Intro Microbiology HSCI 2230
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Toby Cremin on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HSCI 2230 at East Tennessee State University taught by Charlotte Powers in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/221392/hsci-2230-east-tennessee-state-university in Information System at East Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
HSCI 2230 Introduction to Microbiology Spring 2010 Powers Set 2 terms narrow spectrum agents toxemia broad spectrum agents intoxication selectively toxic necrosis true pathogen localized systemic focal infections antigens opportunistic pathogen mixed infection antibodies virulence factors primary amp secondary infections chemotaxis sequelae acute chronic subacute infections etiologic agent signs symptoms fomite virulence factors lysosome Chapter 12 1 How many children died of an infectious disease before age 5 in the early 19005 1 out of 3 2 Study Table 121 characteristics of the ideal antimicrobial drug Selectively toxic to microbe not host microbicidal rather than microbistatic soluble amp functions when highly diluted in body fluids remains potent amp isn t broken down or excreted prematurely resistant organisms don t develop aid host s defenses remains active readily delivered to site of infection not expensive and doesn t cause allergies 3 Where do most antibiotics come from What is the natural function of antibiotics Bacteria in genera Streptomyces and Bacillus molds in the genera Penicilium and Cephaosporium Helps compete 4 What are 4 mechanisms of antimicrobial drug action Inhibit cell wall synthesis inhibit nucleic acid synthesisfunction inhibit protein synthesis and disrupt cell membrane function 5 Know how1 enicillin 2 vancom cin 3 zithromaxand4 amoxillcillin work 124Block synthesis and repair 3 act upon ribosome and block protein synthesis 0 What is competitive inhibition Drug mimics natural substrate of enzyme amp competes for active site l List 2 genetic events that cause microbes to become resistant to drugs Chromosomal mutations and transfer of DNA from a resistant organism 9 Explain 4 general mechanisms of drug resistance Synthesis of enzymes that inactivate the drug decrease uptake of drug changes in drug targets and changes in metabolic pathways 10 Why are there so few antifungal antiparasitic and antiviral drugs Difficult to achieve selective toxicity with eukaryotic pathogens because they are so similar to human cells Viruses are difficult to target because they grow inside of cells and we have to really understand how they replicate to block their specific processes O What are 3 adverse effects of antimicrobic drugs on the host Toxicity direct damage to tissues liver kidneys Allergic reactions most commonly from penicillins Disruption of normal flora allows for a superinfection or overgrowth of fungi Chapter 13 11 UJ Jgt U39I CD l 00 to N Q What is the difference between infection and disease Infection invasion or colonization of the body by pathogens presence of pathogens in the body Disease when the growth of pathogens damages all or part of the body so that it is incapable of performing normal functions Where do you find normal flora Skin upper respiratory tract most of GI tract outer opening of urethra amp vagina Which sites of the body are microbefree All internal tissues and organs fluid within an organ or tissue List several factors that predispose a person to disease Old age amp extreme youth genetic defects in immunity AIDS surgery amp organ transplants diseases cancer diabetes physical amp mental stress and other infections List 3 portals of entry Skin mucous membrane and parenteral Describe an infectious dose Number of microbes required to initiate an infection it usually takes more than one microbe to start an infection List several mechanisms of adherence Fimbrae capsules spikes hooks and flagella List several examples of exoenzymes and their activities Mucinase digests protective coating of mucous membranes hyaluaronidase digests hyaluaronic acid which cements cells together coagulates causes blood clots kinases break clots What is the difference between exotoxins and endotoxins Exotoxins secreted by gram and cells chemical composition is protein destroyed at 80C and has various effects on specific cell structure Endotoxins part of gram cell wall chemical composition is lipid A of LPS withstands autoclave and produces fever weakness aches amp shock What are the 4 periods of disease and what occurs during each Incubation period time from initial contact with microbe microbe multiplies Prodromal stage microbe multiplies appearance of first symptoms Period of invasion microbe multiplies to high levels exhibits great toxicity becomes well established in target tissue Convalescent period more are cleared recovery What are reservoirs of infection Primary habitat where a pathogen originates and provides pathogen with adequate N N N W N Jgt N U N O N l N 00 W O W N List several measures that health care providers must exercise to prevent nosocomia conditions for survival replication and opportunity for transmission infections Hand washing gloves gowns masks surgical asepsis amp medical asepsis What are the 3 most common sites for nosocomial infections Urinary tract infection surgical wound infection and lower respiratory tract infection What are the 3 most common causes of nosocomial