Notes Sept. 15-OCt. 8
Notes Sept. 15-OCt. 8 PSY 0310
Popular in Developmental Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Morris on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 0310 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Jennifer Ganger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
PSY 0310Genetics 91515 Nature and Nurture Complex Relationship genotype the genetic material an individual inherits in particular which alleles of each gene phenotype observable expression of the genotype VERY BROAD 0 environment every aspect of an individual and his or her surrounding other than genes 1 Parent s genotype l Child s genotype Chromosomes o 23 Pairs 0 DNA 0 Genes Proteincodingextrons Regulating introns Alleles Heredity o For each pair of chromosomes one from mom and one from dad For each gene one from mom and one from dad 2 Child s Genotype l Child s Phenotype Gene expression hard to predict genes interact with each other 0 Regulation changes over development and form environment 0 Dominant and recessive alleles 0 Most behavioral traits are polygenic 3 Child s Environment Child s Phenotype Environmental effects on phenotype arrow 3 o Geneenvironment interaction arrow 2 and 3 0 Norm of reaction genetic potential and environment 0 Caspi et al 2002 Boys with one version of MAOA gene more likely to become antisocial if exposed to harsh parenting lnteraction the effect of one variable depends on the level of the other variable 4 Child s Phenotype l Child s Environment 0 Child affects its own environment arrow 4 o Leads to geneenvironment correlation arrows 2 3 amp 4 o Evocative Child bc of genetic dispositions changes environment in ways that affect expression of those very genes evocative EX Child shows musical promise so parents get him piano lessons 0 Active quotNichepicking Choosing deliberately Child choose their environments eg friends sports 5 Child s Environment Child s Genotype Epigenesis stable changes in gene expression caused by environmental factors methylation is a mechanism Passive GeneEnvironment Correlation oArrows 1 2 3 6 amp 7 oParents pass on genes and environment they are correlated oEX Parents with musical talentlove of music tend to engage in music at home providing both genes and environment for musical success Estimating genetic and environmental contributions to individual genes oBehaviora genetics o quotTeasing apartquot effects of genes and environment oTwo major designs Adoption Studies UCorrelation with genetic relatives UCorrelation with environmental relatives Cassic Twin Studies ndentical and fraternal n100 vs 50 UEqual environment nf identical twins are highly correlated than fraternal twins Heritability proportion of variance that is due to genetic differences among those individuals always about a sample not an individual 0 EX Heritability of IQ is 52 o 52 of individual differences in IQ in a population can be attributed to differences in genes 48 to differences in environment Rectangles 0 Just a statistic speci c to the population measured o Substantial for most traits o All have same height thus can be compared by length Environment effects Two kinds 0 Shared or common environment 0 Intuitive de nition Homefamily variables 0 Environment that family members share Nonshared or unique 0 Intuitive de nition factors outside the home eg peers Heritability 0 Equal to two times the difference between MZ amp DZ correlations or 0 Equal to two times the correlation between adopted children and their genetic parentssiblings o For IQ estimate from twins is 2x2652 estimate from adoption studies is 2x2448 impressively close 0 The Neuron Three major components 1 Cell body amp nucleus 2 Dendrites 0 Receive input from other neurons and conduct it toward cell body 3 Axon o Conducts electrical signal from neurons and conduct it toward cell body 0 Myelin sheath 0 The Synapse o Trillions of them 0 A single neuron may have up to 15000 synapses 0 Foundation of brain functioningbehavior Development Neurogenesis creation of neurons themselves 0 Complete 18 week gestation Migration of cells l to where they end up 0 Programmed cell death l guiding cells Differentiation and synaptogenesis creation of connections between neurons 0 Myelination o PruningSynapse Elimination Synaptogenesis Formation of synapses Time course variation in areas o Decline o Synapses that do not re 0 there is also a massive synaptogenesis in adolescence shown in later longitudinal study Synapse Elimination o AKA quotsynaptic pruningquot o Axon retreats dendrite spin pruned away Surplus o A toddler has almost 2x as many synapses in visual cortex as adult about 40 total are pruned by the time they are adults Continues through adolescence Role of experience Which synapses get used 0 Use it or lose it Plasticity o Pruning in response to experience during development 0 A normal part of development 0 Also allows recovery from early damage 0 Learning results in changes in brain 0 Humans and musical instruments 0 Rats and complex environments 0 Two types of plasticity 1 ExperienceExpectant plasticity experiencerequired Experience that a normal human can expect The brain requires particular stimulation at a particular time to develop properly Speciestypical development Downside vulnerability Sensitive or critical periods EX Language emotional functioning stereo vision 2 ExperienceDependent plasticity Learning Happens throughout life no critical period Individual differences EX Musical instruments new skills Myth of rst 3 years 0 Industry of baby genius making 0 Result of confusion between experienceexpectant amp experience dependent processes 0 Deprivation vs enrichment Piaget amp Enduring Issues 0 Jean Piaget 18961980 0 Child as a scientist Active Child Issue 0 Child plays an active role in own development at all stages CONSTRUCTIVISM children