Multimedia Design IT 810
Popular in Course
Popular in Computer Information Systems
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Myrtie Grady DDS on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IT 810 at Emporia State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/221507/it-810-emporia-state-university in Computer Information Systems at Emporia State University.
Reviews for Multimedia Design
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/11/15
CHAPTER FIVE MULTIMEDIA Multimedia De ned While there are certainly similarities between interactive videodisc and multimedia the two are different and distinct Robert E Bergman and Thomas V Moore writing in Managing Interactive VideoMultimedia Proj ects make the following observation For several years the videodisc was the only source of motion video segments that could be accessed rapidly enough to support effective interactivity Hence the term applied to these applications came to be interactive videodisc Recently however digital technology has made it possible to provide motion video using other devices especially the small optical discs called CDROM 1990 p 5 Bergman and Moore go on to state Another factor has been the development of imagebased applications that use graphic pictures and digital audio and no motion video at all Thus The term multimedia has been adapted as a generic reference to all such imagebased applications p 5 Thomas Reeves and Stephan Harmon writing in the Fall 1991 issue of Interact the Journal of the International Interactive Communications Society p 29 take matters a step further when they de ne multimedia as an interactive database that allows users to access information in multiple forms including text graphics video and audio 88 Winners Producing Effective Electronic Media They go on to de ne hypermedia a subset of multimedia as an interactive database that allows users to access multiple forms of information but is speci cally designed with linked nodes of information to allow that access in any manner of the users choosing p 29 The Microsoft Corporation in a February 1993 Backgrounder de ned computerbased multimedia as the integration of teXt graphics audio video and other types of information into a single seamless whole p 2 Clearly multimedia has evolved from an integration of various digital electronic aural and visual technologies into an interactive medium for use in the home and the of ce The Technology Once used to refer to computercontrolled soundslide presentations they are now called multiimage presentations the term multimedia is a generic term for soundand imagebased applications delivered with a variety of technologies For example Interactive video A convergence of video and computer technology A user has control over a coordinated video program and computer program through the user s actions choices and decisions which affects how the program unfolds Hardware Components The purpose of the hardware is to deliver a message the graphics motion and audio segments stored on various media Various media mean a videodisc player compact disc player personal computer display and touch screen Software Components The general function of the software is to create and combine the media de ne touch areas build sequences of events present the application to the use and interpret any interactions To accomplish these multiple goals requires multiple software components They fall into several categories graphics packages authoring facilities general purpose languages and presentation systems 7quot 39 I c VJ 39 quot Projects Robert E Bergman amp Thomas Moore Multimedia may be the future medium of choice if a CDROM product is distinguished by its accessibility ease of use and creative visualization Two choices are critical to creating a superior CDROM product 1 An interface that makes a user s search intuitive and 2 A search engine ie searching tool that enables the user to get anywhere easily to browse at will and to nd and aggregate information in any way desired It is the interface between the user and the information on the CDROM that determines whether the user feels trapped inside a PC screen and goes eeing to the FiveMultimedia 89 nearest book or feels in control of searching through masses of material in a way that no print indeX can ever allow If an electronic product does not make the search easy and effective then it is little more than a method for saving library shelf space and the user will soon determine that he is better off browsing through a book A quality search engine and interface will allow the user the following capabilities Searching User de ned searches nested searching fuzzy searching thesaurus synonym searching query saving storing search results Proximity searching Within number of words within sentence within paragraph orderdependent Links Interdocument links searches on selected words in a document bookmarks attach notes to teXt generate tables of contents based on teXt Documentation A search interface and engine also allow the user to browse the CDROM browse a full teXt article in the data base copy information to a printer and copy material to a disk Multimedia technology combines video graphics and audio with the personal computer s capability to access information randomly Looking further down the technological road multimedia technology could very well be further in uenced by developments in highde nition television and the eXpansion of access to online libraries through cable television outlets All in all as information and entertainment channels proliferate the merging of electronic technologiesithat is television cable computers telephone satellitesiinto one multipurpose information entertainment medium seems less pieinthesky today than ever The Market The adoption of interactive multimedia technology particularly CDROM is growing in both nonpro t and forpro t organizations According to software giant Microsoft Over the past three years the multimedia market has nearly doubled in total revenues from 29 billion to 5 billion Forecasters project a tripling of the market to 154 billion just two years from now with total revenues nearing 24 billion by the end of the decade Microsoft Bockgrounder February 1993 p 2 Microsoft points to a range of factors fueling this growth including More powerful microprocessors capable of handling large compleX les needed for multimedia information Advances in computer software from new graphical user interfaces to objectoriented