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Date Created: 10/11/15
Unit 3 Rise ofFascist Tquot 39 39 in Europe I Background a Political Polarization i Left 7 moderate democrat right b Fascist dictators i Popular ii Left and right ideas iii Conservative V Authoritarian V Example nationalism right socialism left c Groups attracted to Fascism i Those not doing well 7 tough economic conditions after WWI in ation and unemployment 1 middle lower class 2 youth ii Fascism appeals to emotion iii Symbolic ideology Heroic man d Classic Fascist States in Europe i Italy 1922 7 Mussolini ii Germany 1933 7 Hitler iii Why Italy and Germany 1 young nations 187071 2 conservativeno democratic traditions 3 not favored in Paris Peace Conference 1919 a Italy 7 switched sides had many casualties not given promised land b Germany 7 punished too harshly military restrictions reparations to France 4 Couldn t cope with Great Depression 1930s a Worldwide b Crash 7 Oct 24 amp 29 1929 II Italian Fascism a Benito Mussolini 18831945 i Early life socialist journalist Italian newspaper volunteered for army WWI veteran never saw action b March 231919 i Mussolini formed political organization Fascio Di Combattimento Street Fighting Gang 1 145 members 2 lst fascist organization political party in Europe led by Mussolini Stages in the Rise of Mussolini s Fascism Stage I Struggle for Power 19191922 a Pleasing the conservatives 7 nationalism b Supporting the working class 7 8 hour workday time for family c Supporting women 7 the vote 1921 Fascist membership 30000 1922 King appointed Mussolini Prime Minister of Italy 1 2 Stage II Mussolini creates a dictatorship 19221935 a Attack on communism 7 made conservatives fear communist takeover 7 prevent spread b Press censorship 7 controlled opposition c Control of parliamentary procedure d Ma a activities 7 took out opposition 1930s Corporatism code of conduct commanded by Mussolini leader knows best employersemployees government relate to one another through 22 corporations 1934 overcome class con ict avoid class war inspiration Catholic social thought family values problems Mussolini exposed fragmentation of Italian society Mussolini s economic failure 7 1930s unemployment 3 Stage III Aggression 19351936 1935 exporting domestic problems by adopting popular foreign policy revenge of 1896 7 invasion of Ethiopia 193536 III The Fascist State in Germany a Background The Weimar Republic 19191933 i Ruled form the center 7 Liberal ii Instability 7 most Germans were right left 1 2 P39er Versailles Treaty burden signed by Weimar Republic hoped to renegotiate but people were still angry Political Polarization 7 rightleftmiddle middle was slim and unpopular conservative radical maj ority no middle no democratic tradition Economic Crisis post war in ation Great Depression 1930s Adolf Hitler 1 18891945 son of Austrian customs official until 1913 lived in Vienna Austria cosmopolitan culture architecture art high school dropout hobby art artist art academy beliefs 1 Social Darwinist survival of the fittest chosen people 2 AntiSemitist from Austrian experience 3 PanGerman strongunified Germany very powerful orator WWI veteran Injured and taken to Munich at the end of the war 7 did not see German surrender 1918 Hitler in Munich Germany 19181920 German Workers Party 7 joined took over National Socialist German Workers Party 7 Nazi Party 19231924 The Dutsch 1923 7 attempt to overthrow local gov t in Bavaria then overthrow central gov t in Munich 9 months prison 19231924 could have been executed for treason during his time in jail he wrote the Mein Kempf book of hate towards Jews when he got out he was more popular than before 7 depression helped his cause because he claimed Jews had conspired to start the Great Depression Reinstag 19302quotd 1932 230 seats 1St January 30 1933 conservatives rally for Hitler named Chancellor of Germany was not accepted by German ruling class conservatives hoped to use him and dump him SupportOpposition for Hitler support widespread amongst middlelower class youth 1St