AnatomyPhysiology I HSCI 2010
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Study Guide Exam 1 HIST 2010 1 N E 4 V39 9 gt1 9 0 O N LA the w s who what when Where and why Iroquois social structure quasimatriarcle women prominently in charge Prince Henry the Navigator 3rd son of his family usually meant he was the lowest in his family usually an adventurer father was fond of him and encouraged him to stay home and start a navigation school he developed the caravail ship Christopher Columbus Italianbom ran away at 14 and joined a band of merchants because he loved sailing did not believe the world was at set out to find a quicker way to Asia was funded by Spain and took a 6week voyage which drops him in what is now America Treaty of Tordesillas stated that all new world land went to Spain which was all the land west of the line drawn and everything east went to Portugal Columbian Exchange a transAtlantic exchange of animals minerals plants organisms diseases and ideas between Europe and the Indians Spain s system of governing conquered towns in New Spain after conquering cities they would establish an Encomienda System which was a system of governing where nobles are given land and then enslave those who live on the land Dominating European power in the 1500 s Portugal Spain France England and the Netherlands Martin Luther Catholic tired of selling indulgences who is struck by lightning and his life is forever changed so he becomes and monk and nails his famous 95 Theses to the door of the Catholic church and starts the Protestant Refonnation John Calvin agrees with Luther about most of his ideas except for predestination and free will and founds Calvinism 5point salvation system and God alone decides who is saved English Reformation King Henry VIII has an older brother that dies so he marries his brother s widow after a while he wants a divorce for another woman which is an issue at the time but ends up leading to the establishment of the Anglican church and a long line of wars over religion Irelan tried to be dominated by England but English attacks were never successful and the attitudes that England developed over the losses will re ect on the Native Americans Richard Hakluyt l4 b l O gt gt 00 KO N N N N LA N A N N English publisher who wrote A Discourse Concerning Western Planting which stated that an island nation like England required outside colonies and resources to be successful a bridge of ships Mercantilism economic policy of Great Britain theory of how a nation can obtain wealth and in uence by a balance of trade between one or more nations Jamestown named after James I who granted the charter Virginia Company aided in this first settlement of the new world used the headright system an incentive to get people to go get a way to Jamestown and receive 50 acres of free land Indentured servant the alternative to the headright system come to the new world and learn a skill or trade by being some else s servant for 47 years and receive land based on skill level once your time is up Maryland established by Lord Baltimore as a Catholic colony but is taken over by Protestants who grow tobacco there and make money Tobacco cultivation single greatest income of the Southern colonies different strains were grown and then exported to England in return for money and other goods Motives behind slavery three major motives economic political and medical Puritan Protestants that ere against James I wanted to reform the Anglican church and came to America for religious freedom Separatists separated from the Church of England and England itselfby going to the Netherland initially but then move to the new world through the Virginia Company later Great Migration Puritans come to the new world to practice their religion Puritan Communities forced church small communities hard punishment for breaking the Sabbath day attempted to make a perfect society patriarchal male dominated Roger Williams wanted to purify Puritanism believed in separation of church and state established Rhode Island as a place of religious freedom Anne Hutchinson raised a Puritan in Great Britain was only child that was told to speak her mind and opinions teams up with John Winthrop and others because of her wealth serves as a midwife because of all her kids she speaks her mind in her Puritan community which ends up getting her exiled because of her thoughts on salvation and church Witchcraft those that came to America were very suspicious and an outbreak started in Salem when some girls fall under the in uence and claim that things begin 27 28 N 0 LA L N LA LA 34 LA Ul L O L happening to them after the whole scare is over the Salem Witch Trials have occurred and 344 men and women are killed after being accused of being involved with witchcraft New Netherlands Dutch Portuguese Spanish and slaves that had earned their freedom moved north and established land that Netherland had lost and England had taken over it Quakers came to the new world Philadelphia to practice their faith believe that there is no real ordained minister and that everyone is a minister every day is a holy daV Navigation Acts first attempt for England to bene t from the colonies used to yield revenue and regulate industry taxes on enumerated goods manufactured goods and customs were established Dominion of New England king of England takes the four northern colonies and tums them into one large dominion because of a lack of payment 011 the Navigation acts turns meeting houses into Anglican churches added new taxes and used reworks on Sunday for distractions Effect of Glorious Revolution on the Colonies England becomes a constitutional monarchy Puritanism loses its grip Constitutional Monarchy Parliament is led by a prime minister and there are two houses House of Lords and House of Commons and courts became independent Changes in 18th century Colonial America Northern colonies reform but still have a royal governor New York and Maryland both receive a royal governor viceadmiralty courts are established to judge crimes against the Navigation Acts and a Board of Trade is created to keep the king informed about trade in America New England s economy in the 18th Century more Yankee traders than Puritans property becomes more valuable and the main form of economy comes from the sea shing boat making ect and forestry Economy of the Middle colonies Pennsylvania increases in population and becomes more open to immigrants economy based on wheat and artisans skilled workers becomes the bread basket in the colonies Economy of the Southern colonies major economy was tobacco and slave trade also had a large role Middle Passage the trip between Africa and the Americas for the slaves Commerce and consumption in 18Lh Century colonial America most things were bartered for or purchase with what money was available but a credit system was also created one of the major imports was the things that most had