programming that make electronic systems faster easier and more efficient 90 Winners Producing E eclive Electronic Media Emerging standards for digital audio video and multimedia systems New computers and consumer electronics products including these new components and standards The installed base of multimedia PCs is eXpected to double to one million this year according to the Multimedia PC Marketing Council December 1992 Increasing affordability and r 39 of 39 39 quot i t d l 391 39 39 such as CDROM drives and audio boards CDROM disks can hold more than 650 MB of data enough for delivering an entire encyclopedia plus thousands of graphics and audio les February 1993 p 2 In the education arena analysts predict a sharp increase in the number of CDROM players installed at K12 schools In 1989 there were 10000 1990 saw 30000 and by the end of 1991 the number had risen to 75000 It is estimated that some 10 percent or roughly 3600 intermediate and high schools have CD players and that 57 percent of academic and public libraries and 18 percent of special libraries in the United States own CDROM stations In 1 992 the state of Florida determined that all of its students could bene t from eXposure to the interactive learning potential of multimedia The compelling reason AIDS prevention Multimedia technology was chosen as the delivery method because only multimedia can deliver the impact immediacy and selectivity the message warrants California and Texas will follow Florida s lead in recommending integrating multimedia into its education system In April 1993 the National Association of Broadcasters NAB added NAB Multimedia World to its annual conference This added recognition con rms what most people using multimedia already know the broadcast and multimedia worlds are becoming increasingly intertwined especially in areas of postproduction and animation According to Hank Evers of the Pioneer Corporation Multimedia System Division multimedia s bene ts have persuaded many printbased publishers to reevaluate their businesses Publishers are learning to identify their business in terms of the content intellectual and artistic that they own and to separate it from the medium in which it appears This also holds true in network television ABC News and the Discovery Channel nd themselves in the same camp as The Encyclopedia Britannica they are owners of content Why has multimedia technology particularly CDROM received wider acceptance not only in educational and medical institutions but also in a growing number of business organizations as well Dataware Technologies perceives two reasons First technological developments have substantially lowered the barriers to costeffective use of CDROM A technology that was once only potentially bene cial is now affordable easy to use and widely employed Second CDROM has demonstrated clear bene ts More than 5000 CDROM titles are now in print in a broad range of appli Five Multimedia 91 cations including over 3000 commercial products Guide to CD ROM and Multimedia Publishing Dataware Technologies March 1993 p 1 Dataware goes on to point out that one CDROM can hold the equivalent of 1500 oppy disks 250000 pages ofteXt or 12000 scanned images at an incremental media cost of 2 per disc InfoTech an international consulting and research rm specializing in optical disc and information technology markets estimates that the commercial market shipped 3256 titles valued at nearly 2 billion in 1992 and forecasts growth to nearly 8000 titles valued at over 4 billion by 1995 Guide to CD ROM and Multimedia Publishing Dataware Technologies March 1993 p 29 But there is a long way to go before everything converts from print to optical According to Dataware estimates put print publishing at more than 90 percent of the publishing universe with electronic at 10 percent Optical publishing represents about 5 percent of the electronic publishing share or 05 percent Guide to CD ROM and Multimedia Publishing Dataware Technologies March 1993 P 28 The Future Market Early in 1992 Communications Week January 6 1992 P 21 reported an overall eXponential growth in the market noting expenditures on multimedia equipment of 30 million in 1990 and projecting growth to 1 billion by 1996 Other projections peg the future multimedia market in double digit billions While the cases in the latter part of this chapter reveal that governmental educational and medical institutions seem to be embracing multimedia technology this does not appear to be true of corporate America As reported in Interactive Media Business December 1992 p 12 a survey by Cambridge Massachusettsbased Forrester Research of siXtyfour Fortune 1000 Management Information Systems MIS executives revealed a uniform uncertainty about multimedia s bene ts However the report predicts that within three years multimedia will be widely accepted and implemented The report also indicated that while it took ten years for videoconferencing to become accepted one of the more promising uses for desktop video is desktopbased videoconferencing Forrester Research estimates that desktop videoconferencing will grow to a 835 million market by 1997 The report also underscores that multimedia will continue to enjoy widespread popularity in education and training Guiding Principles Multimedia is an outgrowth of other electronic media linear video interactive videodisc audio CDs computer graphics and so on In other words these eXtant electronic media are the components that make up multimedia Despite the fact that these component electronic media are standardized standards for multimedia are just beginning to emerge This lack of standards creates many challenges and problems for multimedia 92 Winners Producing E ective Electronic Media project producers These challenges and problems range from whether to use a PC or Mac environment to truly getting the most out of multimedia Deborah Blank director of the Interactive Systems Division of Electronic Learning Facilitators Inc Bethesda Maryland writing in the April 1993 issue of Multimedia amp Videodisc Monitor lists Ten Truths About Developing Interactive Multimedia Developing interactive multimedia is a creative demanding multifaceted software development effort Build your team according to the expertise and experience dictated by each aspect of the application 2 The learning curve for rsttime developers is steep and slippery Set realistic expectations and involve experts from the start 3 Each member of a development team