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Mus 222 History of Rock Basic Terms and De nitions Additive and divisive time systems A large philosophical difference in the way that West African and EuropeanAmericans construct and describe their musical rhythmic systems EuropeanAmericans think in terms of division in which a whole is subdivided into smaller fractions a whole note is divided into two half notes or four quarter notes etc Traditional West African music is additive in that it adds various pulses in a twelvebeat rhythmic time line This relates to a difference of thought in which African music can be thought of as circular whereas European music is more linear Atonal Music which is not in a key and not organized diatonically Blue note The atted loweredminor 3rd 5th or 7th degree of a chord or scale also a tone that sounds between the pitches of the traditional major and minor scales of EuropeanAmerican music Probably arising from the process of accommodation and compromise between European scales and the West African pentatonic scales again blues notes most often occur on the third fth and seventh scale steps quot w 4 Blues poetry The lyrics to a blues song Can be in AABA form 32Bar form ifthe A section returns before the next verse For example A section My Man don t love me treats me awful mean pause A section My Man don t love me treats me awful mean pause B section He is the lowest man I ve ever seen pause U1 Bluesy quality Frequent use of chromatic notes notes outside the major scale especially the at lowered 3rd 5th or 7th degree Bomb a percussion drum accent in the bop period dropping bombs as opposed to keeping steady time Break a short passage usually two bars in which the accompaniment stops playing and a soloist improvises by himself or herself Breaks frequently occur between measures 68 or 1416 in sectional form Bridge also called the quotB sectionquot 39releasequot quotinsidequot or quotchannelquot The section which presents contrast to the A section of text andor music See Blues Poetry In thirtytwo bar pop song form AABA the B section is often called the bridge channel or release Call and response or responsorial where a soloist is answered by another musician or a group of musicians In rock this is frequently called quottrading foursquot as musicians exchange four bars of improvisation against one another quottrading twosquot means that they exchange twobar licks etc Chart during the swing era and later times the chart was the arrangement that determined the organization of an ensemble work A chart could be a head chart developed by a band spontaneously during rehearsals or it could be a written chart like those by Ellington that were carefully worked out on paper in advance fill rhythmic ideas a percussionist will play to quot llquot a silence or signal a soloist s entrance or exit 1 Chord A chord is a simultaneous sounding of pitches or notes It is typically formed by skipping every other note in the scale and like modes can start on any scale degree note or pitch Therefore in a C scale CDEFGABC the C chord would contain the notes quotC E G If the 7th degree is added B the chord would be called a C major seventh chord The quotDquot chord in the key of C would be built with the pitches DFA and sounded as a simultaneity 12 Chord progression First read quotChordquot Moving from one chord to another 57 l 00 3 O 13 CO NM M NH O N LU N 4 NNN oolO Chord voicing Frist read quotChordquot The the way the pitches of a chord are ordered or arranged Recalling our quotCquot chord quotCEGquot we can place those pitches in any order and they are still a C chord quotEGCquot or quotGCEquot etc Duplicate pitches do not affect the identity sonority of the chord quotCEGEGEECquot still functions as a quotCEGquot chord Chorus Playing the blues or rock piece one time could be called a one chorus quotTaking a Chorus or ridequot means soloing over the chords of the song two choruses would be two times through the piece The section of a popular tune which follows the verse Chromatic Pitches or notes between letter named scale degrees The blue notes are chromatic tones The European octave is divided into 12 separate notes like the 12 frets on a guitar This is the chromatic scale There are seven letter named notes CDEFGAB and five chromatic notes which lie between them The chromatic notes are called sharps and ats and derive their names from the letter notes which they border Thus C sharp and Db at are really the same pitch Combo a small ensemble in blues or rock where each part is played by just one instrument For example a trio might have a bass drums and solo trumpet saxophone or piano A quintet might have a bass drums piano trumpet and saxophone The New Orleans style would typically have a combo consisting of a rhythm section with piano bass banjo and drums and a front line of trumpet clarinet and trombone Comping a form of piano accompaniment in which the musician improvises a syncopated harmonic backup to a