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Social Psychology W

by: Brook Jakubowski

Social Psychology W PSY 300W

Brook Jakubowski
GPA 3.99

Jonathan Gore

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Jonathan Gore
Class Notes
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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brook Jakubowski on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 300W at Eastern Kentucky University taught by Jonathan Gore in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/221432/psy-300w-eastern-kentucky-university in Psychlogy at Eastern Kentucky University.

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Date Created: 10/11/15
Stereotypes Prejudice amp Discrimination The ABCs Affect Negative attitudes or feelings toward people because oftheir membership in certain groups Sherif 1966 study at Robber39s Cave State Park Oklahoma 6 Phase 39I No contact a Phase 2 Intergroup conflict Phase 3 Conflict resolution Percent After competition After cooperation Why Does It Happen Theory 339 Prejudice stems from competition between social groups over valued commodities or opportunities Theory 2 Prejudice stems from the belief that one or ones group fares poorly compared to others Theory quot Prejudice stems from the desire to enhance our personal identity and various social identities that derive from the groups we belong to ehavior Behaviors directed against people because of their membership in certain groups Modern Discrimination Instances in which individuals businesses and other institutions perform trivial positive actions for members of outgroups toward whom they feel strong prejudice The tendency to treat outgroup members more favorably than they would be treated if they were ingroup members Fajardo 1985 Study In degen dent variables Black author vs White author High Medium Low Degendent variable Essay evaluation Black author 80 White author Evaluation Essay quality Thr ee Self Components Actual Self I am Ideal Self I want to be Ought Self I should be Discrepancies and Outcomes ActualIdeal Discrepancy 9 Depression ActualOught Discrepancy 9 Anxiety Self Processes Thr ee Self Motives Need for SelfVeri cation Knowing yourself How stable your selfconcept is 0 Need for SelfEnhancement Liking yourself How close you are to your ideal Need for Social Inclusion Being liked by others How much you are who you should be Knowing Yourself Information related to the self is processed very efficiently recalled more easily than other information We seek to con rm beliefs about ourselves Selfdefinition manipulates our social environment to achieve stability What if you have a negative selfconcept In Control of Failure Chronic external locus of causality for achievement outcomes esp failure Uncontrollable Perceived lack Learned bad events ofcontrol helplessness In Control of Failure Protecting selfimage by deliberately sabotaging efforts so that an excuse is available when failure occurs Ex Getting drunk before a test In Control of Failure Low self Social esteem exclusion Sabotage relationships irritable distant etc Liking Yourself The tendency to perceive oneself favorably Most apparent during social comparison when there is little information available Examples Unrealistic optimism esp outcomes False consensus esp beliefs False uniqueness esp abilities Pros and Cons Overall sense of selfworth Degree and Stability High Stable welladjusted High Unstable aggressive Low Stable depressed Low Unstable anxious Sociometerhypothesis selfesteem is an indicator of how much that person feels accepted by others Being Liked by Others Making others like us by exhibiting particular characteristics Problem Some attributes are dangerous to exhibit for a long time Being attuned to what is deemed appropriate behavior o Pros Often liked by others Adapts well to new situations 0 Cons Lack of integrity Confusion when worlds collide SelfConcept Change How Does The Self Change 0 Can change from any new experience BUT Most likely to change when two elements are in place You want to change Your social network changes Implications for therapy Close others sculpt you into your ideal self through behavioral con rmation In a sense your self is verified AND enhanced Gender Sex vs Gender Sex Whether you have 2 X chromosomes or chromosomes Gender The characteristics used to de ne male and female Biological orsocial Masculinity o assertiveness boldness dominance Femininity nurturance