from England such as fumiture tea sets and family heirlooms LA 0 4 U 4 1 John Locke English philosopher published many works but one of the more famous was his Essay on Human Understanding many of his works got him in trouble with the monarchs Deism belief that God wound the Earth up like a clock and left it to spin and the Earth is controlled by natural laws and God is a distant God Cincinnatus ancient Roman story about a elected ruler that retired to farm but is called on one day to stop an invasion and then he goes back to farming like he was story is a picture of civil duty First Great Awakening a revival that spread through the colonies using emotional appeal speakers included Jonathan Edwards and George Whit eld Europe s balance of power in the 18Lh Century England made alliances with Prussia to gain land force to balance France France allied with Spain and Austria to compensate for England s navy both England and France shared land claims in the new world Colonists attitude in the early 18Lh Century most colonists were content with have Britain over them during the early part of the century but still did not like the Navigation Acts towards the latter part of the century more unrest became apparent and more taxes were levied which eventually leads to the American Revolution George Washington land surveyor sent to the Ohio River Valley to search for the French forts there made a camp called Ft Necessity where he is ambushed but then he reports back to the east coast at the Albany Conference to tell of the French activity in the area The Albany Conference representatives from each colony meet in Albany to discuss a way to unify the colonies Washington presents info on French encroachment on Virginia territory Ben Franklin proposes the Albany Plan to unify the colonies but it is rejected French and Indian War the Albany Conference marks the beginning of the war English soldiers are lead by Gen Braddock to the Ohio River Valley to take the French forts but is defeated Washington gains his notoriety here due to his relentless ghting French defeat England early during the war but William Pitt devises a plan that eventually leads to a series of victories that overthrow the French and England wins the war William Pitt Winston Churchill of his time developed a plan to win the French and Indian War for England makes promises to the Iroquois over land colonies over money printing and spends money on the army navy and Prussian mercenaries Treaty of Paris 1763 lJI O lJI lJI N UI LA u 4 UI UI UI ON UI lJI 0 ON 0 ON treaty that ended the French and Indian War England gained the Ohio Valley and all Frenchheld land in North America Spain kept New Orleans and all land west of the Mississippi River and France kept and island province and their land in the East British national debt one major affect of the French and Indian War due to Pitt s spending the British had to change their govemment over the colonies they felt that the colonies did not pull their weight in the war so England levied even more taxes Proclamation of 1763 a line drawn after Indians began attacking colonists over land they never received Pontiac s Rebellion and others the line runs down the backbone of the Appalachian Mountains and all colonies are suppose to remain on the east side of the line Stamp Act passed after some other acts taxes that stated all legal documents were to be taxed first excise tax Virginia Resolves document drawn up by the House of Burgesses authored by Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson claimed that since Virginia was under British control then it belonged to Britain and they should be able to tax themselves without Europe s intervention Virtual vs Direct Representation argument over who should represent the colonies Parliament claimed that they represented England and the colonies virtual while the colonists argued that they should have their own representatives in Parliament direct British Response Britain repeals the Stamp Act before it even begins due to the large amount of protesting and writes the Declaratory Act instead Declaratory Act stated that England Parliament can tax things which are necessary to be taxed Charles Townshend passed the Townshend duties which taxed manufactured goods the colonists resisted any way they could Daughters of Liberty a branch off of the Sons of Liberty patriots ghting the taxes made of women who would make homespun clothes and things to keep the colonists from importing clothes from England therefore avoiding the taxes Boston Massacre patriots are fired on after throwing snowballs at English guards in Boston act of de ance against the taxes 5 patriots were killed in the shooting Tea Act of 1773 passed by Lord North and Parliament to keep the East India Company from going bankrupt gave the EIC a monopoly to sell tea which was taxed to the colonies Boston s Reaction colonists reacted by having the Boston Tea Party and throwing over 350 chests full of tea into Boston s harbor the tea was not accepted at any other port on the eastern coast 62 Intolerable Acts in response to the tea party England levied a series of taxes that were so exaggerated that they became known as the intolerable acts 63 Quebec Act one of the more famous intolerable acts stated that the control of the Ohio River Valley went to Quebec for management and Boston came under military control 64 First Continental Congress held in 1774 much like the Albany Conference patriots got together to discuss the rights of the citizens in America and how to deal with the intolerable acts and other taxes founding fathers are present during the meeting militias begin forming and the onset of the American Revolution begins 65 Governor Gage led the British soldiers to destroy all the store houses that had been created due to the high tension that a war might break out they also set out to find John Hancock and others who were at the First Continental Congress meeting start of Paul Revere s ride 66 Lexington and Concord beginning of the American Revolution in Lexington the shot heard round the world is fired local militias begin fighting British soldiers 2quotd Continental Congress 1775 not recognized as a political party purpose raise an army and write out Olive Branch Petition to express the feelings of the Americans established Continental Army to fight Britain led by Washington money was printed by Congress to pay for the army Common Sense written by Thomas Paine believer in the Enlightenment bookpamphlet written in a simple manner and the purpose was to quotcall it like he sees itquot by condoning the king and the American people who followed him antimonarchy paper easy to read Declaration of Independence three test questions concerning 1 nalienable rights idea from John Locke 2 What authority did it have for asserting equality for men and 3 what justified the revolution the king failed they had over 26 accusations against him