build their own knowledge through acUon o The active child 0 Blank sate except re exes motivation Discontinuity Issue 0 Stages Qualitative changes in ways of thinking lnvanantsequence Broad applicability across topics and contexts quotDomain generalquot Domains aka modules 0 Speci c cognitive abilities o EX domains Language space number peope Domaingeneral o Reasoning learning same for all domains Domainspeci c o Reasoning learning may be different Piaget s Theory four stages 1 Sensorimotor Birth to age 2 2 Preoperational 27 years 3 Concrete Operational 712 years 4 Formal operational 12 years amp up 1 Sensorimotor Stage 02 years 0 Infant is a blank slates Knows only what is immediately perceivable For rst 8 months Only sensory amp motor abilities no enduring representations quotOut of sight out of mindquot lack of quotobject permanencequot Object permanence task 48 months will fail until 8 months 812 months Object permanence arrives But representations fragile o A not B error 1218 months disappearance of AB search error By 24 months Mental representations internal images objects and events that persist overtime o Deferred imitation 1824 months 0 Pretend pay 1824 months 2 Preoperational stage 27 years 0 Major accomplishment increase in symbolic activity 0 Language use lang for different purposes longer sentences etc o Pretend play use themsef as symbol 0 Representational drawing what you are drawing represents a real thing in the world Depends on culture 0 Maps 0 Some limitations 0 In general lack of logical operations that can be applies to any situation 0 Egocentrism Three mountains problem what does the doll see u Children see their own view a Literal view of the world Centrationabsence of conservation n Focus on one feature a Conservation of liquid number etc I Apply logical operations 3 Concrete Operational Stage 712 years 0 Logical reasoning about concrete features of the world Operationstransformations 0 Conservation quotif you pour it back it s the same amountquot its shorter but its also wider Limitations 0 Reasoning limited to concrete observable and speci c s uanns 0 Do not approach problems systematically just try things Pendulum problem 4 Formal operational stage 12 amp up Hypothetical reasoning and abstract thinking New abilities 0 Systematic approach to problem solving Not universal o Depends on cultureeducation Piaget s Legacy 0 Broad keen amp still in uential 0 New theories 0 Education Active learning 0 Four weaknesses 0 Not so much consistency within a stage o Underestimates abilities children at ages especially infants cognitive Underestimates contribution of social world 0 Vague about processes of change Impossible to predict 0 Information processing cognitive science 0 Child as problemsolver Child as quotlimited capacity processing systemquot computer 0 Limited by m memory capacity efficiency of basic operations Software strategies amp knowledge 0 Developmentimprovement in both hardware and software maturation in hardware and experience in software Central developmental issues 0 Core problems 0 Memorylearning o Problemsolving Emphasis on how change occurs mechanisms 0 Breaking down problems into components 0 Continuous change 0 Gradual maturation biological and continuous learning from expenence MemoryLearning o EX Arithmetic Problem 0 Working memoryattention 0 Holds relevant knowledge from longterm memory combines with incoming info if needed maintains it all until work is done 0 Longterm memory 0 Knowledge that is retained for a long time even though you are not always using it 0 Executive functioning 0 Inhibition of behavior 0 Selection of content from LTM 0 Strategy selection amp exibility What drives the development of memory Improvement in 0 Basic processes domaingeneral improve through myelinationfaster processing 0 Associating events with each other 0 Recognizing objects as familiar o Recalling facts and procedures 0 Generalizing from one instance to another 0 Encoding representation of speci c features 0 Strategies improve through instruction use discovery 0 Rehearsal O O Selective Attention Utilization children don t always use the right strategies 0 Content knowledge through experiences 0 Knowing more helps you learnremember more Compare Piaget to info processing 0 Object permanence O 0000 O Encode memory of object Maintain object in working memory l LTM Make plan to get object Grab blanket Let go of blanket Grab object 0 AB Error 0 Conservation 0 Three Mountains Pendulum problem Sociocultural theories takes place through interaction with others 0 View of child children as social being Vygotsky 0 Children are intent on participating in activities in their local setting 0 Tomasello modern teaching amp learning from one another are instincts Cf Piaget viewing children as intent on exploring world and mastering universal concepts 0 Stresses importance of culture Artifacts symbols skills values etc speci c to culture 0 Central developmental issues 0 Children are produces of their culture 0 Continuous development 0 Mechanisms Concepts 0 Guided participation More knowledgeable individuals organize activities in a way that allows less knowledgeable people to learn Components of guided participation n Intersubjectivity a Social scaffolding Intersubjectivity Mutual understanding people share during communication 0 Paying attention to same idea 0 Being aware of each other s mind 0 Joint attention requires intersubjectivity o Begins in late infancy o Intentionally focusing on a common referent Social Scaffolding Social metaphor 0 Providing a temporary framework that supports children s thinking at a higher level than they can manage on their own Dynamic Systems 0 View of children s nature and stance on central development 0 Child as complex system 0 Active explorers of world active child 0 Experiences central in