time voters opposition catholic voters industrial workers Hitler gains control anticommunism appealed to conservatives created a loyal army the strom troopers street fighters E Rohm 7 lower class 1 The Schutzwaffel 7 elite guards black shirts 88 2 Gestapo 7 secret police 3 both of these were wealthy June 30 1934 the night of long knives attack of strom troopers killed many including Rohm Hitler began to create a Nazi ideology 1 objectives overcome class con ict create racial purity 2 be loyal to Hitler a coordination Gleinchschaltung b obey the leader Fuhrerprinzip i power from the top down ii propaganda used Hitler and German Economy 1 alliance with big business planning price employment 2 lasting successes the Autobahn the Volkswagen plan for war highways The Road to WWII Hitler s Schemes I The Jewish Question 1933 Purges eXpels Jews from civil services 193439 Compulsory Sterilization 7 people with disabilities targeted 1935 Nuremberg Laws citizenship denied to Jews not protected by the rights of a citizen outlawed interracial marriage another way to deny citizenship 1938 Persecutions Crystal Night Nov 910 1938 rampage on Jewish businesses vandalized not protected by law vulnerable Con scateddestroyed 7 destroy sense of Jewish community Synagogues 7 destroyedtaken away II Versailles Treaty 1933 Boycott of Geneva refused to send delegation 1935 Open Armament Luftwaffe German Air Force secret Army X5 above legal level 500000 March 1936 remilitarization of the Rhineland area where weapons were produced rich in minerals coal iron etc 1937 War Talk 7 Hitler tells generals to be ready for war III The End of Austria Spring 1938 a Anschluss GermanAustrian Union forbidden at Paris Peace Conference i In uenced change of gov t in Austria ii Put a ProNazi into Power using support 1 poll indicated many Austrians wanted to be part of Germany iii sent troops under invitation iv announced that Anschluss was created IV The End of Czechoslovakia a Hitler claims Sweden 7 large German population i FranceRussia oppose claim i British PM Chamberlain intervenes shouldn t isolate enemy 1 meets with Hitler 7 Sept 1522 1938 2 Munich Conference 7 Sept 20 1938 3 Sweden annexed 7 Oct 1938 ii39 other claims by Poland and Hungary iv March 1939 Hitler took Czechoslovakia which had been falling apart 1 Final warning if Hitler tried to invade anymore Allies would go to war V Spanish Italian and German Alliances July 1936May 1989 a Franco Mussolini Hitler VI Fate of Poland a b Hitler claims on Polish Gomindor Danzig City NaziSoviet Pact Russia neutral split Poland Aug 23 1929 Sept 1 1939 invasion of Poland Sept 3 1939 Europe at War 1 Allan Bullock Hitler s War 2 AJP Taylor 7 Hitler plus Allies War AXis Germany 1939 Italy 193536 Japan 1931 1937 Allies UK 1939 France 1939 Russia 1941 USA 1941 Types of warfare 1 blitzkrieg lighting war simultaneous ground and air attacks 2 phony war propaganda radio messages and lea ets AXis power on the Offense 19391941 1 Phase I Hitler s European Contest 999 Poland Sept 121 1939 Denmark and Norway April 1940 Netherlands and Belgium May June 1940 Fall of France June 22 1940 i Maginot Lane ii Vichy France new capital iii Free France movement based in Britain 1 Charles de Gaulle Battle of Britain Summerfall 1940 ended in a draw i Britain had been soft with Germany ii Hitler said stay out of the way but Britain declined Churchill in power 1 Hitler 7 Wiftwaffe Plan air command a Royal air force b City of London bombed repeatedly day and night c Eventually failed d Submarine warfare Britain was ready for f Operation Barbarossa German invasion of Soviet Union i Wanted to make USSR into lebensrawm 7 living space i Violation of NaziSoviet pact iii Attack June 22 2941 massive soviet losses iv Russia s scorched earth war v General winter Dec 1941 1 destroyed German troops which almost destroyed the Russians who had time to regroup g Hitler could not defeat Britain or USSR Italy and War in Africa 1 East African Campaign 19391940 a Campaign that pitter Italy vs UK France which commanded Africa b Italy was kicked