Week 2, Lectures 3 and 4, Wednesday Special Event Lecture, Optional Friday Forum- Humanities Core
Week 2, Lectures 3 and 4, Wednesday Special Event Lecture, Optional Friday Forum- Humanities Core Human 1A
Popular in HUMANITIES CORE LEC
GE CLST 60A
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Anatomy
This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nha-Thinh Nguyen on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Human 1A at University of California - Irvine taught by BURKE, C. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see HUMANITIES CORE LEC in Anatomy at University of California - Irvine.
Reviews for Week 2, Lectures 3 and 4, Wednesday Special Event Lecture, Optional Friday Forum- Humanities Core
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/11/15
NhaThinh Nguyen Humanities Core 10052015 Week 2 Lecture 3 Aristos Akhaion Best of the Achaeans Value and Cultural Contradiction in The Iliad Review 0 Human Agency 0 Which is a form of action that is I It is caused by the agent s WILL influenced by their desires and wishes I FREE I Based upon the person s REASON introspectionreflectiondeliberation I Without excessive constraints o In the beginning we see how the mortals actions are in subordination to the gods will 0 The man s agency is the means to the gods willdesires Zeus will 0 Without agency man can have no politics 0 Politics is born from man s desires and deliberation 0 Prof Izenberg argues that The Iliad is actually a poem about agency 0 Maybe no human has ever been an agent 0 Agency in The Iliad quotread against a background of determination I Natural reasons are based upon physicalpsychological factors I Political and economic factors are structural in terms of the country s foundation I Cultural due to pedagogical factors 0 We as individuals do not determine certain things 0 Ex The color that we categorize as a certain gender pink girl blue boy 0 Cultural agency is implemented upon us by our societyculture o The Trojan elder women present Athena with the gift of peplos 0 However they did not make it 0 Even though the peplos was wonderfully beautiful the offering violated the rules of ritualgiving I Gifts were supposed to represent what the people as a community made 0 The gods don t officiate the mortal s agency 0 Instead they embody it 0 They symbolize the reasons whether external or internal that the mortals come to 0 War within The Iliad o Exacerbates the form of agency I Causes and effects within the war o It deals with the life and death of it o It is not that the mortals make nothing happen they make too much happen I They cause a lot of death 0 Cause and effect I Helen o How can one woman cause such a disastrous war I Pandarus NhaThinh Nguyen Humanities Core 10052015 0 How can one arrow cause the fall of Troy Review 0 Authority 0 Charismatic Achilles authority comes from his powerbrillianceskill 0 Traditional Agamemnon power is passed down through lineage the quotright way power comes from the right relation 0 The scepter of Agamemnon 0 Does not give them power but is the symbol of their power 0 The scepter embodies the conflict between the two different types of authority I Gives the audience the ability to see something that can only be explained through theory Thersites as a 3rel alternative of authority 0 He speaks for the people democratic o In Book 2 Thersites challenges Agamemnon in a similar way as Achilles 0 But Thersites challenge is considered as a democratic challenge 0 However unlike Achilles Thersites is no hero 0 Unlike Achilles claims he is softweak I Achilles uses I I Thersites uses quotwequot 0 The quotwequot includes the regular soldier who has no authority 0 Therefore he doesn t argue that Agamemnon has faileddishonored HIM which is what Achilles was talking about he argues that Agamemnon failed his PEOPLE the soldiers o The regular soldier quotwequot that Thersites refers to I they have no choiceno say of whether or not they want to start a war but they must fight and suffer anyways 0 they have no authority so speaking against authority would be considered as out of line 0 Thersites is then berated and assaulted by Odysseus a true hero I This back then would have been applauded o The audience from back then would have agreed that Thersites was out of line I This causes the soldiers to laugh together as a group 0 Symbolizes a common agreement between the soldiers o Restores a sense of solidarityunity between the Achaean soldier o The common soldier has agency but is unable to exercise it o Thersites action and the consequence of such reminds us that charismatic authority is given only to those who have it and cannot be shared I Achilles and Odysseus have it but Thersites does not NhaThinh Nguyen Humanities Core 10052015 0 Just because someone was chosen chosen to have authority it doesn t necessarily mean that they deserved to be chosen Symbolism in Thersites challenge and subsequent abuse 0 His challenge 0 Democratic I Power comes from the people o It put the idea of a democratic government into the minds of the Achaeans I Wars are won by the thousands of soldiers not by the 5 or 6 heroes 0 Odysseus abuse 0 He hit Thersites over the head with the scepter I Scepter tradition I Symbolism the visionary topic raised by Thersites was beaten by the traditional views on authority 0 However the issue has been