Aristotle's Politics; Book 7
Aristotle's Politics; Book 7 POSC 1030
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Quinn Riley on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POSC 1030 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Brandon Turner in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Political Theory in Political Science at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Aristotle s Politics Book 7 Happiness and the state What is necessary for happiness If we want to discover what the best form of the city is we need to understand what the best form of life is One classi cation of goods 3 types that no one would chaHenge 0 External goods stuff 0 Body health pleasures 0 Soul virtues wisdom courage temperance justice These are the best kinds of goods you CAN T HAVE TOO MUCH Eudaimonia requires all 3 goods The city is a safe place for philosophy to happen they are integrated You can t have virtue without a city in which to practice it if your city doesn t provide you with one you will not have the other Politics Book 7 Aristotle virtue is a question of context without being subjective Recognizes competing and con icting set of values believes there is an OBJECTIVE set of values an unarguable certain factual set The following are NOT Aristotle s views THIS IS THE OPPOSING VIEW 0 Value is subjective subject dependent 0 quotDifferent strokes for different folksquot Not all cultures are the same 0 Arguably relativism Professor Turner doesn t think it is this Subjectivism they are subject dependent what you value is what you value don t make assumptions about the values of others 0 There are no objective values 0 We are reluctant to push our values on others 0 We tolerate differences in opinion 0 Maybe we aren t sure if there is a right or wrong Value objectivist Theist valueoriented god objective 0 90 of the world follow some sort of theism o Moral authority what is and what is not 0 Fact to the matter about which values are true and which values are false 0 Values can be objectively ascertained Plato Aristotle thinks there is an objective set of values says values are context dependent pluralist 0 Everyone embodies different relationships different value contexts 0 Think of the family parents siblings grandparents 0 quotCall your mother on the phonequot 0 Within speci c relationships parentchild there are different duties characterized by the relationships Different duties to parents than siblings Opportunities of virtue a good way and a bad way of being 00 child sibling parent etc Certain virtues associated with each role Virtues and vices are context dependent Some pursuits are better than other pursuits Some ways of life are objectively better than other ways of life Some things are a better use of time than others they make a better use of 00000 ability more fully engaging We seek work that is meaningful edifying Aristotle the good life eudaimonia as a way of happiness 0 Think of a thermometer with peak humanity at the top 00 0 Every relationship virtue context is a way to engage in certain aspects of the human experience Having kids for example Current internet view you don t have to have kids there is nothing unique about having kids being around children and somewhat looking after them is the same as having kids Aristotle would say quotthat s crapquot Aristotle is not an egalitarian There are some virtues that are ONLY available to parents siblings friends masters etc 0 As you repeatedly engage in these contexts and actually practicing them you build up your virtue meter 0 Continuously doing the right thing 0 Good practices eupraxia 0 Certain virtues are only available to those who have the intellectual and physical wherewithal to engage in them 0 Aristotle is not an egalitarian not interested in equality o If you aren t capable to engage in physical activity for whatever reason there will be a set of virtues that are unavailable to you military service o If you don t have the capacity to perform certain intellectual functions mean unwilling to change behavior to bring it in line with some objective notion of virtue you wont have those virtues o The more that you conform yourself with some objective notion of the good which itself is context dependent you will raise your meter o If you nd yourself living within a city that allows you access to politicsruling then you will reach the nal set of human virtues 0 To reach the top of the thermometer you must do this Only the best will reach this height Aristotle was a civic humanist Aristae best 0 There are some people stupid people women have a fairly small realm of OO eudaimonia 0 We are not taste egalitarians there are acquired tastes you must do it to learn to enjoy it o Virtue is sort of like an acquired taste we must do we must re ect and we must pursue the good Aristotle is a quotvirtue ethicistquot If you are horribly poor you lack the means to be generous magnanimous If you lack all of the goods of the body the goods of the soul you cant engage in virtues The constitution of the city 0 Should be a Constitution that provides you with the context for virtue that best suits your capacities O 0 000000 0000 Day laborers and mechanics no political knowledge because they don t have time This appeals to our egalitarian piousness to let them vote equal rights right Aristotle DOES NOT AGREE Why would you give them a political voice if they don t have the time or the knowledge to do so An untrained doctor shouldn t cut you open The best constitution is tted to the people it holds lt distributes political of ces according to merit United States Senate the best rise to this position United States Supreme Court wise honest People should participate in politics in a way that is suited to their intellectual capacity our country and Aristotle s city Hare s proposal proposal for the way of voting everyone got a vote but some people got more than one vote The more accomplishments you have you got more votes Some get more say based on their capacities property1 vote degree 1 vote Active life vs the contemplative life the best city is that which allows you to live the contemplative life a life for Socrates philosophy For Aristotle however it is not enough just to question one must also act Politics must be integrated with philosophy The best life is the active life that is lived virtuously and not in seclusion Fit the constitution to the city most perfectly what materials do you have what citizens do you have Crucial to the process of tting the city to leisure and education To embrace higher capacities and engage in virtues or ruling and being ruled you must have leisure time and education ln Athens any freeborn men were allowedrequired to participate in the assembly Sat heard spoke attended the affairs of the city If you had a 95 job like the mechanics you couldn t free yourself from the home to participate in the pubic life Women and servants made the political life possible for free men Leisure and education are equally important Must be instructed in particular in regards to moral education Citizens should be able to listen to judge and determine the correct pa y