out of Ethiopia 2 North African Campaign Fall 1940 a Launched by Italy in Sept 1940 supported by Germany b Goal was to blockade Mediterranean Sea c Countered by France UK US and African troops i Suez canal in Egypt was a huge area ii Germany and Italy tried to blockade Britain iii US kept Britain alive by ying in supplies Japan and the War in the Paci c Japan s problems with the West imperialism 7 colonies resources Japan s expansion into China 7 clash wWest Just like the US wanted everyone to stay out of the Western Hemisphere Japan wanted everyone to stay out of Asia I 1931 Attack on Manchuria occupied it 1932 Western powers gathered to punish Japan Ottawa Agreement 7 economic sanctions Japan cannot export to France Britain or US or any of their colonies 7 India French Indochina Philippines Cannot import from those areas 1937 Attack on mainland China occupied Eastern China prepare for attack 1940 Western punishment sanctions on scrap iron and weapons Western countries agree to stop export of scrap iron and weapons to Japan Japan poor in resources p 1 p 1 III 1941 Takeover of French Indochina French colonies weak after France defeated by Germany in 1940 1941 Western punishmen sanctions on oil and steel 7 denied to Japan US pushed the sanctions main enemy sanctionslimitations lead to strong nationalism Sun Dec 7 1941dawn Pearl Harbor Hawaiian Islands heavy US casualties Japanese rampage 7 take over colonies Large Japanese empire in Asia IV 1942 The Turning Points in WWII 7 The Offensive of the Grand Alliance 2 d phase of WWII a The Grand Alliance offensive UKFrance 1939 Russia June 1941 US Dec 8 1941 b AXis Powers defensive Germany Italy Japan c Turning points in the Paci c against the Japanese May 19421943 i Setbacks for Japan US victories Japanese casualties 1 Battle of Coral Sea May 1942 2 Battle of Midway Island June 1942 3 Battle of Guadal Canal Aug 1942March 1943 d Turning points in North Africa Mediterranean Sea liberated i Operation Torch Nov 1942May 1943 ii Kicked GermansItalians out of Africa e Turning point in Operation Barbarossa Eastern Front The Soviet Rally i The Battle of Stalingrad Nov 1942Jan 1943 f The Turning Point on the Western Front i German occupation of ALL of France before they had only occupied areas close to English Channel provoked stiff opposition and French Resistance 1942 Free France ii US assistance helps 7 ships and submarine detection Britain benefited from new technology 1 43 subs sunk g Turning Points on the Home Fronts 1942 i Effect Mobilization by the Allies UK Russia France USA home front must support war for success Russia Stalin pushed his people to defeat Germany 2 France Free France 3 USA Roosevelt given unconditional support by the people after Pearl Harbor ii Ineffective Mobilization by AXis Ex Germany 7 oppression in German Empire forced labor racism NordicNonNordic a By oppressingexploiting countries they took over Hitler thought he d win the war b The Final Resolution The Holocaust 39 The plan to exterminate Jewish people from the planet ii Extermination Camps AuschwitzBirkenau Poland 7 1000 Jewsday ii39 Gas chambers crematoria iv 6 million Jews exterminated 3 of total Jew population in Europe The End of WWII The Defeat ofthe Axis Powers 194345 I III Italy 7 1943 a b lst to be defeated all Italian units forced to surrender by end of 1943 Germany 7 summer 1944 a Soviet push from the Eastern Front i Entered and occupied East GermanyBerlin b June 6 1944 7 DDay Operation Overlord i UK France USA Canada push from Western Front 1 successful liberation of France 2 occupation of West GermanyBerlin c Hitler s secret weapons not yet effective i Jet aircraft robot bombs V2 ying bombs d April 30 1945 Hitler concedes defeat e May 8 1945 all German units surrender Japan a Liberation of Japanese Empire AprilAug 1945 b Roosevelt to Truman April 12 1945 i Minimize US casualties 1 atomic bomb high Japanese casualties 2 conventional method high US c Atomic bomb and Japanese surrender Hiroshima Aug 5 1945 civilianresidential over 100000 instant deaths No surrender