infections E coli Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa What are Koch s postulates Find evidence of a particular microbe in every case of a disease isolate microbes from an infected subject amp grown it in the lab inoculate a susceptible healthy subject and observe resultant disease and reisolate the agent from this subject What is involved in the first second and third lines of defense lsl barriers intact skin mucuous membranes amp their secretions 2quotd innate immunity phagocytic WBC inflammation fever complement interferon natural killer cells 339d adaptive immunity BampT lymphocytes antibodies List several physical barriers at the body s surface Skin pH perspiration saliva mucus ciliary escalator of lower respiratory tract and stomach acid Describe plasma How is it different from serum Serum is plasma without the clotting factors List and describe the function of the 5 types of leukocytes Neutrophils phagocytes Monocytes differentiate into phagocytic macrophages after leaving the blood amp going into tissues Eosiniphils somewhat phagocytic produces toxins against parasites Basophils involved in allergic response Lymphocytes BampT types involved in specific immune response not phagocytic What are the functions of the lymphatic system Route for return of fluid to circulatory system drain off system for inflammatory response and renders surveillance recognition and protection against foreign material What is lymph and how is it formed Plasmalike liquid carried by lymphatic system contains water dissolved salts and protein transports WBCs formed when blood components move out of blood vessels into extracellular spaces and diffuse into lymph capillaries What is the function of a lymph node Filter lymph allowing pathogens too encounter BampT lymphocytes What are the stages of inflammation Tissue damage triggers blood vessels to dilate and increase their permeability WBCs w Jgt W U W O W l W 00 W to Jgt O Jgt Jgt N 43 leave blood vessels either tissue and phagocytosis and more inflammation mediators released if needed more inflammatory cytokines are released into the tissues causing fever fatigue and malaise and tissue repair What are the functions of inflammation Attract immune components to site of injury repair tissue damage localize amp clear away harmful substance and destroy microbe ampblock further invasion What are some benefits of fever lnhibits growth of temp sensitive microbes decreases amount of irons available impeding bacterial nutrition and increases metabolism amp stimulates immune reactions List some characteristics of interferon Protein secreted by a virus infected cell binds to neighboring cells and causes them to produce antiviral proteins that block virus replication signals cell to apoptosis if infected not virus specific and host species specific What does complement do Opsonization Inflammation and lysis Compare the innate and adaptive immune responses Innate rapid nonspecific no memory phagocytes inflammation antimicrobial proteins Adaptive slower specific to invader memory B cells antibodies amp T cells What are the 2 branches of the immune system lnnate and adaptive Adaptive Humoral amp Cellular Describe the structure of antibodies A Yshaped protein that interact with only one antigenic determinant on an antigen each antibody has 2 identical binding sites for antigen a typical antibody monomer has 4 protein chains 2 Light chains and 2 Heavy chains each chain has a variable region amp a constant region List several characteristics for each of the 5 classes of antibodies Table 152 lgG cross placenta amp confer passive immunity to fetus trigger complement system lgM pentameter 5 monomers amp a J chain trigger complement system first antibody to appear after initial exposure to antigen lgA high amounts are in mucous saliva amp breast milk secretory lgA dimmer 2 monomers amp a J chain amp a secretory component lgD acts as antigen receptor on B cells no known function in serum lgE bound to mast cells amp basophils by PC end serve as Ag receptors amp binding causes release of histamine amp chemicals allergies useful against parasitic worms What happens after antibodies bind to antigen Neutralization activation of complement agglutination and opsonization Describe antigens 44 Differentiate between the primary and secondary immune responses Primary slower weak response few specific BampT cells and few antibodies made Secondary faster stronger response more specific BampT cells and lots of lgG made quickly vaccines 45 How does the Cellular Immune System distinguish between self and quotnonselfquot Self have MHC class I proteins on their surfaces Nonself immune system tries to destroy anything that does not have class I proteins Jgt m List the 4 types ofT cells and their functions Helper T4 conductor of the immune system amp activated other cells of immune system Cytotoxic T8 destroy target cells on contact Delayed Hypersensitivity allergic responses transplant rejection kill cancer cells Suppressor turn off immune system self tolerance March 2 T Catch up and review An antibiotic that disrupts the normal flora can cause a superinfection The incubation is the time that lapses between the encounter with a pathogen and the first symptoms A nonsocomial infection is acquired in a hospital Resident flora is absent from the lung Factors that improve the pathogens chances of virulence