Popular in Colonial North America
Popular in History
This 3 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Jack Bethke on Thursday November 13, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to HSTAA 301 at a university taught by Prof. Johnson in 2014. Since its upload, it has received 137 views.
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Date Created: 11/13/14
11122014 The legacy of victory Imperial Reorganization and Colonial Resistance 175866 British conquest of Canada with lands to Mississippi by peace of 1763 opening of west rising expectations post war recession 0 General James Wolfe is killed during the battle outside Quebec City The Successes of the British navy in blockading French Canada and getting supplies to the army once the ice thawed in the spring of 1759 ensured British victory in Canada 0 1759 the British expel the French from Canada India and the Indies and the French handed over much of their Louisiana Territory to the Spanish who had lost Florida to the British 0 The war brought a ush of prosperity because of an in ux in British currency and troops present in the country Increased trade between the colonies and England and also it allowed the British subjects to spread further inland towards the Oho Valley 0 People named new towns in these areas for classical names like Ithaca Corinth etc 0 War also produced a disillusionment with the British rule Economic depression after the war many people had served the British military but were not recognized or given support But how to govern a continentalized empire Delaware prophet Neolin amp Ottawa chief Pontiac s panIndian rebellion crown attempt to restrict white settlement 1763 Proclamation Parliament now taking greater role in English government seeking to redress massive national debt amp finance costs of empire through imperial reformtaxes 0 Britain now had to maintain an army of as much as 10000 men to control all of the newly acquired areas in North America 0 British forces had to cut down on expenses which meant that trade with the Indians decreased which angered them 0 Pontiac s rebellion coincided with the prophet Neolin They terrorized and attacked the towns on the interior frontier The British responded by sending them blankets infected with Small Pox 0 British had to find new ways to finance and govern this large area of land One thing the president of the Trade Board did was set the western border of the colonies at the Appalachian Mountains in the Proclamation of 1763 This upset many land speculators who were excited about the western lands It was difficult to enforce and many people ignored it the second stage of this reform was an increase in colonial taxes to make the colonists pay for the military garrisons keeping them safe 0 New taxes in England also The Window Tax made people pay for the amount of windows they had on their house 0 There wasn t enough money in the customs house to pay for customs officials They really needed to increase revenue in anyway possible 1764 Sugar Act new duties enforcement 0 Cut the duties on molasses but increased enforcement on smuggling which was running rampant in the colonies One man said it was nearly impossible to find a colonial jury who would punish a smuggler 0 Set up a new court system to prosecute smugglers outside of Boston or New York Sent them to Nova Scotia where they were less likely to be judged by their peers 0 Not very profitable for the British because the money gained from these new courts went through many hands before getting to the Crown 1765 Stamp Act seen by colonists as designed for revenue not regulation amp as internal not external tax thus posing challenge to English liberties and powers of colonial assemblies as see RP unit VIII 0 Proposed this early on but shelved it while he gave time to prominent colonists likeB enFranklin time to think of their own way to increase revenue 0 Tax already existed in England and existed into the 20 century America even used Stamp taxes after the Revolution It was easy to enforce and collect on but it was seen as an exploitation tax especially by wealthy colonists 0 Petitions presented to parliament protesting this act were all ignored They wanted colonists to participate as stamp collectors and some did but most were angred by this tax 0 Colonists were used to regulation but they became suspicious when these regulations were put in place to raise revenue from them This tax was attacked as a new kind of tax one focused on the internal business of the colonies which had been the domain of the Colonial Assemblies in the past They did not want to lose their power and so the leaders of the Colonial Assemblies resisted these taxes 0 The internal vs external distinction is the most important piece of this resistance The beginning of the American Revolution in the clash between competing parliaments British saw the Parliament and King as solid you cannot make a more respectable government The colonists seek increased representation through their assemblies Resistance May 1765 Virginia Resolutions P Henry nullification of Act by crowd violence in Boston Rise spread and role of Sons of Liberty October 65 Stamp Act Congress policy of non importation 0 Va Resolutions put out by Patrick Henry Said everyone in the empire was an Englishmen whether they lived in or out of England and deserved the same rights as such Argued for increased autonomy of the House of Burgesses The first three resolutions would pass but the last two stating that the people do not owe obedience to all laws or that people should support their colonies more than the overarching government did not go over well 0 Colonial newspapers printed all 5 resolutions as if they had passed 0 Henry s resolutions acted as an alarm bell that woke people up everywhere Increased resistance to the Stamp Act and Sugar Act but most people were not thinking about extreme resistance in the form of rebellion yet 0 The Sons of Liberty in Boston on the other hand were a radical freedom group who were willing to commit treason Advocated for independence or at least militant resistance Attacked Stamp Act officials and other houses of ill reputation Led by Ebenezer Mack a leader of the Southside mob and Samuel Adams 0 Made their first move in August 1765 when they hung a customs official in Boston When they weren t found out the emboldened group attacked the new customs officials a Mr Oliver home and sacred him into resigning to keep the act from being enforced Stamp collectors were forced to publicly repent their position or face violent retaliation By 1765 Georgia a royalist colony was the only colony still enforcing the Stamp Act 0 The mob attacked the Royal governor Thomas Hutchinson and destroyed his home 0 No police force or militia to control the crowds because the crowds made up these enterprises 0 Created associations dedicated to boycotting British goods Many of the people signing up for these resolutions were women Wanted people to wear hummed clothing drink sassafras rather than tea etc 0 Repeal of Stamp Act 66 but Declaratory Act 0 Colonies send delegates to discuss resolutions to make the in ammatory acts more moderate Acknowledged that they still owed their loyalty to the British Crown 0 Colonists angered that they are being taxed when they couldn t vote The crown retorts that many people being taxed in England couldn t vote either 0 Concern over colonial reactions in Britain because the companies there were losing money They asked parliament to repeal the Stamp Act so they could resume trading Ben Franklin says that the old loyalties would come back with the repealing of the Stamp Act 0 Amid much debate the Stamp Act was repealed in March 1766 Tried to cover its tracks with the Declaratory Act which said that the Crown was sovereign and was only repealing the Stamp Act because they could 0 Subsided the crisis for the moment 0 Significance and legacy of the crisis Linked principle and selfinterest Seen in context of wider ministerial plot against English liberties John Wilkes in England Exposed awsinequityimpotence of imperial system Legitimized mass action economic boycotts forming broader political nation of consumers intercolonial ties radical propaganda
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