ii39 Nagasaki Aug 9 1945 iv Japanese surrender Aug 15 1945 End of WWII Sept 2 1945 lt Debated about WWII l USSR Second Front and the War a Was the USSR fairly treated b Instead of help to Eastern Front Western was formed c Casualties US200000 USSR2628 mil 2 use of Atomic Bomb in Japan 7 necessary Aftermath Losses over 60 mil dead over 35 mil injured 3 mil reported missing 15 trillion Occupation Germany Italy Japan occupied 7 lost territories empire Territory Germany Italy Japan lost empire not UK or France War Criminals arrested and tried EG Nuremberg Trials International Organization for Peace United Nations created from League of Nations WWI Background Origins 1 3quot 03 P Imperialism Asia 1905106 Moroccan Crisis a Asia Europeans US open door policy Japan more land and resources b Africa UKFrance vs Germany i Moroccan Crisis c Italy i Seeking revenge for losing Ethiopia in 1896 Nationalism a Selfdetermination against Austria Hungary i PanSlavism b Germany i Kaiser Wilhelm 11 ii Aggressive nationalism progermanism iii Took AlsakeOrraine from France 187071 c Defensive French Nationalism Prestige Militarism a Armies navy air force b Defense Offense System of Alliance a Bismarck German chancellor suggested allying with friends and isolating enemies 1878 Serbia gains independent from Ottoman Empire AustriaHungary occupies BosniaHerzegovina primarily Serbian population 1899 amp 1907 failed peace conferences 7 arms raceabsolute national sovereignty no disbarment 7 rules of war common understanding of war coming 19051906 FranceUK vs Germany in Morocco 1907 AngloRussian Etente 1908 Austria annexes BosniaHerz Serbia appeals to Russia and makes Austria back down Germany feels threatened backs Dual Monarchy in annexation crisis 1899 failed peace conference 19001911 Germany doubles naval spending 1905 Britain begins construction of new battleship 1907 failed peace conference 1913 antiGermany disturbances in France 19101914 German and Austrian military spending doubles by 1914 Germany and France have armies of 800000 with reserves of1 million Russia 12 million z39nferi0r Triple Alliance Central Powers Germany Italy Austria Hungary Bulgaria Ottoman Empire Triple Etente Allies France Russia UK Italy Japan rest ofthe world WWI Immediate Origins WWI June 28 1914 Assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophia Sarajevo Bosnia by Gavrillo Princip part of a Serbian terrorist organization known as the Black Hand July 6 1914 AustriaHungary blames Serbian gov t allowed access to Duke traced to Pan Slav Movement 7 Serbia PanSlav Kingdom Germany s black check July 23 1914 AustriaHungary sends ultimatum 48 hours to explain assassination to Serbia July 28 1914 AustriaHungary declares War on Serbia even though they attempted to give a sincere explanation AH bombs Belgrade Serbia appeals to Russia July 2830 1914 Russia mobilizes troops July 31 1914 Germany sends ultimatum 12 hrs to stop troop mobilization to Russia France tells Russia to stand rm declares solidarity August 1 1914 Germany consults France France declares support for Russia Germany declares War on Russia August 2 1914 Germany sends ultimatum to Belgium neutral August 3 1914 Germany declares War on France August 4 1914 Germany invades France through Belgium UK threatened by takeover of Belgium declares War on Germany Europe mobilizes for War Italy and Japan remain neutral Expected to be short and bene cial Key ghting areas North Sea WesternEastern Front Baltic FranceRussia Global dimensions of WWI Europe oceans Africa Middle East AsiaPaci c Islands African colonies in Europe Japanese in Europe US in Europe Schlieffen Plan to avoid battling on two fronts Germany would take out France before Russia could be ready then move troops to Eastern Front to take on Russia carried out 78 of troops on Western Border in beginning of the war but had problems 7 demanding march schedules support and supplies lagging large army was hard to coordinate midOct 1914 newly forti ed Western Front after FrenchBritish reorganize 19141915 Germany concentrates troops on Western