needs to forego his or her ego Keep egocentric people off your development team 4 The nal application is often very different from the original conception While satisfying these differences are usually expensive Accept changes their inclusion is guaranteed to improve the application in a way that is obvious to both user and sponsor and the sponsor is willing to pay for them 5 A signoff procedure for each deliverable keeps communication open and re nes expectations as the application develops Include the list of deliverables in your work plan or contract and obtain a signoff for each 6 The hardware platform selected at the beginning of development will be outmoded when the project is delivered Choose a hardware platform with care and never look back 7 There are no signi cant shortcuts to development Development always takes longer than you expect Add at least 15 percent more time than you think it will take 8 The last 10 percent of the development effort takes at least 25 percent of the development period Value your authorsprogrammers and don t expect the impossible 9 With discipline applications can be completed on time and on budget Value the bean counter for he or she will make sure you stay in the multimedia development business O The desktop computer will be a multimedia delivery platform within two years The possibilities are endless Take advantage of the functionality of your multimedia system and conceive useful if not groundbreaking applications Five Multimedia 93 Interviewee Guidelines The Interviewees in this chapter echo many of the guidelines Ms Blank articulates The cases included in this chapter are awardwinning probably in part because the applications are groundbreaking The interviewees went on though to articulate some caveats Determine if multimedia is the right medium Many of the interviewees in this chapter believe that the lack of standardization leads to improper use of multimedia technology that just knowing how to operate the technology does not guarantee a successful multimedia program Collectively they advise that before beginning to produce a multimedia format program you must assess whether the material is suited to the multimedia format This is an echo of some of the comments from the interactive videodisc producers In other words after you assess the client s needs and goals it should become evident whether or not multimedia is the best tool for the client s objectives When multimedia technology rst came on the scene much programming was of poor quality Programming was primarily designed to show off the technology rather than to support a client s communications objectives This translated into wasted time and money Again interviewees advise here not to use the technology unless it truly serves the client s purpose and meets the needs of the audience Producers of the different component electronic media make this determination before embarking on any project As these electronic media professionals already know programming presented in a format that does not best convey the message results in keeping that message from reaching its audience Clarify objectives and strategies Having clear objectives is a must This includes understanding the goal and the needs of the client When it comes to strategy the interviewees in this chapter mention ve points First there must be plenty of time set aside for preproduction planning This theme runs through practically all of the case studies but seems especially prevalent in the multimedia interviews Second everything in the preproduction stage should be done as thoroughly as possible and checked and rechecked This sounds no different from what you would do if you were producing a linear video program However the multimedia program is much more involved and more compleX If the preproduction plan is not carefully mapped out ahead of time it can lead to problems that can be solved only by going back and rebuilding which results in an unnecessary waste of time money and talent Third the interviewees point out that good communication tools will help in mapping out the plan For instance a good storyboard acts as a road map so that everyone understands the goal and how to achieve it Fourth the content should be of the highest quality possible Good mediarich content translates into successful programming because it keeps the audience s attention while it clearly and ef ciently gets the message across to the end user In addition mediarich programmingigood graphics and highquality video componentsiare important because nonbroadcast audiences have been eXposed to mediarich programming on both network cable and television and won t settle for anything less Mediarich programming is not a given A lot of bells and whistles are available but good 94 Winners Producing E eciive Electronic Media designers are needed to make quality programming happen The multimedia producers state emphatically that you need a talented professional staff to carry it out Fifth multimedia programming is inherently and by de nition interactive hence the programming should be as user friendly as possible Allow plenty of time to do the job right In concert with Deborah Blank s observations the interviewees attest that creating a multimedia program will take more time than you eXpect They advise that you build plenty of time into your schedule especially for preproduction planning They point out that multimedia is complicated and difficult Producers will run into unforeseen problems Problems are unforeseeable and therefore unforeseen for three reasons First multimedia is new and producers are still in the experimental stages with it Second multimedia has not yet been standardized Third there are many pieces to juggle at one time Choose the right people Multimedia means teamwork It takes many talented people in speci c disciplines to make all of the pieces t and work A team atmosphere is required or you risk personality clashes that may bring the project to a screeching halt And someone with managerial skills is needed to oversee the project The case study producers in this chapter state that because a talented skilled quali ed professional team is the key to creating a successful multimedia program human resources will be your largest cost The interviewees also suggest that the best way to handle human resources is to select a skeletal staff of three to seven people with their own specialties to work on the project and then to bring in others to esh out the project team