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Week 2 Notes

by: Taylor Twadelle

Week 2 Notes HSTCMP 269 A

Taylor Twadelle
GPA 3.75
The Holocaust: History and Memory
Christopher Browning

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About this Document

A little over five pages of notes from the lectures Tuesday 10/6 and Thursday 10/8.
The Holocaust: History and Memory
Christopher Browning
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Twadelle on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HSTCMP 269 A at University of Washington taught by Christopher Browning in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see The Holocaust: History and Memory in History at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
Week 2 Tuesday 106 amp Thursday 108 HSTCMP 269 A Enlightenment quotsecularizationquot o Diminishing role of religion increase of reason 0 Limiting Church39s dominant role in society Religion is a personal matter public gt private Religious tolerance Religious preferences not imposed by the state or church monopoly o Emergence of social sciences o Con icting tenants concerning Jews freedom of confession vs freeing people from religious superstitions and traditions Goal of many Enlightenment gures was not that Jews should convert but that they should assimilate into a secular society Late 18th century Dual Revolution doubleedged sword Economically bene ciary but creates new opportunities for antiSemitism o Liberalnational democratic revolution amp nationalism Ex American Revolution rights equality liberty etc States are created to serve people people are not subjects but citizens Popular sovereignty representative democracy constitutional government separation of powers checks and balances political participation Equality before the law Separation of churchstate freedom of religion Obligations of citizens to serve in armies civic duties 0 Creation of mobilizing capacity of masses empowering citizens 0 Industrial Revolution Prior vast majority were agrarian 510 lived in cities Exponentially increased man s productivity organization wealth Population shift from rural to urban Europe becomes supercontinent in terms of technology communications military wealth Population explosion Globalization of economy disadvantages ruraltraditionalartisan occuanons Jewish Emancipation o Liberaldemocratic revolution brought about equality before the law without legal hindrances end of legal discrimination o Vast new economic opportunities Advantages of literacy and entrepreneurial spirit Move into medical legal nancial academic sectors produced skewed employment pro le 0 Move into upper middle class in many societies Jews bene t disproportionately to Christians who feel their social status declining Those suffering blame those who are doing very well for their suffering Historicallyconstructed racism pseudoscience Social Darwinism o Zeal for organization categorization rationalism uncovering laws of nature 0 Metaphor of Darwin39s evolutionism applied to human affairs Survival of the ttest certain races were able to survive because they outperformed others history is the outcome of racial struggle o Gobineau articulated a racial theory of history Traced Europe39s success superiority to fact that Roman Empire had been conquered by small group of NordicGermanic invaders European race had been based upon noble blood notion of pure races superior to mixed races Democracy threatened European superiority o Emergence of racial hierarchy rationalization of subjugation of other races Assumption of white superiority as demonstrated by vast superiority of Europe nancially politically etc Jews not white but Semitic different religion language culture Produces pseudoscienti c explanation for antiSemitism Contradiction W social Darwinism survival of the ttest applied to races Eugenics intentional improvement of society through genetics heredity o Weeding out carriers of undesirable traits 0 Encourage reproduction among healthy people and discourage it among carriers of 39 aws39 Selective sterilization Courtordered sterilization in US 0 Applied on an individual level not yet applied to races In theory applied impartially but discriminated against poor other races Pogroms originated in Russia Jews attacked by mobs Dreyfus Affair France 18905 0 French military intelligence discover someone is selling secrets to Germany 0 One Jew on general staff Dreyfus patriotic assimilated French Jew Military intelligence assume he is culprit only someone who is 39not a part of France39 would betray it Dreyfus is convicted courtmarshaled sent off to prison island 0 Selling of information continues 0 France divides over whether to bring Dreyfus back and give him fair trial Individual rights fairness vs Military superiorityinfallibility superiority Coming together of rightwing w antiSemitism 0 Demonstrated mobilization of antiSemitism Zionism demand for a Jewish nation 0 Growing in Europe particularly in Eastern Europe but not in Germany Jews were doing well in Germany why leave Germany not viewed as the likelyinevitable country of genocide Thursday 108 Sonderweg special path why did Germany follow a different path than other Western countries 0 quotnormalquot development free enterprise middle class capitalism ibera democracy Why did Germany not follow 39trajectory of modernity39 0 One explanation role of military in society From origins Germany was far more militarized society obedience to authority 0 Reactionary modernism Jeffrey Herf Germany became center of antiNapoleonic position in opposition to everything French quotmushyquot humanitarian values eg equality before law Germany took aspects of modernity that gave it potential to be more powerful but rejected those that would make it more liberaldemocratic ie French 0 Failed Revolution Bielefeld School failed revolution of 1848 Every successful ibera democracy requires a revolution that