Front 19141918 ghting spread worldwide Germany overran in Africa 1915 Japan declares War on Germany Italy switches sides Jan 18 1915 Japan s 21 demands to China 19151916 Eastern Front movement stalemate 1916 total war home front May 31June 1 1916 Battle of Jutland 1917 US entry is a turning point Feb 1 1917 German Unrestricted Submarine Warfare March Nov 1917 Russian Revolutions 19171918 German reinforcements to Western Front Sept 1918 reinforcements repulsed by US and Allies OctNov 1918 disintegration of the AustriaHungary and Ottoman Empires Nov 11 1918 German gov t collapse German surrender Woodrow Wilson s 14 Points Jan 18 1919 Paris Peace Conference 7 Woodrow Wilson 14 pts British PM David Lloyd George French PM Georges Clemenceau 7 wanted to make sure Germany wouldn t threaten French security again June 28 1919 Treaty of Versailles 7 signed by Germany and the nations Alsace Lorraine to France districts to BelgiumCzechoslovakiaPoland League of Nations controls some German areas limited armyforcesweapons debt to Nations 5 billion by 1921 Damage ofWWI 1 2 3 Loss of lives property pride a 10 mil military deaths 10 mil civilian 20 mil wounded Military civilian deaths wartime in uenza 20 mil wounded Cost of War About 350 billion Interwar Years 1 2 3 Sciencetechnology infrastructure progress World Economy a US 7 industrial boom jobs b Europe 7 in ation c Oct 2429 1929 Great Depression begins Social Conditions a Roaring 20s women s rights and opportunities political quest for lasting peace Jan 18 1919 Paris Peace Conference commenced included 32 victor nations Triple Alliance absent June 28 1919 Versailles Treaty meant to bring peace dealt with Germany 1919 Creation of the League of Nations Russian Revolutions Reform is an improvement of an existing system Revolution changes an existing system completely Russia changed in a completely new unexpected way PreRevolutionary agrarian religious nonindustrial and traditional autocratic empire monarchy of one family of rulers Revolutionary rapidly industrializing constitutional monarchy Marxist society atheist and communist Revolution was inspired by Liberal ideas democracy parliament elected officials freemarket economy Marxist ideas communism Revolution of 1905 1904105 RussoJapanese War Jan 22 1905 Bloody Sunday Oct 1905 Manifesto leads to Constitutional Monarchy Liberals now in charge loss of revolutionary momentum 19061914 WWI Revolution of March 1917 t1iggered by unpopular involvement in the war 19141918 March 1917 bread riots protests and demonstrations in Petrograd due to low wages bad working conditions and food shortage March 12 1917 Provisional Gov t formed Moderate MarxistsMensheviks and Social Revolutionaries March 15 1917 Czar abdicates throne April 1917 Lenin returns to Russia from Switzerland forms Bolshevik Marxists Revolution of November 1917 quotquot 15t communist Revolution led by Bolshevik Marxists Lenin and Trotsky challenge Provisional Gov t October 1917 Lenin returns to Petrograd calls for immediate takeover of power Nov 69 1917 Bolshevik troops take over infrastructure Winter Palace Coup Nov 9 1917 Mensheviks storm out in frustration new gov t is formed Lenin as chairman of the Council of People s Commissars Trotsky as Commissar of Foreign Affairs Nov 17 1917 twice as many Social Revolutionaries as Bolsheviks in Constituent Assembly Jan 1918 Constituent Assembly disbanded by Lenin March 1918 Treaty of BrestLitovsk Russia 1918 1920 gapr Allied Intervention Civil War Invasion of Poland Famine 1 Allied Intervention March 1918 Treaty of BrestLitovsk leads to Allied opposition of cooperation with Germany in fear that Germany will control ports Archangel and Murmansk reinforce troops on the Western Front Nov 19 1918 troops sent to Russia by Allies stay to support whites in civil war 2 Civil War 19181920 Whites Conservatives vs Red Communists Oct 1919 Whites threaten Moscow and Petrograd April 1920 Poland attacks Russia Reds lose Nov 1920 Reds force last White ships to evacuate Allies withdraw 19221925 Japan evacuates Russian land Reasons