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Notes 11/10/14

by: Jack Bethke

Notes 11/10/14 HSTAA 301

Marketplace > History > HSTAA 301 > Notes 11 10 14
Jack Bethke

Colonial North America
Prof. Johnson

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Seeds of Discontent: The path to the French and Indian War
Colonial North America
Prof. Johnson
One Day of Notes
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This 5 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Jack Bethke on Thursday November 13, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to HSTAA 301 at a university taught by Prof. Johnson in 2014. Since its upload, it has received 171 views.

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Date Created: 11/13/14
111014 Seeds of discontent the catalyst of war o England and the colonies 170050 salutary neglect intrinsic to Whig philosophy of minimalist government 0 Contemperatires of the time didn t realize there was a revolution brewing until the mid 1760s 0 England itself was content for the status quo between themselves and the colonies to continue The status quo here is the term benign neglect 0 Not a total removal from the colonies but England was trying to pull back from international affairs to avoid wars which had plagued the empire for the duration of the 18th century 0 Tories and whigs form in the colonies torries were usually anti catholic and supported the Glorious Revolution and supported autocratic monarchal rule believed that providence had set the world up to run on little government 0 The colonies run on British export and exploitation of the colonies Can be seen as seeds of discontent in the colonies o But grievancesof royal control as in disallowance of laws appeals to Privy Council Examples of 1750s Parson Cause in VA P Henry and 1760 Writs of Assistance case in Mass J Otis 0 Increasing presence of royal rule it was moving beyond the Royal Governors 0 Could enact taxes through legal cases and the requirement that all laws in the colonies had to be submitted to London for approval Both of these could be overturned by courts back in England 0 Two examples Parsons Cause 0 Began when the Va Council passed a law that set the price of tobacco belong the passing rate which upset the parsons who were paying for things in lbs of tobacco Parsons appealed to England for help which stirred up conflict because it showed the power that English councils had over colonial representatives The colonists hired Patrick Henry to argue against the clergy trying to repeal the law Lost the case despite his father sitting on the bench 0 Writs of Assistance 0 Similar to a modern stop and search power today James Otis argues for personal privacy and the right to be secure in ones own home Both of these lawyers appeal to English law and Otis argues with the Magna Carta against parliamentary law Not appealing to American ideal but to the British ideal of government 0 These arguments ran contrary to what the English wanted England wanted a maternal relationship with them Thought of them as a rib from Adam s side Early on the colonies were there to give England raw materials and the colonies were importing a huge amount of English exports 0 Concern about economic regulation as of naval stores molasses iron hats paper money 0 Navigation Acts still in place protectionist economy heavily regulates American colonists 0 Eventually colonists threaten to boycott English exports during the Stamp Act which had a major impact on the British economy which made most of its exports to the colonies 0 English merchants and politicians were quicj to react to threats to the trade between the colonies and England The White Pines Act reserved pines for the royal navy but led to fighting in New Hampshire where colonists wanted to use the trees 0 Iron acts put in place to prevent manufacturing of materials in the colonies such as iron ore Also passed laws that made it illegal for colonists to make their own hats Not really enforceable but shows a growing interference from the Royal Gov 0 Paper money had evolved differently in each colony each colony had their own currency which led England to issue a currency act to control this Another grievence for the colonists 0 Laws passed given the West Indies farmers preference to give them an edge over French sugar producers Angered the North American colonists who saw themselves getting shorted 0 Suspicion of English interest groups rise of an American consciousness looking to parity not subordination 0 Colonists began thinking of themselves as second clas citizens in the empire They were too large to be controlled by leading strings and they felt that England was just a beuacratic nightmare controlling the colonists every movement 0 Began thinking of themselves as Americans in addition to Virginians or New Englanders or even Englishmen 0 New newspapers circulating colonial problems Occasionally colonists would launch their own military expeditions 0 Colonists became less keen to send their children to England for schooling fearing that the English were to corrupt 0 British rule did not have connotations of harmony and equality but exploitation instead 0 Ben Franklin and others argued for a more than equal status in the Empire Talk of a need for greater respect rather than seperation Role of Lar in 18quot C world esp in America Struggle for Indians and fur trade centering on Ohio valley and French Acadia Louisbourg 0 The catalyst for revolution it was the last major colonial conflict 0 England fought 7 wars in the first 50 years of the 18th century almost every decade was marked by border wars combined with colonial ones Evolved into early world wars 0 These wars spilled into the colonies of the various empires 0 In America all these were based on a reality which was the way that the English colonies were spreading inland from the coast They were competing with the French in the Hudson Bay and the western and southwestern frontiers 0 Increasingly large clashes throughout the century The British built Fort Oswego in Ontario which the French saw as an affront Both sides courted the Iroquois to bring them to their side French laid clam to land in the Ohio Valley 0 Attempts by each side to capture each other s territories The English colonists managed to capture Louisbourg in Nova Scotia G Washington and Ft Duquesne 1754 beginning French and Indian War 175463 Early British disasters as Braddock but Pitt s campaigns 17589 culminating in capture of Louisbourg and Quebec by Wolfe and Canada Opening of west to British settlers But how to be governed how to pay debts 0 French created Fort Duquesne to thwart Bristish attempts to bring Indians from that area into their networks 0 Many land speculators GW included were involved in the Ohio Valley which was abundant in good profitable land 0 GW sent to investigate the fort and with some Indian allies GW ambushed a parlay party sent by the French to deal with him GW attacked by the French and retreated to a spot where he created Fort Necessity which in turn he had to surrender to the superior French forces Set off the Seven Years War or the French and Indian War as it was called in the Americas 0 First world war arguably fought from the Americas and West Indies to Europe and on to India and SE Asia 0 War involved a series of campaigns on both sides Both sides sent royal forces to augment colonial forces in the area in order to capture the French colonies Early stages disastrous for the English and the colonists Their first 3 pronged attack was checked at Fort Duquesne Crown Point and in the west Captured Arcadia Nova Scotia early on however shipped out thousands of French settlers to the French southern colonies became the Cajuns 0 British setbacks continued however the unexperienced General Braddock led 2 undermanned regiments plus some colonists GW was among them and walked right into a combined French and Indian ambush British forces decimated Braddock was killed and the British forces ran back to Philly Collapse of the frontier politics Indians swap sides and colonists suffer casualties 0 1756 saw more British defeats French snuck past a British blockade and landed reinforcements and were able to capture Fort Oswego and Fort Henry which essentially destroyed the New York front 0 Rise of William Pitt in England A devote imperialist sought to downplay the successes of their enemies to keep morale up in England Paid for German mercenaries from the armies of Frederick the Great Dispatched eets and armies to Africa India and America 0 Another 3 pronged attack in America follows aimed at Fort D Fort Ticonderoga and Louisbourg Ft T attack was bloodily repulsed by the French but Louisbourg was captured by General Wolfe a rising star in the British ranks Attack on Ft D was going on in stages British leader found a backroad to it when the French found out they blew the fort up and ran Americans founded Fort Pitt Pittsburg on the site 0 Land expeditions into Canada proper towards Niagara and Quebec Prongs moved together to squeeze the French forces By june of 1759 Wolfe had landed at Montreal with a eet and 9000 troops However he was stuck on the wrong side of the river with winter approaching In a daring gesture the British forces found a way up the Heights of Abraham in mid September By Sept 13 a British army was arrayed outside Quebec which defeated a French force sent out of the cityin a European style set battle


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