forming knowledge nuture There are innate motivators of development but not domainspeci c 0 Multiple interacting factors in development Skis emerge from other skills rather than coming on H M line from plan quotselforganizing system emergencequot Buzzing blooming confusion W James Pattern perception 1 Visual acuitv the sharpness of vision and the clarity with which details can be discerned o Gratings stripes used to measures infants visual acuity the higher frequency closer together the higher the acuity When do you not see separate stripes vs square Techniques for studying infants visual abilities o Preferential looking looking at the thing more often more interesting to them 0 Habituation looking 0 ERP Evoked response potentialsmeasuring response to stimulus Based on EEG electroencephalography measure brain activity through electrodes put on the skill Finding o Newborn 20120 by 5 wks what an adult can see fro 120 ft away the infant must be 20 ft 2020 by 8 months Consequences of decreased visual acuity Object exploration o In rst month infants focus on area with most contrast Outside boundaries have most contrast Acuity and contrast are related 0 By 23 months able to explore inner features more thoroughly 0 Note restriction of experience 0 Object knowledge takes off quite rapidly after this 2 Object segmentationsegregation Finding the distinct coherent objects in a scene Cues for adults include 0 Physical separation 0 Motion common motion amp independent motion 0 quotTop downquot knowledge 0 What about infants 0 Principles available to adults also available to infants Infants can use physical separation by 2 months Use motion by 2 months rod and block studies 0 Common motionquotrod amp block quot studies Spelke common motion experiment a 4 month olds perceive single rod easily Johnson amp Aslin n 2 month olds can it if rode is wider or box narrower but not newborns 3 Depth Perception 0 how far away things are 0 visual cliff experiments 0 Cues Optical expansion thing gets bigger as it gets closer by 34 weeks Binocular disparity and stereopsis the greater the BD the closer the object by 34 months critical period ends 68 months but starts to close before then Pictorialmonocular cues from details in world 37 months a Occlusion ex See a whole an particle object the particle object is farther away 34 months a Perceptive ex Parallel lines appear closer as they get farther away 67 months a Texture ex The details are sharper when closer 67 months 1 Re exes amp Motor Milestones re ex an innate xed pattern of action that occurs in response to speci c stimulation involuntary newborn re exes O O O O Rooting disappears 3wks poke on check l turn head amp open mouth prep for feeding Palm Graspgrasping disappears 34 months Pressing into palm l grasping Once disappears voluntary grasping begins Stepping quotdisappearsquot around 2 months reappears at 12 months at 12 months voluntary movement Hard surface l makes stepping motion MoroStartle disappears around 6 months Loss of support arms go out amp then back in hugging Re exes are a sigh of healthy development 0 Motor milestones O O 0 New ways of interacting with the world Lift head By 4 wks Arms for support 24 months Reachinggrasping 34 months 0 Sits without support 57 months 0 Crawls some babies never crawl 511 months 7 is average 0 Walks alone 1114 months 0 Understanding motor development 0 Traditional view Maturation Gessell Based on observation of orderly progression of motor milestones in Western Culture 0 Chipping away at the traditional view Many hints that multiple factors are important to motor development a Stepping re ex a Cultural differences in motor development 0 The Stepping Re ex 0 Does it drop out and reappear 0 Water study E Thelen showed re ex is still there water allows legs to feel lighter o Added ankle weights Thelen showed infants did not step with added weight 0 Cultural in uence on motor development Walking 0 Urban China rural Paraguay walk later 0 West Africa West Indies l walk sooner N UL Stretching practices Understanding motor development 0 These kinds of observations led to application of Dynamic Systems theory to motor development 0 Behavior is an integrated system genetic maturation is not the only factor Dynamic Systems Framework Multiple interacting systems CNS development 0 Synaptogenesis myelination Movement possibilities of body building new on old 0 Preexisting skills eg postural controlbalance l reaching 0 Body proportions Motivation Environmental supportsefforts 0 Cultural differences examples America Dresses Face up to wake up Naked walkers see text Orphanage studies physical and emotional deprivation stunts motor amp physical and cognitive development quotTravel broadens the mindquot lntertwined effects of movement perception cognition emotion Selflocomotion and depth perception 0 Visual cliff studies Gibson and Walk Campos and colleagues Crawlers show more fear than noncrawlers at the same Non crawlers with walker manipulation learned fear quickly Selflocomotion and egocentrism o Piaget s egocentrism representation For infants object locations are remembered relative to own position when location is rst learned 0 Connection to selflocomotion Crawling vs carried to toy Selflocomotion and Learning 0 Representations appear to be built through action o Is learning speci c to each posture or motor skills Adolph and colleagues 0 Notice microgenetic approach 0 LEARNING FROM EXPERIENCE Motor development and Social Development 0 Social development Stranger anxietyseparation anxiety and crawling New adversarial relationship with adults New opportunities for positive interactions as well Motor development does not occur in isolation 0 Multiple interacting factors 0 Drives perceptual cognitive and even social development
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