for Red Victory although they had more obstacles Allies War with Poland powerful opposition within Russia they won because of unity Trotsky good military organization and leadership control of the heartland and popularity with peasants minorities 19201921 Bolsheviks restore most of Ukraine Azerbaijan Armenia Georgia Central Asia March 1921 Kronstadt sailors revolt crushed by gov t Emma Goldman separates from Communist Cause War Communism 19181921 gov t took over all sectors of economy peasants land was taken and they were employed and paid what was considered fair gov t decline in agriculture resulted due to no motivation to work Lenin admitted this was not working New Economic Policy 1921 1928 problems in Russia population losses famine destroyed citiesvillages idle factories idle transportation systems crop production down some land under no contro NEP solutions nationalized industryland abolished private trade state owned crops gov t control over industrytransportationbanking some private enterprise small industry and retail taxes in foodmoney free to sell remainder no forced labor idea of pro t as incentive to boost agriculture Lenin s SocialPolitical Reform Constitution of 1924 proclaimed federation of republics Union of Soviet Socialist Republics many liberties press gov t criticism lack of censorship free enterprise women s rights advanced communism for Russia only accepted by Western Nations Stalin s takeover 1922 Lenin suffers stroke 1923 Lenin concludes Stalin General Secretary of Communist Party will not make a good successor but is too weak to remove him Jan 1924 Lenin dies wishes Trotsky to succeed him Stalin spreads propaganda and gains power party control 1927 Stalin has Trotsky and other opponents expelled from party 1929 Trotsky forced to leave the USSR to Mexico 1940 Trotsky killed by Stalist agent Collectivization and the Five Year Plan Stalin was a brutal dictator good foreign policy bad domestic needed grain from farmers but favored only cities Objectives increase grain production feed urban class build heavy industry world power military power gov t takeover of all production and land 19281929 Communist Party under Stalin dissatis ed with NEP Class enemies attacked collectivization of agriculture put in effect 1 State Farms like factories low wages xed by gov t 2 Collective Farms group peasants to work on gov t land obligations pay tax for land meet target for grain production sell grain to gov t at low price xed by gov t compensation allowed small plot to grow food keep livestock selfsuf cient Kulaks wealthy individual farmers that thrived under Lenin opposed Stalin s takeover of farms They were liquidated or forced to liquidate themselves positives of Stalin s rule Russia industrialized faster than any Western Nation bene ting the cities negatives agriculture stagnated peasant resistance too much force millions dead industrialization focuses on capital goods missing consumer goods to this day Mexican Revolution Background 1 Struggles for land few privileged have monopoly and liberty democracy 2 Crisis of the cities a Land was short so people moved to the cities for employment b Rumors of good city life in rural areas c In actuality cities had few jobs and crime as a result of desperation 3 Churchstate land question a Churchgov t had been practicing semifeudal system b Dictatorship c Caudillo Rule 7 Por no Diaz 4 Caudillo Rule Revolts of 1910 and Leaders 1 Francisco Madero moderateliberal supporters urban middle class cities from all over Mexico wanted free open elections to overrun Diaz and represent true wishes of the people 2 Francisco Pancho Villa supporters small Northern farmers opposed to foreign business run by US on Mexican land cowboy style of war raids border crossings con ict with US frontier mentality 3 Emiliano Zapata supporters landless Southern peasants advocated for masses in ght for legal land reform idea of land use based on need main representative for Mexican People in 1910 Revolutionary Stages 19101914 Phase I the struggle to overthrow Diaz 19141916 