aroused so it is not completely dead King Agamemnon 0 Since he is king he is at the center therefore he believes that his will represents the will of the people Thersites is not a hero but he is also not a slave 0 He must follow authority figures orders but WHY o Thersites ugliest 0 He is the worst Achaean but even the worst must be persuaded I This proves that he is not a slave Mortals 0 Values 0 They are what we live and fight for 0 We will all die but if we fight for our values our lives will have meaning 0 The mortals must be willing to destroy everything as long as it keeps their values alive 0 The mortalswarriors desire 0 They want honor I In Achilles plea to his mother he describes how his honor had been violated by Agamemnon and how he wants her to restore his honor o In The Iliad SHAME CULTURE 0 People in The Iliad are constructed inthrough society I Their sense of being comes from how society perceive them 0 When someone dishonors them changes their status in society they become furious I It threatens their entire being 0 Who they are and what their lives are worth are very dependent on their honor and how people see them 0 Their actions are driven by their fear of being viewed as a coward NhaThinh Nguyen Humanities Core 10052015 I Being viewed as a coward shameful o In today s world GUILT CULTURE 0 Our selfworth come from ourselves and how people see us 0 We want to be liked by society like the people from The Iliad o How we act and how that follows or violates what we believe to be trueright affect who we and society views us I This is our guiltconscience 0 We fear the pain that comes with remorse 0 Our actions are driven by our conscience WHAT IS THE VIRTUE IN SHAME e 0 Honor through material possessions while heshe is still alive 0 More for you less for me I As we see through Achilles and Agamemnon s dispute in the beginning 0 We get what we deservewhat we fought for o Virtue that protects a community also threatens to destroy it I In ancient times men would protect their community by creating a defensive army just in case I However this defensive army would later become their downfall as it turned into an offensive army that tries to take over other communities 0 Kleos aphthiton undying glory o Kleos glory that continues to live even after death I That is why it is lastingundyingunperishing aphthiton Survival of a way of life 0 For a culture to survive it needs ethos and an embodiment of the good in the community morale boost o The hero embodies everything that is good I Ex Achilles for the Achaeans I Ex Hector for the Trojans 0 However the community must also survive I The hero embodies what is good and by their willingness to sacrifice themselves for it they give the community kleos o Honorglory after death The warrior ethics against itself 0 Tim honor wealth and status 0 Earned by gaining everything spoils of war 0 This shapes the warrior 0 Kleos eternal glory o Earned by losing everything the warrior must risk everything especially life NhaThinh Nguyen Humanities Core 10052015 0 This shapes the community War secures the value of the community by abrogating those values 0 All combat is personal 0 Glory is given to the hero and subsequently to the community after hisher death Achilles internal turmoil His internal turmoil embodies how the Achaeans feelwhat they are bothered about Later Achilles is given everything that he claims to have wanted 0 But refuses all of it I He states that there is no difference between the hero and the coward 0 They both die What does Achilles truly wants Self deception 0 His treasure is at home 0 Or does he want his quotprizequot 0 Or does he believe that nothing is worth anything anymore because his honor had been violated He is confused o If he fights he will die but his glory and honor will live o If he goes home he will live but his honor and glory will die HOWEVER 0 We know and he knows that he was meant to die on the battlefield I His fate cannot be fought 0 He is the embodiment of glory NhaThinh Nguyen Humanities Core 10072015 Week 2 Lecture 4 The Poetics of The Iliad Thersites challenge 0 Thersites raises the problemquestion of why any regular soldier should feel that they are part of the greater cause o Is Achilles really quota greater man I While he is sulking in his tent the men are fighting losing and dying 0 However Achilles does not acknowledge this 0 To acknowledge this would mean that other s options I Achilles feeling of superiority authority and power makes him blind to the needs of others he spreads his own pain on to others 0 Agamemnon quotthe high and mighty commander I He is in this war for his own personal gain I He is killing his people just to get more spoils of war I Does not truly care about the wellbeing of his people Agamemnon s words 0 quotNo shame in running fleeing o Isn t this the true definition of shame o Is Agamemnon truly a coward o Brings to question egitimation 0 Just because Agamemnon was given the scepterpower through tradition does he truly deserve it o quotI am hardly the man to order men against their will 0 The comma in this line causes a pause I Brings out a crisis 0 WHO can order mankind o A CRISIS OF POWER IN HOMERIC SOCIETY A crisis in the values of power 0 Both Achies and Agamemnon demonstrate this crisis Types of honor 0 Time honor through materialistic possessions 0 Kudos