice Presidential candidate was Richard M Nixon Democrats Adlai E Stevenson Vice Presidential candidate was John Sparkman President Eisenhower 18901969 Played football for West Point where he injured his knee badly Married Mamie Doud Decorated war hero During WWII Ike was promoted to General Died of a heart attack End of Korean War President Eisenhower made good on his promise to end the Korean war July 1953 the two sides reached an armistice that left Korea divided again at the 38th parallel North and South Korea were separated by a two and a halfmile demilitarized zone By 1953 defense spending accounted for 60 of the federal budget President Eisenhower 0 Moderation defined Eisenhower s domestic agenda and leadership style He supported the continuation and even the expansion of some of the New Deal policies Nicknamed quotIkequot by his friends and the public he was a wellliked war hero Modern Republicanism President Eisenhower wanted Modern Republicanism resist additional federal intervention in social and economic affairs but do not run the clock back to the 19205 move forward instead President Eisenhower Tried to distance himself from the Communist plague However he intensified Truman s loyalty program ensuring that all government employees were loyal Regarding the issue ofJoseph McCarthy Eisenhower allowed him to hang himself McCarthy began to attack military personnel and he became unpopularwith the public December 1954 a Senate vote condemned McCarthy Eisenhower and Conservative Republicans He felt that the government was best left in the hands of the state officials and that economic decisions were best left to private business If all Americans want is security they can go to prison comment on social welfare in 1949 Eisenhower The President s greatest domestic initiative was The Interstate Highway and Defense System Act Promoted as essential to national defense and important to economic growth The construction ofa national highway system was put forth where the federal government would pay most of the costs through increased fuel and vehicle tax New Highways Road trips to new places became easier Goods moved more quickly around the natiOn Suburban expansion Rise of fast food chains Motels PollutiOn decline of railroads Eisenhower and Native Americans Eisenhower took a new direction with the Native Americans His new policy reversed the emphasis on strengthening tribal governments and preserving Indian culture The new plan was now assimilation Native Americans By 1960 the government had implemented a 3part program of compensation termination and relocation 1946 Congress est the Indian Claims Commission to discharge outstanding claims by Native Americans for land lost to the government Closed in 1978 the Commission had settled 285 cases with 800 million in compensation Native Americans and Termination 1953 Eisenhower signed two bills transferring jurisdiction over tribal land to state and local governments the loss of federal hospitals schools and other special arrangements devastated Indian tribes Native American Relocation 1948 began as a pilot program and involved more than 100000 Native Americans by 1973 The Government encouraged the Native Americans to migrate to the cities and then provided them with a oneway ticket Eisenhower and Foreign Policy To meet his goais of baiancingthe budget and cutting taxes Eisenhower beiieved he must controi miiitary expenditures Eisenhower s defense strategy concentrates US miiitary strength in nuciear weapons Instead ofspending iarge amounts for ground forces the US wouid give friendiy nations American weapons and back 39 h a nuciear arsenai This new pian became known as Eisenhower s New Lookquot The New Look Nuclear Weapons could not stop a Soviet nuclear attack but in response the US would be able to inflict serious damage This threat of a quotmassive retaliation was designed to deter the Soviets from launching an attack Another Issue with Containment Southeast Asia d uring WWII a Vietnamese nationalist named Ho Chi Minh had founded a coalition called the Vietminh The goal of Ho Chi Minh was to fight both the occupyin Japanese and the French colonial rulers Since Ho Chi Minh declared himself a Communist the Truman ad ministration quietly bepn to give aid to the French Communism in Vietnam Eisenhower saw Communism in Vietnam much as Truman had viewed its threat in Greece A Domino Theory By 1954 the US was contributing 75 of the cost of France39s war in Vietnam but the US refused to play a larger role When France asked for more planes Eisenhower said quotNoquot Hnimm my HalM m m r m AMIoDlA Hr pm L mlnt mm 39 g3 mm nann u mug The US and Vietnam 1954 the French colony in Dien Bien Phu fell to the Communist Two months later in Geneva France signed a truce Some officials warned against the US involvement in Vietnam September 1954 the US along with Britain France Australia New Zealand Thailand Pakistan and the Philippines