Phase 11 class con ict middle class wins US intervention in Veracruz 19171920 Phase III attempt to unite behind national gov t pacify countryside stop ghting US intervention in Northern Deserts 1917 1917 Constitution most liberal in the world land ownership based on use separation of church and state labor relations safety control of foreign corporations Other concepts 1 191113 Madero as president 2 succeeded by Huerta 191314 3 no proper ruler 191417 US backed constitutionalists Carranza Obregon Radicals Villa North and Zapata South 19171920 Caranza 192028 Obregon 192834 Calles 193440 Caranas most reforms 1940s decline of revolutionary movement End of an era 10 yrs of civil strife 2 million deaths Madero murdered 1913 Huerta ed to Europe 1914 Zapata betrayedmurdered 1919 Caranza term ended stole state murdered 1920 Villa killed 1923 7 reason unclear Deep remaining sense of revolutionary tradition Nationalist Revolution in China 1900 Boxer asco shatters Manchu Dynasty authority imperial gov t had to approve changes study of European forms of gov t parliamentary institutions western style schools and universities 113911 hour reform attempts Dynasty Opposition 7 Revolutionary Support 1 merchantsindustrialists unequal treaties gave foreign goods advantage over Chinese goods 2 traders 3 students wanted modernization opposed reactionary court Leaders Sun YatSen Born 1866 to poor farmers schooled in Hawaii and Hong Kong wanted revolution Ideology 3 People s Principles Nationalism Democracy Livelihood industrial socialism land reform 7 ownership 1905 Sun organizes menwomen students the literate military officers into a political party Kuomintang 7 National People s Party KMT 19061911 Sun and KMT attempt 10 unsuccessful uprisings to overthrow Manchus Oct 10 1911 1139h attempt at Wuhan industrial centre revolt spread quickly through central southern China Dec 25 1911 Sun comes back from US fund raising to Shanghai Dec 29 1911 Sun elected Provisional President of Chinese Republic by delegated of provisional party at Nanking Manchu 7 weak and frightened led by General Yuan Shihk ai who defeated the revolutionaries bargained for settlement Feb 12 1912 boy emperor abdicates throne Feb 13 1912 Sun resigns and Shihk ai elected new president promises to support Chinese Republic 1915 Shihk ai outlaws KMT proclaims himself emperor resigns after 3 months due to revolts and strong opposition 1916 Yuan Shihk ai dies warlords cause chaos uneducatedbarbaric famine foreign loans due to lack of central taxation 19141918 Western nations busy with WWI 7 Japan keeps China out Chinese workers sent to Allied factories no say in Paris Peace Conference China s industry and banking grew due to lack of Western competition New merchantlabor class Growing urban areas new schools NATONALISM Social changes intellectuals for selfdetermination no secret democracy youth want right of choice in careers marriage etc women want equality with men May 4 11 Movement Intellectual Revolution May 4 1919 student demonstrations in Peking to protest awarding Shantung to Japan outburst of social and intellectual protests paved the way for revival of KMT rise of China Communist Party CCP National Peking University 7 center of revolution Hu Shin language reform Sun Yatsen turned to Russia for help in return for Soviet advisors arms Sun admitted 300 members of new CCP into KMT and formed United Front gov t in Canton 1921 Red Army invadedcontrol outer Mongolia 1924 USSR establish 1st satellite Mongolian People s Republic 1925 Sun dies of Cancer succeeded by Chiang Kaishek trained by Red Army distrusted Soviet communists Chiang Kaishek commander and chief of National Revolutionary Army Northern eXpedition to unify China Expelled CCP from KMT Expelled Soviet Advisors China uni ed under KMT 19281937 Nationalists rule China 19281931 opposition rises and is defeated eXpanded modern gov t improved roadrailroad systems new legal codes women s equality Right recovery for China 1928 tariff autonomy recognized put an end to most eXtraterritorial rights 1931 Japanese