Week12 Nutrition: Fitness and Sports
Week12 Nutrition: Fitness and Sports 2210
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Leathers on Friday November 14, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 2210 at Ohio State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Natural Sciences at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 11/14/14
Human Nutrition 2210 111414 1209 PM Week Twelve Nutrition Fitness and Sports Physical fitness Ability to perform moderate to vigorous activity without undue fatigue Fat usage by the body increased physical fitness means improved usage of fat for energy Why do we exercise Improve 0 Blood glucose level Self image Stress levels Strengthening of bones and joints Blood pressure Cardiovascular function Weight lossweight control Blood lipid profile Immune function Why don39t we exercise Physical restrictions Lack of motivation What is needed to exercise ENERGY Fuel for muscle work ATP adenosine tri phosphate Chemical energy Used by cells for muscle contraction Only small amount is stored in resting cells 2 4 seconds worth of work Other sources of energy are needed Phosphocreatine PCr High energy compound formal and stored in muscle cells Activated instantly replenishes ATP Sustain work for few minutes Glucose utilization Glucose OOOOOOOO 0 Limited oxygen anaerobic lactic acid 2ATP o Plenty of oxygen aerobic CO2 H20 30 to 32 ATP Anaerobic Glycolysis 0 Limited oxygen intense physical activity sprinting o 2 ATP per glucose no oxygen can39t sustain ATP production 0 30 seconds to 2 minutes of work 0 Lactate build up changes acidity that inhibits glucose utilization and muscle contraction Aerobic Glycolysis o Plenty of oxygen available low to moderate intensity jogging 30 to 32 ATP per glucose ATP replenish slowly Sustained ATP production 0 2 minutes to 3 hours of work ATP Formation Generate ATP based on the foods we eat Food calories energy produce ATP Excess energy can be stored carbs glycogenipids fat Carbohydrate Glycogen temporary storage of glucose in LIVER and MUSCLE During low to moderate intensity can sustain work for up to 2 hours Fat fuel fatty acid Majority of stored energy in the body Fatty acids 0 Converted to ATP by muscle cells 0 108 ATP fro each 16C fatty acid chain Trained muscles 0 Have more mitochondria power house 0 Increased ability to use fat as fuel 0 Increase exercisetraining significant increase in mitochondria help to produce more ATP improve fat usage Type of Physical activity dictates fat usage usually don39t use a lot of protein to generate energy OOO Protein Major source during prolonged exercise not intense short activity Minor source of fuel Moderate exercise 2 5 o of calorie needs Endurance exercise provide 1015 of calorie needs Branched chain amino acids provide most of the protein calories Average diet provides ample amount of these amino acids supplements aren39t needed Nutrient Needs for Athletes Carb needs main fuel for many types of activities 0 Consume 60 of kcal from carbs aerobic and endurance activity 0 Athletes need more carb 7 10carb gkgbody weight 0 500 600g carbsday Carb loading Events lasting longer than 6090 minutes Maximize glycogen stores Tapering of exercise while increasing carb intake Ex food plan oatmeal wheat bagel French toast less sugary Protein Needs 0 RDA added 10 16 proteinkgbody weight 0 Up to 17g for athletes beginning strength training 0 Needs are easily met by a normal diet supplements aren39t necessary excessive protein hasn39t shown to be beneficial Vitamins and Minerals 0 Increase need for most during increased physical activity 0 B vitamins ATP help Iron oxygen carrying vitamin E and C zinc copper chromium potassium magnesium 0 Supplement whole foods fruits veggies nuts Iron Needs 0 Iron deficiency affects performance 0 Sports anemia increase plasma volume but not RBC s 0 Women at risk OOOO 0 Focus on iron rich foods use of iron supplements can cause toxic effects Calcium Needs 0 0 Maintain adequate calcium restriction of dairy products by women Women irregular menstruation Severe bone loss and osteoporosis Extra calcium doesn39t compensate for effects of menstrual irregularities Calcium deficiency increases risk of stress fractures Fluid Needs OOO 0 Sports drinks 9cday 13cday Athletes may need more Maintenance of body39s cooling system water helps dissipate heat from working muscles Avoid losing more than 2 of body weight during exercise Recommended activity gt 60min Help maintain blood glucose level and blood volume Supply electrolytes Gels and Bars Provide additional fuel 0 Taken with fluids Expensive source of nutrients Ideal bars for endurance athletes 40g carb 10g protein 4g fat 5g fiber Fortified with vitamins and minerals Toxicities possible with over use Pre Endurance Event Meal Light meal 24 hours prior Primarily carbs Low fat avoid fattyfried foods Little fiber Moderate protein Blendedliquid meal recommended for meals 12 hours prior Recovery Meal Carbohydrate rich meal within 2 hours after Glycogen synthesis great Repeat meal Choose high glycemic index foods Aim 31 carb protein Fluid and electrolyte replacement 111414 1209 PM 111414 1209 PM
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