committed to the defense of Cambodia Laos and South Vietnam Gun 1 I limluml Phu l 4 nl m m Mm rmm mm Buan M L39Amu mA TlLum a H I h quot c vistl 39a39nfi g f F re litl zwlw TU Oul who l J er Tram VT Cam my l l Znnlmli Mariam m The US and South Vietnam The US then began to send weapons and military advisors to South Vietnam The US also sent in the CIA to work infiltrating and destabilizing North Vietnam Between 19551961 the US provided 800 million to the South Vietnamese Army The Army of the Republic of Vietnam or the ARVN THAILAND Intervention in Latin America and the Middle East As the US was trying to buttress friendly governments in Asia the 39 1 w Fatah Eisenhower administration MoreyMn a also had other issues to contend with lxcan a Sar n 739 In Latin America the v 3553 l Guatemala 9 l C b government of Guatemala quotEM EW W quot under the popularly elected momma I 39 quot Ima nan Ell presndent Jacobo Arbenz amalgam 39quot 332 GU ale m a l a 39 Juugpa oynlam 4 E5 3 Cwlapa nz H mm Mazalenango was accepting support from the local Communist Party although he claimed he was V 5mm E SH W quot not a Communist The US and Guatemala 1953 Arbenz moved to help landless poverty stricken peasants by nationalizing land owned but not cultivated by the United Fruit Company United Fruit Company was a US Corporation whose annual profits were twice the size of the Guatemalan government s budget The United Fruit Company United Fruit refused Arbenz s offer to compensate it at the value ofthe land the company had declared for tax purposes The CIA organized an opposition army that overthrew the elected government and installed a military dictatorship in 1954 UF kept its land Guatemala succumbed to a series of destructive civil wars that lasted throughout the 1990s The US and Cuba 1959 Cuban s desire for political and economic autonomy erupted American companies had long controlled major Cuban resources sugar tobacco and mines 1959 Fidel Castro led an uprising against the US supported dictator Fulgencio Batista The US denied Castro s pleas for loans for which he turned to Russia When US companies refused to sell to Castro he began to nationalize their property Castro and Cuba Many anti Castro Cubans fled to the United States and reported his atrocities Castro was executing hundreds of Batista supporters Before Eisenhower left office he broke off diplomatic relations with Cuba and authorized the CIA to train Cuban exiles for an invasion The US and the Middle East 1951 the leftleaning Prime Minister ofran 39 39 Mossadegh had nationalized the oil fields and refineries threatening Western oil interests Mossadegh also accepted support from the Iranian Communist Party challenging the authority of Iran39s hereditary leader Reza Pahlavi Pahlavi favored foreign oil interests and the Iranian wealthy class runmsmsm US and Iran President Eisenhower authorized CIA agents to instigate a coup against Mossadegh by bribing army officers and paying Iranians to demonstrate against the government 1953 Iranian Army officers captured Mossadegh and reestablished the shah s power Then Iran renegotiated its oil concessions giving US companies 40 share 1979 America felt the fury of Iranian opposition to the repressive government that the US helped insta The US and the Suez Canal 1956 Egypt s leader Gamal Abdel Nasser sought arms from Communist Czechoslovakia formed a military alliance with otherArab nations and recog ized the People s Republic of China July 1956 Nasser seized the Suez Canal then owned by Britain and France In response to the seizure Israel attacked Egypt with military help from Britain and France Eisenhower opposed the intervention and called for a truce The Nuclear Arms Race 1953 Stalin dies a more moderate leader emerges under Nikita Khrushchev The Soviet signed a peace treaty with Austria and removed their troops Khrushchev like Eisenhower wanted to reduce defense spending and the threat of nuclear devastation The Arms Race August 1957 the Soviets testfired their first intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM and 2 months later beat the US into space by launching Sputnik Sputnik was the first artificial satellite to circle the earth US Responds July 1958 Eisenhower established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA was given a gigantic budget for space researc and development Eisenhoweralso signed the National Defense Education Act providing scholarships for students in math foreign languages and science Technology and Agriculture 0 1940 1960 agriculture output increased while the number of farm workers declined by one third 0 Productivity increased due to crop specialization use of fertilizers mechanization tractors mechanical pickers 0 This led to the decline of family farms and the growth oflarge commercial farming which came to be called agribusiness Technology and Industrial Production 1945 1960 the automobile industry cut in halfthe number of