threat USEurope station troops naval and river patrol Nationalists recovered many sovereign rights Failed in democracy Social complications 7 KMT ignores need for reform India p 204210 allied with Britain because Central powers were not liberal and democratic 800000 soldiers to EuropeMiddle East 500000 laborers in factories and mines monetary contributionsloans to the war in return Britain appointed Indian of cials and allowed an Indian delegation in postwar negotiations August 1917 Britain proclaims the goal of selfgov t for India within the British Commonwealth passes Government of India Act 1919 electorate of middle class voters allowed to elect representatives to provincial assemblies in which the party with a majority formed a gov t that controlled a number of depts of the provincial administration remain in effect for 10 years however Britain continued to control public security and the provincial budget this system diarchy Muslims and Indians still elected separate representatives 1918 Rowlatt Act empowered provincial gov ts to jail suspected political subversives without trial and try political cases with no jury Indian nationalists outraged Indian National Congress launches public meetings to protest Punjab province meetings turn violent 4 Europeans murdered in Amritsar As a result 10000 people gathers in Amritsar for a meeting without official permission With no warning British commanding general in the city ordered troops to re on the crowd Killed 379 wounded over 1200 Amritsar Massacre rallying point for Indian Independence Movement Gandhi Mohandas K Gandhi Champion of Indian immigrant workers against white South African bigotrydiscrimination Satyagraha non violent movement truth force 1915 returned to India to serve with British troops 1921 Indian National Congress gave Gandhi sole executive authority he declared support for the Khalifat movement panIslamic supported Ottoman Emperor launched campaign for civil disobedience against British rule his argument was that because many Indians were ruled by only a few British Indian cooperation was the basis for their power by withdrawing cooperation British rule would be undermined at rst Gandhi s movement included only the middle class it later spread to breaking caste lines and uniting Muslims and Hindus 1926 AllIndia Women s Conference established Sarojini Naidu March 1930 Salt March Gandhi demonstrated against gov t monopoly on salt and taxation Him and 78 followers walked to the seacoast and eXtracted salt from the sea water Began Swadeshi movement to boycott British goods especially teXtiles Put many British laborers out of work Gandhi and 6000 supporters were arrested but the campaign continued Finally gov t reduced the taX and some restrictive laws opposed by the Indian National Congress Gandhi and followers were release HinduMuslim Problem p 2092100 India Act of 1935 French Indochina p 211 anticolonial protest increased anticolonial agitation for independence Ho Chi Minh Middle East p213218 Three con icting interwar agreements 1 The McMahonHusayn Correspondence a 19151916 b negotiations with Husayn to persuade the Middle East to abandon TurkeyOttoman Empire c in return Britain guaranteed independence if Allies won 2 The SykesPicot Agreement a b Between UKFrance violated McHusayn treaty c France would get Syria Lebanon d UK would get Palestine Iraq 3 The Bal our Declaration a Bal our was the British foreign secretary Secretary of State b Zionist support c creation of Jewish state in Palestine d creation of the State of Israel 1948 Africa p 219226 Rise of AntiColonialism 1 Role of PanAfricanism Movement a Started in US b The idea of unity of ALL people of African decent black people singled out 7 oppression 7 slavery c WEB Du BoisMarcus Garvey 2 Effective anticolonialism in nonwhite settler areas West Africa 3 Ineffective anticolonialism in white settler areas 4 EXtreme repression in South Africa a White minority rule b Segregation 1910 c Apartheid 1948 why imperialize in Africa
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