honor as a quotstar quality 0 Kleos glory fame and immortality their gloryname lives on even after the mortal dies Achies words 0 He says that he loves Briseis 0 However this cannot be true since he sees her as nothing more than an object a prize 0 He says that he doesn t want any gifts from Agamemnon 0 However at the beginning he asks for these NhaThinh Nguyen Humanities Core 10072015 0 Achilles problem he has no home he no longer belongs anywhere o This will lead him to become a hero I He sacrifices everything to become this hero to finish his fate Hector 0 He has everything that Achilles wants 0 He has a family he belongs in his home 0 He is able to feel life and ignorance of his inevitable fate I Achilles no doubts that he will die he knows that he cannot do anything about it 0 He is the center of his community 0 quotyou are my fathermotherbrotherhusband I The entirety of a family 0 Unlike Hector Achilles cannot choose between family and glory o Achilles does not belong anywhere therefore family is not even one of the choices I Achilles must choose glory he must die 0 Hector s words quotBut I would die of shame to face the men of Troy 0 This is a shame culture 0 Even though he can choose his family over glory the shame culture leads him to not shy away from the battle 0 He has internalized the views of others I quotHe has a reverence for the world he is part of Hector s wish 0 Wants his son to be better than Hector 0 But this means that the son will be obligated to fulfill his father s name the lord of the city Hector s son 0 Was initially afraid of his father in his glamorous armor 0 Was then less afraid when Hector removes his helmet o The son can see his father s lovehis face 0 The elders laugh at the boy s fear 0 But his fear is reasonable Later stripping Hector of his armor will not reveal a man but a corpse o 2 versions of the son s fate o 1 Achilles son throws Hector s son from the walls of Troy 0 2 Achilles son uses Hector s son to beat Priam Hector s father to death Achilles o Realizes that he cannot choose both family and war 0 Therefore his family is another warrior Achilles vs Hector NhaThinh Nguyen Humanities Core 10072015 0 They are the heroes of their communities 0 Illustrates two perspectives 0 They are each other s half 0 Hector I Perspective family I Has what Achilles wants but cannot have 0 Achilles I Perspective glory and war I Is the better warrior 0 Achilles MUST kill Hector When Achilles is in his tent and playing his lyre 0 He is not involved in an action above his worries 0 He is remembering past warriors 0 He is celebrating them 0 When he sings of The Iliad itself the poem pauses itself 0 This is a technological function Techn artcraft Ergon functionpurpose o Ergon is what differentiates each techn 0 Ex Poetry used to get something done to communicate something I It demonstrates honor BUT NOW 0 We no longer use poetry 0 Our techn has changed I Written text books I Online resources I Social media The Iliad 0 We should look at this poem as a series of artifactualizations o Artifact I A made thing quotarte and facere I It has a specific formshape I It has a specific ergonpurpose I It has a MEANING 0 Ex This war has a reason I This makes meaning 0 The people die FOR something 0 However soon the deaths will outnumber the reason 0 HOW DO WE EXPLAIN WAR NhaThinh Nguyen Humanities Core 10072015 0 What is the meaning of it Ekphrasis the verbal depiction of a work of visual art NhaThinh Nguyen Humanities Core 10092015 Week 2 Optional Friday Forum Universal Expectations Particular Experiences the First World War in Perspective Lecturer Prof Dr Jorn Leonhard The First World War 0 Premise 2 different beginnings of the war in Africa and Europe 0 Africa I They were colonized by different European Countries I Slaves were told if they were to fight in the war they would return as chiefs of their villages o This led to global and local tensions 0 Europe I This would change the universalism of war pacifism I Outbreak of war created new relations between the nations The acceleration of the war 0 There were regional crises due to the war and tensions between nations and tribes began to grow Transformations o Maritime coupe 0 Calculated escalation of the nations 0 Nations build empires Expe ences 0 Russia I Military dilemma o The compromise between time and resources 0 Germany I The ideal of the country changes and suggests the quality of recollections I They are an allegory of a medieval empire at the beginning of the war 0 Britain I They were seen as a defense community 0 Japan I They were able to completely change their country during this war 0 India I They demonstrated imperial loyalty under the rule of Great Britain I There was a rising expectation for honor among the people The war served as the beginning of universalism between the different nations involved in the war especially in the Balkan States 0 Balkans were ethnically diverse The people fighting in this war were from different colonies o The colonial powers got these people to fight in the war by idealizing honor and republican equality 0 However quotnonwhite soldiers were considered as dangerous and inferior I Demonstrated racist empire hierarchies NhaThinh Nguyen Humanities Core 10092015 0 Ex In a photo two white soldiers sat on a log while the quotnonwhite soldiers stood behind them I These people