soloist that relates to the soloist s melodic improvisation Developed during the swing era comping was a lighter more swinging way to drive the soloist along without playing on every beat of the measure Context the social historical and cultural heritage in which music transpires The function and venue for the music has a major impact on the performance an reception of the music Creole a mixture of ethnic origins In New Orleans creoles were usually considered people of mixed French and Spanish ancestry Black creoles were usually of French African ancestry and were generally known as free people of color This was a special class of people in Louisiana who were of mixed African and European parentage yet who were free some of them even owned slaves themselves The were often well educated wealthy and based their culture on the model of aristocratic New Orleans society Cross rhythms Using two or more di erent rhythms such as waltz time against march time 34 44 Dotted eighth note Apitch whose duration lasts for the length of three sixteenth notes Dotted eighthsixteenth figure A syncopated rhythm often incorrectly used to notate swing style More appropriately found in Ragtime Double time a rhythmic acceleration in which each beat is divided in half so that the pulse feels twice as fast Example clap eight times in a measure instead of just four times in a measure of four quarter notes Eighth note One half the duration of a quarter note Eighth note triplet The word triplet means duration values divided into thirds Therefore if a quarter note is divided into triplets each section of the quarter note would equal 3333 In this case 3 eighth notes would be equal to 1 quarter note and their values would equal 13 Often called a swing eighth note Fifth The fifth scale degree Flat fifth The fifth scale degree lowered by one half step also blue or chromatic note Flat seventh The seventh scale degree lowered by one half step also blue or chromatic note 29 LU U1 G U gt1 4 0 4 4 57 00 gt0 Flat third The third scale degree lowered by one half step also blue or chromatic note Form The overall shape organization or structure of amusical composition West African music tends to have the form be related to function work recreation social ritual ceremonial whereas EuropeanAmerican forms are quotsyntheticquot preeXisting molds such as quotsectionalquot quotbluesquot or quotthirtytwo bar pop song formquot Fourth The fourth scale degree of a key Head Usually found in 32 bar pop song form the opening section where the theme is stated Sometimes the head is repeated again in the middle of a string of solo improvisations and used to conclude a piece as well Heterophony a melody that is performed by a group in which each person quotpersonalizesquot the melody Each musician is playing the same melody but they add their individual musical ornaments Hocket a melody or rhythmic pattern is divided between more than one performer This is a way of making interlocking parts out of a single whole Hocket is frequently encountered in traditional communal musics of West Africa note the term actually means quothiccupquot in Latin and was used to describe a similar concept in Medievalera mus1c Homophony layers of musical activity that move at the same rhythm Melody and accompaniment is a type of homophon Improvisation spontaneous musical creation chorus improvisation is the blues or rock process in which a musician creates new melody on top of a preeXisting chord pattern such as a blues or quotrhythm changesquot Intonation Most instruments can play pitches between the established chromatic scale degrees in Western music Typically musicians are trained to avoid these microtones Musicians try to play the pitches with accurate intonation not allowing the note to dip or rise below or above the correct frequency Jungle sound the style developed by the Ellington Orchestra in Harlem during the l930sl940s which featured the growling mute work of quotBubberquot Miley trumpet and quotTricky Samquot Nanton trombone Key Is normally defined by the beginning and ending chord harmony of a song and by the order of whole steps and half steps between tonic scale degrees Simply put If the song begins on a C major chord and ends on a C major chord then the song is in the key of C major Minor keys work the same way Also see mode or scale Layers West African music is often constructed with quotstrataquot of sound that are related in a complex way to the organizing pattern of the core quottime linequot These different layers can be thought of as interlocking patterns as in a hocket see above Legato Playing two or more notes without a conceivable break between them Major The quality of a key or scale where the third degree is four chromatic steps above the tonic The quality of a chord whose third degree is four chromatic steps above the root Measure Same as quotBarquot Typically lasting four beats in 44 or common C meter Meter The number of beats before the next strong downbeat called beat 1 Common