The French and Haitian Revolutions and Napoleon
The French and Haitian Revolutions and Napoleon History 150C1
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by juan gomez on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 150C1 at University of Arizona taught by Minayo Nasiali in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see Europe in the Modern World in History at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
The French and Haitian Revolutions Major theme citizenship struggles over the meaning of freedom and 0 Key terms from lecture o Gens de coueur OOOOOO Slave insurrection of 1791 The Radical Phase of the French Revolution Toussaint Louverture The Jacobins Revolutionary Culture The Vendee o Haitian Revolution 0 Key terms from readings 0 Napoleon o Napoleonic Code 0 Key terms from lecture 0 General notes Constitution and Bill of Rights 0 Document that declares how a country will be governed General inalienable universal rights of the people 0 Bill of Rights would be what the people are allowed to do 0 Constitution states how the government control the people 0 Bill of rights grants entitlement to the people Constitution came before Bill of Rights in the United States 0 Duke Mathieu de Montmorency speech at national assembly August 1 1789 quotTo raise up an edi ce it is necessary to lay foundations it is important to declare the rights of man before the constitution because the constitution is only the continuation the conclusion of this declaration the rights of man in society are eternal no sanction is needed to recognize themquot Declaration of rights should be before any constitution The rights are eternal and are more important than how a government should control the people 0 Malouet speech at national assembly August 1 1789 quotThe moment in which we nd ourselves requires more action and re ection than speechifying The nation is waiting for us it wants order peace and protective laws I know that Americans took man from bosom of nature and presented him to the universe in all his primitive sovereignty But American society newly formed is composed in its totality of landowners already accustomed to equality But we Sirs we have for fellow citizens an immense multitude of men without property who expect above all their subsistence from an assured labor right regulation and continual protection Liberty should be like the morning star which shines for everyone But I believe Sirs that is necessary in a large empire for men place by circumstances in a dependent condition to see the just limits on as much as the extension of natural libertyquot People go for declaration of rights before constitution during the debate of what to write rst before creating a country Creating a system of government with simple steps was the way to go 0 September 1791 National assembly succeeds in drafting a constitution Protests that one aristocracy was being replaced with another 0 The Moderate Phase of the Revolution 17891792 1789 king calls the Estates General The Third Estate forms a National Assembly and vows to form a constitutional monarchy Ongoing stalemate with the king The women march on Versailles and escort the king back to Paris 1791 The National Assembly writes a constitution 0 French colonies Colonized Haiti Planted sugar cane as a cash crop 17th century indigenous population was mostly replaced by Africans Most African slaves were born in Africa and born to America and were working there 0 Racial and Class Hierarchies in SaintDomingue in 1789 The blancs free whitesc20000 o Planters owners of plantations o quotpett blancsquot quotLittle whitesquot The gens de coueurfree people of color 0 C 30000 Slaves c 500000 0 Domestic Slaves c 100000 0 Field Hands c 400000 Maroons escaped slaves living in autonomous communities number unknown perhaps in tens of thousands o Gens de coueur Wealthy land owners Plantation owners 0 Estates General Group of plantation owner went to France to participate in the changes at the Estates General Multiple gens de coueur also went to France to attempt to raise their status They argued in a number of speeches that they should also receive rights Lobby for inclusion but argue that slaves should not be granted rights They stated that slaves were critical economy and did not need rights for the o Slave insurrection of 1791 Slaves in the northern part of the island begin an armed rebellion Gens de Coueur argued that they needed a good position to control the slaves in Haiti Slaves begin a revolt Tens of thousands of slaves begin a rebellion They planned it for months stockpiled weapons Burnt down plantations imprisoned plantation owners and killed them By 1792 slaves control most of the island During the insurrection many slaves invoke the Universal Rights of Man as justi cation for the uprising Invoked Universal Rights in order to attain liberty 2 different groups were using the Universal Rights in order to attain their goals at the same time Assembly in France decides to include the gens de coueun Even though the southern side did not revolt the overseers were kicked out and the slaves were running the plantations 0 Meanwhile back in mainland France National Assembly Emerging divisions between moderates and radicals In September 1791 National Assembly succeeded in drafting a constitution which ultimately re ects the position of the moderates The king is not cooperating he remains hostile to the revolution The king was suspected of conspiring with aristocrats that had ed the country He attempts to ee France with his family in June 1791 called The Flight to Varennes he Great failed escape o The Radical Phase of the French Revolution Spring 1792 France is attacked by England Austria and Spain as well as a few other monarchies Other monarchies are scared that revolution might spread to their countries so they attack August 1792 armed mob marches to the Louvre where the king is stripped from his power and taken as a prisoner The Assembly will be dismissed and a new one will be elected The 1St republic established in September 22ml of 1792 The Prussian army attacks France Most of Europe declares war on France End of the Monarchy and the Declaration of the RepubHc Revolutionary communities known as The Sans Culotte 0 They had two passions o Equality o Punishment of the guilty 0 Dominant popular force of the revolution SansCulotte means without breeches 0 Normally a worker and laborer People were to address each other as citizen 0 Attempt to remove ranks 0 Do away with formalities of rank and race Peasant would refer to noblemen as citizen Revolutionary culture 0 Typically a red white and blue Revolutionaries create labor unions Laws created for a women to be considered a citizen Eased up on women s rights to own property New opportunities for groups such as women for them to have more freedom 0 ln Saint Domingue a major test of revolutionary ideals Spain and Britain attacked Saint Domingue Spain and Britain eye Saint Domingue as a promising place for pro t