factors Which of the following is not an effect of complement apoptosis For a microorganism to give you a disease it has to grow to high numbers Most common type if leukocyte is neutrophils lymphocytes Which of the following is not true concerning fever directly kills microorganisms Which of these is not phagocytic lymphocytes Which of the following is not true about the complement repair damaged tissues Largest of resident bacteria are located in or on the LARGE intestine Which is not an aim in the use of drugs in antimicrobial chemotherapy Be broken down amp excreted rapidly Helper T cells assist in the function of B cells and certain T cells Which system targets extracellular antigens humoral Which system produces antibodies humoral Antigens bind in variable regions Which class of antibodies can cross the placenta lgG quotfound as a pentamer lgM quottrigger complement lgG and lgM quotfirst to appear lgM March 4 R Exam 2 HSCI 2230 Microbiology Powers Introduction to Spring 2010 Study guide for exam 1 Outline of unit 1 Introduction to the molecules that make up living things What are membranes What are bacteria What are viruses How do viruses replicate How do bacteria grow How do materials get in to and out of cells membrane transport How can microbes be removed from objects and prevented from growing microbial control Set 1 terms Bacteriophage a virus that specifically infects bacteria Binam fission the formation of two new cells of approximately equal size as the result of parent cell division Capsid the protein covering a virus s nucleic acid core Capsomers a subunit of the virus capsid shaped as a triangle or disc Chemotaxis the tendency of organisms to move in response to a chemical gradient toward an attractant or to avoid adverse stimuli Degermination to physically remove surface oils debris and soil from skin to reduce microbial load Emerging diseases newly identified diseases that are becoming more prominent Energy of activation the minimum energy input necessary for reactants to form products in a chemical reactant germination Hypertonic having a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution Hypotonic having a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution Isotonic having an equal osmotic pressure than a reference solution m the physical rupture or deterioration of a cell Pasteurization heat treatment of perishable fluids to destroy heatsensitive vegetative cells followed by rapid chilling to inhibit growth of survivors and germination of spores Pathogen any agents usually a virus bacterium fungus protozoan or helminthes that causes disease Plague the clear zone of lysed cells in tissue culture or chick embryo membrane that corresponds to the area containing viruses Prion proteinaceous infectious agent a cytopathic protein associated with the slowvirus spongiform encephalopathies of humans and animals Prophage a lysogenized bacteriophage a phage that is latently incorporated into the host chromosome instead of undergoing viral replication and lysis Reemerging diseases previously identified disease that is increasing in occurrence Sanitize to clean inanimate objects using soap and degerming agents so that they are safe and free of high levels of microorganisms Saprobes a microbe that decomposes organic remains for dead organisms Parasites an organism that lives in or on another organism from which it obtains nutrients and enjoys protection Sporulation the process of spore formation Viroids an infectious agent that lacks a capsid and consists of a closed cicular RNA molecule Zoonosis an infectious disease indigenous to animals that humans can acquire through direct or indirect contact with infected animals x 5 03 N U 01 500quot x M x 0 01 x 0 List the 6 major groups of microbes Bacteria Virus Fungi Protozoa Helminthes and Algae List several factors causing the increase in infectious diseases Increase in of susceptible people increased travel growing of human pathogens and capacity of microbes to respond amp adapt to change Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic cells are simpler smaller and lack a nucleus and organelles Eukaryotic cells are larger and more complex What is the scientific method What criteria are required An approach to explain a natural phenomenon The criteria of measurement reproducibility and falsifiability What are the earmarks of pseudoscience Untestable claims overreliance on confirmation rather than refutation lack of openness to testing by other experts absence of progress personalization of issues and use of misleading language What is the germ theory of disease States many disease are caused by the growth of microbes in the body and NOT by sins poverty smells etc List the 4 families of macromolecules and several key characteristics of each Be able to identify pictures of these macromolecules Carbohydrates sugars linked by glycosidic bonds and function in structural support nutrients amp energy Lipids fats hydrocarbon chains insoluble in water functions in energy storage Proteins shapers of life performs more of the activities in cells enzymes transport etc Nucleic acids DNA RNA Study Table 24 Macromolecules and their Functions What is a membrane Draw a generalized fluid mosaic model of a cell membrane List 6 characteristics of life Growth amp Development Reproduction amp heredity Metabolism Movementlrritability Organization and Transport of