chops off head of authoritarian monarch 1848 quotturning point in German history that did not turnquot revolution that failed 0 Germany sti divided no German state Revolutionaries wanted to both unify and liberalize Germany Prussian army defeats revolutionaries does not achieve any democratic revolution quotskewedquot development in comparison to France Britain US 0 Eliminationist AntiSemitism Daniel Godhagen Germany had a more extreme lethal form of AntiSemitism Inevitable that genocide would take place 0 Crisis of Classical Modernity Detlev Peukert Germany experiences compressed extreme form of modernization Huge economic growth rapid urbanization amp rise of middle class Modernization occurred within 12 generations compared to 34 generations elsewhere Overly rapid modernization resulted in dysfunctional developmentsociety Belated German uni cation at beginning of 19th century Germany is not a uni ed state 0 1848 0 Issues entering the common trading market wo status of nationstate Politically and economically not uni ed Raises question what does it mean to be a German Not citizenship in a state German by virtue of language traditions customs Kulturnation vs staatsnation Cultural rather than legal de nition Notion of quotblood and soilquot environment amp genetics Jews rootless not of German blood etc Dichotomy of quotGermannessquot vs quotJewishnessquot German quotvokquot ethnicity race culture German people Prussian army defeats revolutionaries and maintains old order King of Prussia appoints Otto von Bismarck as chancellor to block pressures for reform Bismarck Prussian aristocrat amp quotenlightened conservativequot things are going to change cannot maintain old order forever At this point nationalism is part of Left wing politics Nationalism is a dire threat to aristocrats empire Liberalism also a threat will demote social statusprivileges promote equality before the law Bismarck nationalism does not have to be exclusively Left wing can be used by Right wing Unify Germany by conquering rest of Germany as part of Prussian empire Prussia is largest German state w strongest army Late 18605 Germany goes to war w Austria Denmark France Treaty that defeats France also creates Germany 1870 71 German empire dominated by Prussian emperor run by German chanceHor Alliance w much of German uppermiddle class Appearance of political representation Reichstag elected political parties that do not have control over foreign affairs military cannot elect chancellor who is appointed by emperor War on Catholics Catholics are viewed as more loyal to Catholic divinityhierarchy than new German state quotculture warsquot idea of putting politics beyond religion Bismarck still intent on not allowing reform New state gave economic but not political bene ts Rise of a new political party Social Democrats 0 Blue collar workers urbanites 0 Old romantic notion of quotGerman blood and soilquot being disrupted Germany is becoming like other countries amp losing its uniqueness evilness of urban cities Right wing critique 18805 rise of German AntiSemitism coined by Wilhelm Marr o Germanness is being eroded byJewishness Materialism urbanization o Marr opposed notJewish religion but cultural rami cations ofJews in German society argument that he is not antiJewish but antiSemitic 0 Social question is the quotJewish questionquot 0 Cultural pessimism Christian Social political party aimed at working class lower middle class artisans shopkeepers led by Adolf Stocker Increasing formation of singleissue political movements 0 None managed to get any political traction 0 Political antiSemitism remains on the margins Tivoli Program conservative party adopts antiSemitism as party platform in 1892 0 Vienna in 18905 Karl Lueger begins Christian political movement based on same ideals quotCultural codequot Shulamit Volkov o Argues in the 18905 that antiSemitism in Germany and Austria is a cultural code buzzword symbolizing a position in the political spectrum that symbolizes much more package deal Conservative ultranationalist antiforeign o Desensitization antiSemitism becomes a legitimate political platform Fascism the last stage of capitalism after capitalist crisis 0 Engendered totalitarianism Hitler and Stalin two sides of the totalitarian coin fascist and socialist o Fascism is the quotmiddle extremequot right extreme is authoritarianism left extreme is communism Four groups of society 0 Old privileged groups landowners aristocrats disadvantaged by modernity 0 Middle class intellectuals bene ting from liberal revolution 0 Lower middle class white collar workers disadvantaged by modernity 0 Working class blue collar workers farmers gaining more rights from liberal revolution 19205 in ation economic depression all classes suffer o In Germany lower middle classes suffer most Hitler rallies lower middle class gains privileges from old privileged groups Nazi party support base is lower middle class but eventually gains crossclass support great advantage amp unique claim 0 Hitler denied Nazi was even a political party because Weimar Republic party system was so dysfunctional would represent everyone instead of selfinterests of single political party But required giving up singular selfinterest for the collective interest innovative approach in Germany Inclusive appeal Sought to create new Voksgemeinschaft community of the people appeals to order discipline sense of purpose of a military approach to life World War I veterans in particular Promises to break political gridlock through leadership Fuhrerprinzip principle of strong leader Economic solution end division between management and workers Corporatism Mussolini or in Hitler39s words national socialism Create corporate sectors for transportation industry etc that brings together management and workers jointly working for national interest Racial pride Germans are superior


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