They start arming the slaves offering emancipation if they win as well French appointed government decide to issue a proclamation without noti ed the mainland that stated that the slaves would be emancipated Robespierre decided to go with it and abolish slavery in 1794 With this new freedom restrictions came Slaves were expected to stay at the plantations and work for pay without leaving Any man or women that wasn t a soldier that would leave the plantation would be imprisoned Many of the slaves ghting for the Spanish or British went back to the French Side 0 Toussaint Louverture Born into slavery Worked as a coachmen Emancipated in the 17705 C17431803 Father born in Africa Somehow became educated Serious leader working with the slaves When France decides to emancipate slaves he comes back to their side with a strong army Soldiers he led were the heart of the army that won the war against the British and the Spanish Succeed in driving out the British and Spanish He and his army were now ghting for the principles of rights and freedom Saint Domingue was now united with mainland France in the ght for the principles of rights 0 ln Mainland France Violence and Terror A revolutionary committee under the terror Moment of widespread terror If you weren t a supporter of the revolution you would be tried imprisoned and this would even lead to death Execution of Louis XVI in January 21St 1793 by guillotine o TheJacobins Radicals Create rst republic in France In control 17921794 Increasingly believe that there can be no diverse opinion 0 The Vendee Counter Revolution Peasants rebellion of mostly royalists Brutally put down by the Jacobins Jacobins send 40000 troops to pacify the populists 50000 residents of the area were massacred for taking arms against the government Terror was marked by growing divisions amongst the leaders Fear ultimately claims Robespierre o The other members of the committee go against him 0 He was going to be executed he attempted to suicide but fails to do so 0 At the end he faces off against the guillotine Fall of Robespierre marks the end of the terror as well as the radical phase of the revolution End of terror in France but revolution continues in St Domingue o Haitian Revolution Strides to consolidate power for Louverture Attempts to make an autonomous government Convinces the slaves to continue working the elds Begun to negotiate with the US and the British to establish trade He decides to draft a charter for his regime to make a country They also decide to draft a constitution Napoleon sent the army to take out Louverture Napoleon loses the war against the army of St Domingue Napoleon s army goes back to France Successful revolution by the slaves They continue to draft and establish a constitution They change the name of the island to Haiti Haiti is isolated for a while Haiti agreed to pay reparations to France Haiti forced to take out loans to pay reparations Enters a state of debt that lasts a century 0 Toussaint Louverture s Revolutionary war Key terms May 1794 Toussaint Louverture joins the French revolutionaries against the British bringing his slave army with him formerly sided with Spain 1794179 Toussaint consolidates his position and becomes the most powerful gure on the French side becoming governor general in 1797 He drove the British and the Spanish out of saint Domingue 1801 Toussaint creates a constitution for saint Domingue 0 Napoleon Reestablishes slavery Born in Corsica Speaks very bad French Early career Modest family in Corsica vaguely linked to Italian nobility Did not speak French until age 10 Educated the Brienne military academy and later admitted to the Royal Military School in Paris Excelled in mathematics studied artillery The rst Italian Campaign 17961797 Defeated the Austrians in Italy routed the troops loyal to the Pope Treaty of Campo Formio 1797 northern Italy the Low Countries and the Rhineland Revolutionary war changes into a war of conquest with Napoleon Demanded very high taxes Tries to conquer Egypt The Egyptian Campaign 17981799 Invades Egypt which was Ottoman Empire Attempts to utilize the language of rights Very few people in France spoke Arabic and other languages spoken in Egypt Fails miserably failed horribly enough he abandons part of his army Much of the army perishes due to disease or being killed by Ottomans Beginning of a new interest Napoleon comes back to France in 1799 part of the Napoleon s Coup 910 November 1799 Sieyes invites Napoleon to take part in coup 9 November Napoleon has troops seize control of the Directory and suspend the legislature A three member Council becomes the new executive Sieyes Napoleon Ducos Napoleon soon becomes First Consul Napoleon in Power Revolutionary or Authoritarian o Napoleonic Code The Civil Code 1804 0 Prepared by a commission of legal experts with NB s active participation 0 A uni ed legal system for the republic 0 French state took power to register births deaths marriages from the Church o Principle of quotpaternal authorityquot 0 Made divorce dif cult but still possible 0 Extremely restrictive view of women s civil rights 0 Followed by Criminal Code 1808 and Penal Code1810 Napoleon crowns himself emperor in 1804 o Took religion out of the picture when he crowned himself 0 Napoleon moves into the subjugation of Europe Napoleon and Slavery 1802 Napoleon fails to end the slave revolt in Saint Domingue o 1804 Haitian Independence 1804 Reimposition of slaver in remaining colonies of the Antilles Industrial Revolution 0 Cotton 0 Early 19th century 0 Planted by hand by slave laborers 0 Cotton is exported to Great Britain 0 Contributes to the rise of the textile industry Took place in Great Britain during the late 18th and early 19th centuries Took place in other America 1815 Brought about a new awareness on the position of workers Brought about new forms of transportation Imports to Great Britain arrive at Liverpool and distributed Raw goods are processed in textile warehouses around the city Cotton is popular because it is less itchy more comfortable Cotton yarn demand was larger than the supply until a spinning machine was created 1787 the power loom was created which produced 3 times what a skilled cotton weaver could produce with hand machines European countries and o The Steam Engine 0 O O O O The steam engine was used in almost every stage of the production process created in 1763 Soon became a central machine for the Industrial Revolution Provided intense blast of heat used to work with iron Did not necessarily make work easier Transformed labor did not always make life easier 0 Migration from rural areas into industrial cities like Manchester 0 End of 19th century people migrating into cities 0 Production factories and living conditions OOOOOO Bad ventilation fumes around Loud factory Heavy dark black smog appeared over the cities 23 of the work force were children and women Communal toilets Lived in small cramped places with families
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