had to stay behind the front 0 Chinese workers were recruited as a form of cheap labor for the French and British military 0 This was a war on the battle field and a war for information 0 Cables were created to spread information I The US made significant progress in their means to communicate o The image of war constantly changes and the end of it was ambivalent o This war did not solve any conflicts but instead it lead to the beginning of new conflicts which took on many different forms Universalism 0 Old vs new 0 New I Combination of the new materials the fight and utopian ideologies 0 After 1915 the old utopian ideologies clashed with the new ones 0 In the postwar society there was a reversal of what was viewed as reality and expectations 0 What was different between the winning and the losing countries Expectations 0 Rising universal expectations could not be managedfulfilled o The people were not willing Postwar nations 0 A new issue emerged o The topic of national selfidentification I quotWho are you 0 People lived together as a nation and yet they were not the same MAIN THESIS o WAR IS INFLUENCED IN PART BY THE RESENTMENT OF PEOPLE o This resentment is due to the people s high expectations 0 These expectations are too unreasonable so there is no way of fulfilling them 0 Prof Leonhard uses the personal experiences from different countries over the course of WWI to demonstrate how universal expectation are constantly changing and remain unfulfilled NhaThinh Nguyen Humanities Core 10072015 Recommended Special Event Forum Connections between The Iliad and Its Modern Adaptation Lecturer Monica Cyrino Modern adaptations of older stories 0 Modern adaptations priorities are not focused on staying historically accurate 0 Producers tend to change certain aspects of a story in order to be more entertaining for modern audiences The Iliad o Scribes would fill in certain plot lines 0 Story that began the war Helen and Paris s story is told in the lost epic Cypria o It begins with the divine beauty contest with Paris as the judge o Aphrodite gives Helen to Paris and this begins the 10 year war between Achaea and Troy 0 Agamemnon the king that has the cooperation of the other kings coalitions Troy 2004 0 Plot similar to story line in The Iliad but uses other epic material 0 Gives viewers the background story of the war and Achilles o This adaptation essentially strips most of the gods from the plot 0 Mainly focuses on Achilles want for kleoseternal glory o It compresses time 0 Arrival of the Achaeans in Troy and the 1st nine years of the Trojan war up to the final quarrel o Epic themes 0 History how does the film impart a quotfeeling of history 0 Sweep how does film impart a sense of sizeimportancescope 0 Characters how are the heroes portrayed 0 Meaning what does it say to modern audiences 0 Characters 0 Achilles I Illustrates his fight for kleos I His style of fighting follows The Iliad s description of Achilles 0 Ex quotswiftfooted I He is loyal to Myrmidons his friends I Deals with his knowledge of his early death I His romance with Briseis is built up in the movie 0 Briseis I She is promoted to the royal family I The quotgo between for Troy and Achilles I Acts as the priestess for Apollo like Cassandra o Agamemnon NhaThinh Nguyen Humanities Core 10072015 I He also insults Achilles in the movie 0 This is a long hatred that is shown in the movie I His greediness is emphasized in the film 0 This war to retrieve Helen is used as an excuse for him to take over Troy 0 Hector I Survival of Troy is dependent on his survival 0 Ajax I In the film he is killed by Hector I In The Iliad he survives the war but was unable to adjust to life after the war and subsequently kills himself I 2ncl best Achaean warrior after Achilles I His death in the film emphasizes the skill of Hector The quotSword of Troy 0 This is not actually in The Iliad o It is an addon motif I Audience is expected to know of this because it is similar to the Excalibur of King Arthur In The Iliad Aphrodite saves Paris from Menelaus o HOWEVER in the movie Hector saves him I They do this as a way to now show any of the gods In The Iliad Menelaus does not die 0 HOWEVER in the movie Menelaus is killed by Hector I This shifts the storyline from the conflict with Paris Helen and Menelaus to Achilles quest for glory and his love for Briseis n BOTH The Iliad and the movie Helen is aware that she is the cause of the war and feels bad about it Helen s reason for the Trojan war o In The Iliad she states that this war is going on in order to future generations to have stories to tell Troy still falls o In the movies and the epic the safety of troy depends on the survival of Hector Turning point in the movie o It is the story of Patroclus o Patroclus the quotgood cousin I He wears Achilles armor to battle to raise morale I But he is subsequently killed by Hector 0 This angers Achilles o Patroclus fights Hector ariestos the climax when he fights with Hector The preparation for battle scene in the movie 0 Difference between Hector and Achilles I Hector leaves a home a family I Achilles does not leave anyone 0 He does not belong anywhere NhaThinh Nguyen Humanities Core 10072015 0 In The Iliad after Achilles returns to defiled body of Hector he cries with Priam o HOWEVER in the film he cries by himself as he looks at the body of Hector