nutrients and waste List characteristics of cells and life What are bacteria Prokaryote What are the 3 basic shapes of bacteria Rods bacilli Balls cocci and helical or spiral What do bacteria eat Bacteria can eat almost anything Where are bacteria found Everywhere Describe the structure and function of the flagella long filamentous processes rotate 360 motility Axial filaments bundles of fibrils that arise at ends of spirochetes beneath outer sheath motility Fimbriae fine proteinaceious hair like bristles from cell surface adhesion 1m tubular structure only in GRAM NEGATIVE function in conjugation W x 0 I x I 0 I I glycocalg substances that surround the cell function in attachment What are biofilms Describe Gram positive and Gram negative cell walls VERY IMPORTANT Describe the structure and function of ribosomes Made of RNA amp protein site of protein synthesis List several characteristics of endospores highly durable dehydrated thickwalled amp not a means of reproduction Study Table 61 The Novel Properties of Viruses What is the structure and function of the capsid Protein coats that enclose amp protect their nucleic acid What are the 6 steps in viral replication Adsorption penetration uncoating synthesis assembly amp release What is lysogeny Temperate phages undergo adsorption and penetration but do not replicate prophase is retained and copied during normal cell division Describe several cytopathic effects of viruses how they damage host cells changes in size amp shape cytoplasmic inclusion bodies nuclear inclusion bodies cells fuse to form multinucleated cells cell lysis alter DNA and transform cells into cancerous cells What are 3 ways of cultivating animal viruses Live animals bird embryos and cell cultures Why are viruses more difficult to treat than bacterial diseases viruses grown within a host cell and it is hard to stop their replication without killing the host cell List several diseases caused by viruses How are viral diseases diagnosed I take appropriate smap e Create a chart differentiating among the following membrane transport processes Simple diffusion no ATP required no carrier proteins Osmosis leaveenter cells through special channels no ATP required Facilitated diffusion require carrier proteins no ATP needed Active transport carrier and ATP required Concentration gradient independent Group translocation carrier amp ATP required concentration independent What are 3 ecological groups base on temperature preference Psychrophiles Mesophiles and Thermophiles What are 5 groups of bacteria based on their oxygen requirements Aerobes microaerophiles facultative anaerobes aerotolerant anaerobes amp anaerobes 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 How does pH affect cells How does osmotic pressure affect cells What are 3 types of symbiosis Mutualism commensalism parasitism What are 2 types of nonsymbiotic microbial associations Synergism amp antagonism Draw a growth curve and explain what happens during each of the 4 phases Lag phase flat period of adjustment little growth Exponential growth phase maximum growth as long as cells have adequate nutrients Stationary phase rate of cell growth rate of cell death caused by deplete nutrients Death phase cells die exponentially in their own wastes Differentiate among metabolism catabolism and anabolism Anabolism requires ATP and builds complex molecules from simple ones Catabolism generates ATP and breaks down complex molecules into simple ones Metabolism is the sum total of all chemical reactions amp physical workings occurring in a cell Study Table 81 The Checklist of Enzyme Characteristics How is ATP used to couple anabolism and catabolism What type of organisms are the most resistant to physical and chemical methods of control Bacterial endospores and prions Least resistant most bacterial vegetative cells yeast enveloped viruses What is the difference between sterilization and disinfection Sterilization destroys all viable microbes including viruses and endospores Disinfection just destroys vegetative pathogens not endospores What factors influence the action of antimicrobial agents Number of microbes nature of microbes in the population temperature amp pH of environment concentrationdosage of agent mode of action ofthe agent and presence of solvents organic matter or inhibitors Describe how each of the following physical methods suppresses microbial gro h 9065 e f M dehydrates cell components and coagulates proteins M slows metabolism amp replication Desiccation dries microorganisms out ionizing radiation breaks water down into highly reactive hydroxyl radicals that bind to other cellular components and disrupts their function Nonionizing radiation damages DNA by causing bonds to form between adjacent thymines and inhibits correct replication of DNA Filtration physical removal of microbes 45 Define the three levels of chemical decontamination procedures and place the following chemical agents in their appropriate category a b c Halogens Intermediate phenol amp its derivatives Intermediate alcohols Low hydrogen peroxide High detergents Low ea metal compounds aldehydes High gaseous sterilants ethyl oxide High 339 d e f 9 h magmasme Cell Wall G llrMitlafilE Gel Wa ir n39 i i in Ton39m lm i P p a giy in mi nnev Cytupiasmic Aamt twp nn nnon nnn nnn i uuouuuuuuu uuuou Ei Cytupiasm Cyiapiaam
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