meter has four beats in each measure The basis of time organization in the EuropeanAmerican musical system Meter measures patterns of accents in units called bars or measures these terms mean the same thing 4 4 or march time is the most common meter in blues or rock and features four beats in each measure with an accent on the first beat of each measure Minor Amajor interval reduced by one attedlowered 3rd 6th and 7th degrees Modal jazz a harmonic and melodic system developed by Miles Davis and others such as Herbie Hancock which is based on the older scales known as modes such as 12 step A diatonic scale with a Uquot Jgt O 00 UI U1 N UlU39l bu UI UI U1 l Octave Pre x quotoc the dorian For instance quotSo Whatquot is based on a dorian mode whose notes are the white notes on the piano defgabcd Modal jazz tends to be more stagnant harmonically compared to the fast chord changes of bebop style Mode Essentially the same as scale but not key Modes are built from the same notes of the key but emphasis other groupings of those same pitches If C major has the notes C D E F G A B C D E F GAB C then the quotDquot mode would run from D to D using the same notes DEFGABCD etc The sound or feel of each mode is different There are seven notes in any key so each key can feature seven di erent modes Also see key Monophony one line of sound performed by a single musician or by a group of musicians who are all playing in unison together Mute a device that brass players can use to change the timbre of their sound such as Miles Davis s use of the Harmon stem mute or the quotgrowlingquot jungle soundquot created by Bubber Miley of Duke Ellington s Orchestra quot means 8 The distance interval between C and the next C in an ordered scale is one octave The last C C D E F G AB C is in a higher register 8 degrees higher than the first C and vibrates twice as fast as the first C Orchestration The process of allocating the pitches of a song between the di erent instruments in the group Ostinato a short repeated melodic and rhythmic idea Ostinati can be placed on top of one another in interlocking layers of sound to create polyrhythms musical texture the relationship of lines of musical ideas Polyphony layers of different melodic and rhythmic activity Polyrhythm quotPolyquot means many so many typically independent rhythms This term often describes the independence between the various drum parts in a West African Drum Choir The presence of two or more layers of di erent rhythmic patterns that are sounded simultaneously Two or more lines of sound with con icting rhythmic accents Polytonal quotPolyquot means many so many typically independent tonalities keysUsually this term describes a section of music often dissonant which is simultaneously employing 2 or more ke s Quarter note Most often the rhythmic unit which the foot taps with the music The quarter note is usually the quotBeatquot The math is logical 4 quarter notes equal one whole note a full measure in 44 or common meter has four beats or quarter notes a quarter note can divided into various subunits 2 eighths 3 triplets 4 sixteenths etc Various combinations can also equal a quarter note eighth 2 sixteenths dotted eighth sixteenth and so forth Responsorial or call and response where a soloist is answered by another musician or a group of musicians In Blues this is frequently called quottrading foursquot as musicians exchange four bars of improvisation against one another quottrading twosquot means that they exchange twobar licks etc Rhythm Rhythm refers to the arrangement of sounds in time not random events and therefore encompasses beat tempo and meter Rhythm section that part of a rock ensemble that is keeping time Usually this refers to the bass tuba string or electric piano drums guitar or banjo Riff a harmonized melodic and rhythmic idea that was used as an accompaniment pattern Scale Essentially the same as mode but not key Scales are built from the same notes of the key but may emphasis other ordered groupings of those same pitches If C major has the notes C D E F G AB C D E F GAB C then the quotDquot mode would run from D to D using the same notes DEFGABCD etc The sound or feel of each mode is different There are seven notes in any key so each key can feature seven different modes Also see key 62 Scat wordless vocals improvised by a jazz singer for example the scat on Louis Armstrong s quotSkid dat de datquot or quotHeebie Jeebiesquot 63 Scoring Basically the same as orchestration Often applied to sections which have been quotcrossscoredquot combining instruments from di erent sections simultaneously rather than having just the saxes play then the trumpets then the trombones etc Sectional form This is a form descended from quadrilles and related to ragtime and marching band styles in which there are usually nine sections each of which is 16 bars in length The usual arrangement of sections is AABBACCDD Short term repetition There are only three ways of approaching an idea It is rst stated