emotional expression empathy High on both androgynous Low on both undifferentiated Gender Differences What is a Gender Difference o distributions on an outcome I Swap 1 vaiucs I Gmup 2 vaiucs Group V mm amp 2 mean Personality Differences Virtually identical Women higher in need for order Three subcomponents 0 regariousness women slightly higher 0 assertiveness men higher 0 activity men slightly higher Men more likely to interrupt others during conversation assertiveness Two subcomponents Trust women higher Tendermindedness women much higher Women also smile more than men and are higher in empathy Two subcomponents v anxiety women higher v impulsiveness no difference Sometimes confused with emotional expressiveness Other Gender Differences 0 Men higher overall esp physical 0 Violent crimes much more likely to be committed by men than women Women use more relational aggression Women more likely to experience positive and negat39ve Women also more likely to experience emotions with high intensity Boys and girls the same until adolescence THEN Males higher in late adolescence early adulthood THEN Differences become nonsignificant Men higherthan women Often explained through evolutionary psychology Women prefer working with people Men prefer working with objects Social Psychological Theories of Gender Differences Men independent self Women relationaIinterdependent self 0 Based on behavioral reinforcement Learning from modeling behavior of similar 0 hers Breadwinner vs Homemaker Roles Depends on the situation you re in Other Explanations Testosterone 0 200400 picogramsIiter of blood in women 0 50006500 picogramsIiter of blood in men 0 aggression dominance career choice sex drive Reproductive tendencies for survival Aggression in men and intrasexual competition Aggression Definition Any form of behavior directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment Baron amp Richardson 1994 Two Types of Aggression Cold behavior Hot behavior Incentivebased Annoyancebased Means to end End in itself Why Do People Act Aggressively General Aggression Model Present internal State Sumal Ruutes Affect Emmy Cognition Arousal Thuughtful Appraisal e Am OUIEDWES DEE S DH Prunesses impu we AEUEIN Anderson amp Bushman 2002 Personality Influences on Aggression 0 Men use more direct physical aggression t stfigntin Women use more indirect relational aggression a social exclusion spreading mrnors 0 Highly selfabsorbed and concei I l rn bettertnan everyone else 0 High butunstable sel esteem n easilythreaten a Stepping on others on gs person b nign level or selfrregar 0 Due to low environmental control of act39 0 Frontal lobe I Site Ofinnibitory links Poordeveioprn nt Damage Social Influences on Aggression 0 Social Isolation o Provocation 0 Hot Temperatures o Decreases self esteem sociometer hypo hesis 0 Less access to social norms O Learyamp Dengerink 1973 Indegndent variable amok amok amok amok Degendent variables Shook level o Highattaok V39 M Decreasing attack 5 35 2 Increasing attack a m Low attack x 30 0 2 u 25 g 20 s 2 3 Block Anderson et al 1994 de endent variable In 9 Temperature 55 F 95 oF Degendent variable State hostility Slat Hostility 75 Temperature r Violent crime rates for different seasons and quarters Anderson 1989 o W e m e m I m w 5 an W 39a quot z Alternative explanations o Cyclical variations eg school and work vacations in the summer 0 Culture of honor in the South where it is holler 0 Different demographic characteristics in the outh eg poverty race Physiological Arousal Theory Physiological arousal dissipates slowly If two arousing events are separated by a short amount of time some of the arousal caused by the first event may transfer or be misattributed to to the second event Zillmann et al 1972 Independent variables vs no exercise vs not provoked Dependent variable Shock level Aruusal am uled tub e II No exercise 5 l Exercise Shock level Not provoked Provoked Alcohol Cook amp Moore 1993 0 Effects of a 10 reduction in alcohol consumption EACH YEAR 216 fewer murders 1 reduction 5848 fewer rapes 6 reduction 65951 fewerassaults 6 reduction 52249 fewer robberies 9 reduction Aggressive Cues Stimulus Response Weapons as Aggressive Cues Turner et al 1975 Indegndent variable and VENGEANCE bumper sticker and FRIEND bumper sticker and no bumper sticker control Degendent variables Percent horn honking Percent horn honking Control FRIEND VEN GEANCE Rifle present


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