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by: Dandre Olson


Marketplace > Eastern Washington University > OTHER > TECH 385 > ROBOTICS AUTOMATED SYSTEMS
Dandre Olson
Eastern Washington University
GPA 3.73


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Class Notes
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dandre Olson on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to TECH 385 at Eastern Washington University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/221488/tech-385-eastern-washington-university in OTHER at Eastern Washington University.

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Date Created: 10/11/15
Chapter 2 Robot Classification I I I it I Robot Arm Geometry I Application Areas I SCARA and Horizon I Control Techniques tally Jointed I Path Control I Power Sources I Design Guidelines I Drive Sources I Classi cation by Standards Page 1 1 Robot Arm Geometry Cartesian Type I The basic mechanical con gurations of the robot manipulator are cate gorized as Cartesian cylindrical spherical and articulated T I Can within a work envelope l de ned by a cube or rectangle I l I Two con gurations travcrsc ana gantry I Positioning and orientation actuators are powered by hydraulic pneumatic or electric sources quot quot 39 7 Page1 2 Robot Arm Geometry cartesian Type Primary applications are in material handling machine loading assembly and printer board construction I Advantages include I Large work envelop I Floor is open due to overhead robot motion axes I Simple control algorithms Page13 Robot Arm Geometry Cartesian Type I Disadvantages include I Limited access by overhead crane and material handling systems I Drive locations on gantry type are not convenient Page 1 4 Page15 Robot Arm Geometry Qy nd calType Robot Arm Geometry Cylindrical Type Movement is usually two linear and one rotational for position Ball screw drives are often used for linear movement Pneumatic hydraulic and electric drives are used 1 Page16 Robot Arm Geometry Cylindrical Type I Advantages Deep horizontal reach into production machines Vertical structure of the machine conserves oor space Rigid structure is possible for large payloads and good repeatability i 39 ll I Disadvantage Limited side reach Page17 Robot Arm Geometry Cylindrical Type Machine Applications tending circular cell layout and applications with deep reach required Page18 Robot Arm Geometry Cylindrical Type Page g Robot Arm Geometry Sphe calType The spherical type is sometimes called polar Requires coordinated motion in every positioning aXis two rotations and one linear for a movement in the X Y or Z directions Axis 1 I Spherical geometry machines use either hydraulic or electric drives as the prime movers on the SlX axes with pneumatic actuation used to open and close the gripper Page 1 10 Robot Arm Geometry Spherical Type Work Envelope Robot Arm Geometry Spherical Type I The advantages and disadvantages listed for cylindrical geometry can also be applied to spherical geometry with the following exception cylindrical geometry is more vertical in structure spherical coordinates yield a low and long machine size Page 1 12 I Irregular work envelope I Two types Robot Arm Geometry Articulated Type Also called jointed spherical reyolute and anthropomorphic I Vertically articulated I Horizontally articulate Page 1 13 Robot Arm Geometry Articulated Type w 39 I I I There are two possible variations to the vertically articulated geometry just described 1 an additional rotary motion axis aXis 4 in the forearm that rotates the forearm link and 2 an additional linear movement in the forearm link I The horizontally articulated arms have two mechanical con gurations l the Selective Compliance Articulated Robot Arm SCAR1 and 2 horizontal base jointed arm Page 1 14 Robot Arm Geometry Articulated Type I Vertically articulated robot has three major angular movements consisting of a base rotation aXis 1 shoul der aXis 2 and fore arm axis 3 joint I Work envelope is irregular I Power is usually ac electric servo Page 1 15 Robot Arm Geometry Vertically Articulated Type I I I 7 iv e Work Envelop Page 1 16 Robot Arm Geometry Horizontally Articulated Type I SCARA has two horizontally jointed arm segmenm fixed to a rigid vertical member Positions within the cylindrical work envelope are achieved through changes in axes l and 2 Vertical movement of the gripper plate uses the Z axis One Wrist axis rotation Assembly is a major application area I mechanical systems I electronic circuit boards Page 1 17 Robot Arm Geometry Horizontally Articulated Type l I iv I The horizontally basej ointed arm uses the same construction as the SCARA except that the vertical Z axis is located between the rigid vertical member and the shoulder joint I The wrist and gripper mounting R618 rObOt plate are located at the end of the forearm Page 1 18 Power Sources I I39ll iv I Three primary power sources are used to drive robots and manufacturing systems hydraulics pneumatics and electromotiveforce I Hydraulics linear and rotary actuators using high pressure oil 2300 psi I Pneumatics linear actuators using high pressure air 50 60 psi I Electromotive force primarily electric motors Page 1 19 Power Sources Hydraulic System Supply 4way valve 4way valve Return 4 Baum Control signal Control signal Pu mp I 1 AC motor I T l I I gt 4 39 h lt Linear actuator Rotary actuator Tank and reservoir Page 1 20 Power Sources Hydraulic System I I I i I Advantage I Disadvantages I a very high powertosize I Even the best hydraulic ratio that affords large system will leak eventually load capability I Hydraulic oil can become a re hazard I Cost of additional motor pump tank controls and energy I Higher noise level I Hydraulic maintenance skills are required for repairs I Regular testing of the hydraulic uid is required Page 1 21 Power Sources Pneumatic Systems W 39 39 I l Power is transferred by a gas under pressure by a solenoid A solenoid is an electrically actuated linear actuator A round valve spool can be in two positions to force air to either side of the piston in the robot actuator Actuators can be classi ed as linear or rotary The positions for linear devices are retracted and extended and rotary actuators come to rest at the full clockwise rotation and the full counterclockwise position The repeatability is very good Also called a pickand place device or bangbang machens Page 1 22 Power Sources Pneumatic Systems 39ON COMMAND OFF39 COMMAND I39m r MOTION l I MO I ION x SOI ENOID OVEICOMES SPRING FORCE I VALVE SPOOL MOVES LEFT VALVE SPOOL mums TO 39HOME POSITION UNDER sums roncs SPRING J E EXHJ SOLENOID SOLENOID SPOOL PLANT ON OFF VALVE All Page 1 23 Power Sources Pneumatic Systems I Disadvantages I Advantages I Cannot be used for position I Compressed air is available in ing like a servo controlled most manufacturmg areas machine I Pneumatics is an inexpensive welldeveloped technology I System leaks do not contaminate the work area I Fast operation and short cycle times are characteristic Page 1 24 Power Sources Electric Systems w 39 I I Electric systems use ac and dc servo motors ac is most common and some stepper motors where the load is small Electric drive is divided into two classi cations I Directdrive I Reductiondrive Reductiondrive provides excellent rotational torque and angular positioning using I standard belt and pulley I gear train I harmonicdrive Page 1 25


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