One Week of Notes
One Week of Notes BSC 116
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rani Vance on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 116 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Principles Biology II in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Biology 116 Week of Notes 105109 Lecture 21 Animal formfunction are correlated physiology biological function how things work often get insights to physiology from anatomy and vice versa animals have traits they inherited from ancestors converge on similar solution convergent evolution limited by physics body plan that works at small size Surface area volume rations constrain the exchange of resources and energy everything that entersexits goes through a surface rate determined by surface area x2 amount determined by volume x3 simple body plans get all cells in contact With surrounding medium constraints how big they can get What shapes they can be Increase in cell number requires an increase in complexity your outer surface is relatively small compared to internal volume isn t solid highly branched and ooded internal cavities With high surface area each system circulatory respiratory digestion uid around cells interstitial uid linked to exchange surfaces of other uids Hierarchical tissue9cells of similar to formfunction organs9functional units of body organ systems coordinated organs can be composed of tissues serving various functions 1 epithelial 2 connective 3 nervous 4 muscular Epithelial closely packed cells lining surfaces squamous think and leaky columnar tight cell to cell junctions stratified squamous layers of cells cubodial built for secretion Connective bind and support other tissue of the body collagenelastin 6 types 1 loose hold organs together 2 cartilage softer protein and matrix structure 3 fibrous tendons and ligaments 4 adipose fat insulation and energy 5 bone by osteoblasts 6 blood plasma redwhite platelets Nervous Convert external stimuli electronic impulses neurons long extensions axon to action potential glia associated cells that protect nourish neuron Muscle Tissue Voluntaryinvoluntary contractile cells with actinmyosin filaments most abundant uses of most energy skeletal Body temp can be controlled behaviorally ectodermsnonbird reptiles control body temp by moving into sun or shade endoderms tend to lose heat into the environment generally warmer than air thermogenesis make heat thru muscle ectotherms warmup muscles by twitching many insects warm up by hovering Homeostasis steady state function of outside temp Regular regulates internal temp Former body temp matches environment negative feedback to regulate set point normal range sensor9receptor sense stimuli hypothalamus9physiological change Thermoregulation Maintain body tempuse various mechanisms heat moves from warmer things to cool radiation conduction convection evaporation all species gt 1 degree C bioenergetics9how animals allocate energy for different functions heterotrophs9 some energy some released at heat metabolic rate amount of energy used per unit of time basal metabolic rate minimum metabolic rate mass specific metabolic rate small animals require more energy smaller animal increased surface area to volume trade off between size and energy 109 general currency of everything in a cell ATP animals are heterotrophs must eat other organisms for energy and carbon nutrition food being take in broken down omnivores carnivores herbovores Essential Nutrients all animals need source of carbon essential nutrients Whatever animals cant synthesize 1 essential amino acids vary from species can t make 8 animal proteins complete most plant proteins are incomplete deficient in some essential amino acids 2 essential amino acid saturated fatty acids can t be synthesized 3 vitamins 4 minerals Vitamins play diverse role two kinds water soluble B complex C for collagen synthesis fat soluble Minerals are inorganic some needed for skeleton some needed for physiology some needed for osmotic balance Na Cl Deficiencies undernourishment storage of food energy break down own proteins once the sugar can cause irreversible damagedeath malnourishment short of essential nutrients eX scurvy vitamin deficiency can cause death 4 Main Stages of food processing 1 ingestion eating putting food in mouth 2 digestion break down food to usable molecules can t assimilate macromolecules enzymatic hydrolysis digestive enzymes break chemistry 3 absorption 4 elimination Feeding Varies bulk feeders eat large pieces of food most humans uid feeders body uids ex mosquitoes filter feeders filter particles from water substrate ingest substrate eliminate intracellular digestion phagocytosis gastrovascular9 extracellular digestion gastrodermis secretes enzymes complete gut alimentary canal in 9 out specialized compartments Complete gut ex sequentia1 arrangement of specialized segments accessory glands salivary glands pancreas liver gall bladder food moves by peristalsis smooth muscle contraction some segments isolated by sphincters muscular closure process Mouth oral cavity amylase9enzyme hydrolyzes starch and glycogen mucin glycoprotein lubricant protects lining of the oral cavity buffers against tooth decay tongue processes food turns to bolus pharynxopens 2 passages tracheaesophagus epiglottis cartilage ap that closes during swallowing Esophagus connects oral cavity stomach stratified muscle upper voluntary smooth muscle involuntary primary role of stomach 2 L of food can be held in the stomach mixed with gastric juice chime chemical digestion gastric juices HCl lowers pH of stomach acid pepsin protease breaks pepside bond released inactive from glands in gastric pit parietal cells secretes pepsinogen inactive pepsin stomach protected by mucus liningfast cell regeneration gastricular acid damage to stomach lining caused by bacteria Small Intestine 6 M long 3 regions duodenum jejunum ileum duodenumL site of digestion in stomach receives secretion from liver bile pancreas amylase jejunum ileum sight of absorption in small intestine villimicrovilli increase surface area nutrients move thru epithelial cells capillaries hepatic portal vein processing by liver fat is not sent to the hepatic portal vein lymphatic system vice lacteals nutrient rich blood travels into heart other tissues and organs Large Intestine Recovers Water 15 M large intestine colon cecum rectum connects to small intestine junction colon one way cecum opposite appendix9 extension of cecum feces9wastes of digestion system function of colon water reabsorbtion ions pumped out of the colon to draw out water Teeth are specialized for diet carnivores better developed incisorscanines herbivores broad molars omnivores unspecialized teeth Herbivoreslonger alimentary canal than carnivores plant material harder to digest needs surface area herbivores have mutualistic bacteria in guts to break down cellulose
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