hours needed to manufacture a car Labor unions enjoyed their greatest success during the 19505 real earnings for production workers went up 40 Rise of SuburbDecline of City 1949 Builder William J Levitt modified the factory assembly line process making homes families could purchase these homes in his Levittown development on Long Island 17000 home development 19505 1113 million new homes built during the decade in the suburbs 1960 1in4 Americans lived in the suburb Levittown Homes could be purchased from around 8000 The government underwrote home ownership with low interest mortgage guarantees through the Federal Housing Administration Each Levittown homeowner signed a contract pledging not to rent or sell to a noanaucasian 1948the Supreme Court declared this unenforceable Suburbs remained dramatically segregated Rise of the Sunbelt The sprawl west After WWII California s inhabitants more than double The Sun Belt stretched from Florida to California Many of the defense factories were in the South West as well as the aerospace industry The Mexican American Population In the Sun Belt the Mexican American population also grew In order to supply the vast agribusiness of California the government through the bracero program allowed immigrants to come and work Until the program ended in 1964 100000 Mexicans entered the US each year to labor in the fields Most ofthese stayed on illegally Higher Education The University and the college system grew exponentially from 1940 onwards 19401960 college enrolments in the US went from 1536 million The large veteran enrollment did make the traditional student body more diverse along the lines of class and age African Americans constituted only about 5 of all college students I Traditional family life and Revival of Domesticity and Religion conventional gender roles were celebrated again Ideal Family male bread winner woman home maker threetofour children Renewed interest in the family gave rise to a renewed interest in religion Rise of Religion 1960 63 of Americans belonged to a Church ora Synagogue up from 50 in the 1940s 95 of all Americans believed in God Evangelism took on a new life Billy Graham Congress linked religion more closely to the state by adding quotunderGodquot to the pledge 1954 quotIn God we Trustquot printed on all money 1955 Television 1950 fewer than 10 of American homes had a television 1960 87 of homes owned a television On average Americans spent five hours a clay in front of the television Effected our way of life and our views of politics Emergence of a Civil Rights Movement African Americans in the 19505 began to challenge the political and social barriers they faced Every southern state mandated rigid segregation J in public settings WHE TE COLORF MING FOUNTAIN 19505 grassroots movements arose that attracted national attention and the support of white liberals ClVll Rights 1940 1960 more than 3 million African Americans moved from the South into areas where they could vote and exert political pressure The NAACP reached its crowning achievemnent in 1954 Brown v the Board of Education I Brown v Board of Education Oliver Brown a WWII veteran from Topeka Kansas filed a suit because his 87yeariold daughter had to pass by a white school just 7 blocks away from their home to go to the black school more than a mile away n won but ultimate responsibility for enforcement of the decision lay with President Eisenhower but he refuse to endorse Brown 1955 Eisenhower also kept quiet when whites murdered Emmett Till a 14 yeariold black boy who allegedly whistled at a white woman Minimums quot mamuuu m unug nunms Civil Rights 1957 and 1960 The Civil Rights Acts lacked effective enforcement mechanisms Eisenhower did order integration of public facilities in Washington DC Boycotts and demonstrations seemed to be falling on deaf ears These came to be know an acts of civil disobedience Civil Rights December 1 1955 Montgomery Alabama Police arrested Rosa Parks for violating a local segregation ordinance Parks refused to give up her seat so that a white man could sit down Parks was active in the NAACP The Women s Political Council also intervened Rosa Parks When the word spread that Parks had been arrested and that she was going to fight the case the Women s Political Council immediately mobilized teachers and students to distribute flyers calling for a boycott of the Montgomery buses Montgomery Improvement Association ED Nixon ieacierottne NAACP Tnese protesters formed the ontgomery improvement Association M iA Tne NHA voiunteereci carpoois and helped more than 90 of the black community sustain the yearlong boycott Martin Luther King Jr was eiecteci astne neaci ottne NHA Supreme Court Ruling November 1956 the Supreme Court declared Alabama39s laws requiring bus segregation unconstitutional February 1957 King appeared on the cover of Times This marked a win for the Civil Rights movement and international fame for Dr King