then it may be repeated varied repeated with some change or contrasted followed by a new idea West African music uses short repeating ideas called ostinati in which a short pattern is repeated over and over again against other repeated ideas EuropeanAmerican music tends to think in terms of large scale repetition long sections are repeated Examples of short term repetition include the bass pattern of a blues or the layers of patterns in quotWatermelon Manquot 66 Shout chorus in a New OrleansChicago style jazz piece in sectional form this is the last section in which the whole ensemble played loudly with the front line soloists weaving around each other in improvisation Players frequently stood up to play this last chorus 67 Sixteenbar blues An extended 12 bar blues The final section is typically a repeat of the A section It can also be built from two 8 bar measure phrases Sixteenth note Generally the most often used division of a quarter note 4 sixteenths equal one quarter note 4 quarter notes equal one measure or bar Staccato An articulation which directs the performer to cut the duration of a note much shorter than its written value often with a sharp attack Straight four a rhythmic feel in which the rhythm section is keeping an even four feel in 44 meter without strong accents 71 Strain in sectional form a sixteenbar unit that forms the large building block of the form Also known as a section 72 Street cries the vocal quotcallsquot of New Orleans and other cities used by tradesmen to sell their wares The street cry is somewhere between sung and shoute 73 Swing such a simple yet complex wordyou have a whole separate handout on this one It is a quotfeelquot in which the music is loosely propelled with an uneven division of the beat Swing is also the name for a whole styleperiod of jazz featuring the big bands ofthe 1920s 1940s As Duke noted quotIt don t mean athing if it ain t got that sw1n Swing eighth note A precarious term to define For our purposes it will be two eighth notes the first is held longer than the second They are written as normal eighths for sake of easier notation Mathematically the first equals approximately 66 of the beat and the second the remainder In reality the first is not held quite that lon Syncopation Stressing accenting parts of the beat which are not normally stressed an accent in an unexpected place In 4 4 meter the expected accents fall directly on the first and third beats The quotback beatquot beats two and four are forms of syncopation that are often associated with rock and roll Syncopation can happen as layers of rhythm are superimposed over a steady four usually maintained in the rhythm section Tempo The speed ofthe beat Thirtytwobar forms Songs with 32 measures typically 2 sixteen bar sections which can be further divided into 4 eight bar units An AABA or Bar form Timbre sometimes called quottone colorquot The use of certain instruments and the ways in which they are combined timbre is the factor that makes a ute sound di erent than a violin when they are playing exactly the same pitch at the same volume 01 4 G U1 G G a CO I O 1 4 l U1 ll ION l 00 79 Time line a vocal expression that translates into a rhythmic pattern used to organize a West African percussion piece These patterns are usually twelve beats Example quotsang si sang sang si sang siquot 80 Tonal Asong or section of music which is organized by key or scale Tonal center Most often a section of a piece which has temporarily changed keys and thus has a new quotTonal centerquot which di ers from the stated key signature 82 Tone color The dark or bright shading that a musician can apply to a pitch You can experience this shading by humming the same note with your lips closed or opened Trading fours a type of musical quotcompetitionquot in which musicians exchange four bars of improvisation with one another sometimes echoing one or another or trying to outdo one another Trading twos means they are exchanging two bars etc Trap set the collection of drums that developed in New Orleans style jazz which perhaps simulated the collective percussion sound of a whole West African drum ensemble Atrap set typically includes a bass drum played with a pedal a hi hat cymbal played with a pedal a snare drum with metal springs a deeper sounding tom tom drum and crash and ride cymbals Turnaround A chord progress which leads back to the beginning of the song Twelvebar blues progression A progression of chords common to the blues usually IIV IV I in the most basic sense Verse Often the first section of a song See book for expanded explanation Voicing in fourths A simultaneity whose individual componets are spaced four scale degrees apart in closest voicing Walking bass the style of bass performance that developed during the swing era in which the bass outlines the harmonic motion by playing a note on each quarter note beat of 44 meter 90 Waltz A dance popularized during the late 19th century in triple meter 00 CO Lu 0 4 0000 0000 OO GNU 00 u