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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Minerva Carter on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPMD201 at Eastern Michigan University taught by WilliamArmstrong in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/221468/spmd201-eastern-michigan-university in Sports Medicine at Eastern Michigan University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Histology the microscopic study of tissues 4 BASIC TYPES OF TISSUES Epithelial Connective Muscular Nervous Epithelial Tissue Characteristics 1 almost entirely cells w very little extracellular material between 2 covers surfaces or it forms structures Epithelial Tissue Characteristics cont 3 have a free surface not associated w other cells and a basement membrane which helps attach the epithelial cells to the underlying tissues Y I V V39 1 Free surface 3 quot i i Epithelial cells with little quot 3 extracellular materials 1 between the cells r L4 W 71 7 Aii l Surface view Free surfage Nucleus 5quot Basement geimq r V membrane 539 n P ix quot 1 39 Capillaryt quotv 7 amp Pleura in r quot 3 Lung 1 I l i Crosssectional view 13 Epithelial Tissue Characteristics cont 4 5 bound together by specialized cell contacts blood vessels do not penetrate the basement membrane damaged cells are replaced w new cells Via mitosis Epithelial Tissue Classi cation 1 Simple 2 Stratified moist or keratinized 3 Pseudostrati ed 4 Transitional Can be further categorized according to shape squamous flat cuboidal columnar Types of Epithelium nap gui lm Mm39aw w mm m Pswlrlam ww nmrv v n m nm li 15 ree surface V r V uc eus D quot quot Basement membrane Q Simple squamous epithelial cell Basement membrane Simple squamous epithelial cell Types of Epithelium mm gt Free su ace quot V gt Nucleus 39 f L 5 Simple cuboidal 9 xi epithelial cell IT Basement membrane Free surface Nucleus Simple cuboidal epithelial cell Basement membrane Types of Epithelium Free surface Goblet cell containing mucus Nucleus Simple columnar epithelial cell Basement membrane surface 39 Goblet cell containing mucus V Nucleus P Simple columnar epithelial cell Basement membra ne v c Simple columnar epi 2 5 thelium Types of Epithelium quot 39 Free surface Moist stratified squamous epithelial cell Nuclei Basement membrane Moist stratified squamous epithelial cell Nuclei Basement membrane p d Stratified squamous epithelium Types of Epithelium Nucleus 39 Jr Basement membrane Stratified cuboidal epithelial cell Basement membrane Stratified cuboidal epithelial cell Types of Epithelium chm m Mr raw WWW in Menarmeummmmu Free surface Basement membrane Stratified columnar epithelial cell Nucleus Basement membrane Stratified columnar epithelial cell Types of Epithelium C ia a i 1 Free surface Goblet cell containing mucus Pseudostratified columnar epithelial cell iii Nucleus Basement membrane Cilia Free surface Goblet cell containing u mucus Pseudostratified Types of Epithelium 7 2 Transitional 39 rquot a epithelial cell 39 5 3 x Nucleus Basement membrane Tissue not stretched 5 Free surface 3 Transitional epithelial ce 2k Nucleus Tissue Basement membrane stretched h Transitional epithelium Glands organs that secrete Exocrine glands secrete through ducts Maine glands secrete hormones absorbed directly into the blood Glands Mode of secretion Merocrine secrete substances as they are produced ie pancreas Apocrine p0rti0n of cell pinches off ie mammary glands Holocrine cell rupture ie sebaceous glands Types Glands Multicellular Unicellular d Simple coiled e Simple acinar 0 Simple a Simple straight branched tubular lower po ion of ach and luwerporlion smallinlesine s n and colon of stomach Simple Compound Tubular Acinar i compound lubuloaeinar pancreas f Simple 9 Compound e branched acinar iubular mucous h Compound sebaceous glands l acinar mammary glands of skin duodenum glands Connective Tissue distinguished from other tissues by its extracellular matrix Involves the actions of the three specialized cells Blasts create the matrix Cytesn maintain it Clasts break matrix down for remodeling Pre xes tell you What kind of connective tissue i e osteoblasts Functions of Connective Tissue Enclosing and separating as capsules around organs Connecting tissues to one another as tendons and ligaments Supporting and moving as bones Storing as fat Cushioning and insulating as fat Transporting as blood Protecting as cells of the immune system 3 Major Components of Extracellular Matrix Protein Fibers Ground Substance Fluid F 39 39 39 quotquot quot hosed nn 1 Primarily protein bers 2 Both protein and ground substance 3 Fluid ie blood Muscle Tissuehas the ability to contract 3 Types 1 Skeletal striated voluntary 2 Cardiac striated involuntary 3 Smooth nonstriated involuntary Nervous Tissue ability to conduct electrical impulses Neurons conducting cells of nervous tissue 3 Major Parts I Cell Body I Dendrites I Axons Neuroglia support cells for the brain spinal cord amp peripheral nerve cells Membranes thin layer of tissue that covers a structure or lines a cavity 3 Major Categories 1 Serous Membranes 2 Mucous Membranes 3 Synovial Membranes Joint Classification 0 Structure 0 Function Joint Classi cationFunction Immovable Synarthroses 0 Slightly Movable Am phiarthroses Freely Movable Diarthroses Joint Classi cationStructure Fibrous bound by fibrous connective tissue Cartilaginous unite two bones by either fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage Synovial freely movable joints filled with synovial fluid Fibrous Joints 0 Sutures synarthroses Syndesmoses amphiarthroses Gomphoses synarthroses Cartilaginous Joints I Synchondroses yynarthrgses gr primary umphiurthrusm Symphyses umphiurthruses secondary Synovial diarthrosis Joints Basic Features 0 articular capsule synovial membrane 0 articular cartilage ligaments tendons bursae Synovial Fluid Three Primary Functions Lubrication Nutrient distribution Shock absorption Articular Motions Gliding Angular Rotation Types of Movements flexionextension plantardorsal flexion hyperextension inversioneversion abductionadduction pronationsupination circumduction elevationdepression inwardoutward rotation protractionretraction lateral flexion oppositionreposition horizontal abduction horizontal adduction Types of Synovial Joints 0 gliding hinge pivot condyloid saddle 0 ball amp socket Joints of the Upper Limb Sternoclavicular Joint saddletype synovial only bony articulation between the limb and the upper extremity function of the clavicle is hold the upper limb away from the trunk 2 freedom of movement Joints of the Upper Limb Sternoclavicular Joint Ligaments Sternoclavicular ligaments antpost interclavicular ligament superiorly costalclavicular ligament inferiorly Joints of the Upper Limb Acromioclavicular Joint glidingtype synovial joint point of the shoulder although weak strengthened superiorly by the acromioclavicular ligament and by fibers of trapezius Joints of the Upper Limb Coracoclavicular Ligament anchors the clavicle to the coracoid process of the scapula Two parts conoid ligament trapezoid ligament Coracoacromial Ligament Joints of the Upper Limb Shoulder Joint ballandsocket type synovial joint mobility at the expense of stability Fibrous Capsule loose when arm is adducted taut when arm is abducted weakest inferiorlyWHY Joints of the Upper Limb Ligaments of the Shoulder Joint glenoid humeral ligaments transverse humeral ligament coracohumeral ligament c0rac0acr0mial arch formed by coracoid process coracoacromial ligament and acromion Joints of the Upper Limb Elbow Joint hingetype syn ovial joint uniaxial D flexionextension Includes 3 articulations 1 humeroulnar 2 humeruradial 3 proximal radioulnar Joints of the Upper Limb Elbow Joint Intrinsic Collateral Ligaments radial collateral ligament uln ar collateral ligament Anular Ligament pivottype