Week 1 exam 2 notes
Week 1 exam 2 notes Anthro 150
Popular in The Ancient World
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Condon on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anthro 150 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Jordan Karsten in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see The Ancient World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Anthro 150 Exam 2 week 1 notes Huntergatherers neanderthals and anatomically modern humans The neanderthals late pleistocene hominins in europe and southwest asia Homo neanderthalensis 13000050000 years ago Classic neanderthals Westem Europe after 75000 years ago evolved from homo habilis Traits Eskimo like cc1520 cm cubed bigger than our brains maybe because cold climate and big brain helped for warmth receding forehead football shaped head occipital bun furrowed brow ridge midface prognathism big nose no chinretromolar gap highly robust postcranial skeleton with relatively shorter limbs 539 tall toothmarks heavily worn Mousterian Tools 120000 30000 years ago middle paleolithic large game hunters large amount of trauma to headneck isotopic studies indicate a diet high in animal protein Westem reindeer Eastemmammoths Buried dead in purposeful gravesaccompanied by grave goods Like owers food cannibalism Krapina croatia remains of at least 13 individuals Shanadar guy orbital fracure humorous is smaller and is paralyzed on the left side also lost bottom half of arms useless on whole left side most have been cared fore Modern Human Origins Homo Sapiens about 200000 years agofossil and genetic evidence found in africa descendant from homo neanderthalensis 5000 years ago Traits foreheadbony chin hollow area by k9 less robust distal finger bone of thumb23 of finger thinner cortical bone limbs longer than you would thinking Multiregional continuity model local population from middle pleistocene continue to evolve into modern forms how are there so many different typesgene ow replacement model out of africamodern homo sapiens first evolved in africa fossils and high genetic diversity complete replace vs partial replacement Neanderthal and E Denisovan DNA from Africanus Earliest Evidence Omo Kibish 195000 years ago omo 1 vertical forehead and chin omo 2 more robust 120000 80000 years ago Klasies river mouth border cave migration from East to S Africa Herto mostly complete adult craniumlong vault CC 1450long arching brow ridge occipital bun no facial projection mostly complete child cranium 160000 Modern Human Origins Continued Qafzeh cave at least 20 individuals 12000090000years ago skull cave at mt Carmelat least 10 homo sapiens 130000100000 years ago Tabun and kebara suggest overlap With neanderthals China Tianyuan cave40000 years ago jinni ushan 200000 years ago Upper cave Zhoukoudian 1000029000 years ago Indonesia niah4500040000 years ago Australiaarchaeological sites 55000 years ago lake mungo 3000025000 years ago kow swamp140009000 years ago receding forehead heavy supraorbital tori thick bones genetics suggest I migration at least 50000 years ago Central Europe oase cave Romania 40000 years ago chin and canine fossa mladec czech republic31000 years ago Hunter gatherers pleistocene humans major changes is culture use bone wood shell ivory diversity in artifacts art upper paleolithic europe 40000100000 years ago clothing use head lice mils of years body lice7200042000 years ago 107 Hyloid bones In front of neck bones ours are similar to neanderthals controls tongue muscles Huntergatherers lateralization of left and right brain can look at brocas area production of speech and wernickes ares understanding speech to figure out lang Production in endocasts Hypoglossal canal cranial nerve leaves brain above foramem magnum connects to the tongues We have a large hypoglossal canal gets large in genus homo Klasies river mouth at opening the river opens up to indian ocean therre are giant limestone caves looking out at cape of good hope waves opened them up well above sea level when ancestors started living here early humans Evidence 12000060000 years ago Oxygen isotopes ESR teeth takes in radiation in ground and allows electrons to be stored in enamel compare to deep sea cores 65 feet deposits middle stone age middle paleolithic earliest AMH in africa wide range of animal bonesporcupine grysbok eland giant buffalo etc shells fragmentary human remains cut marks percussion marks Hunting abilities attritional demographic patterns what you see in a cemetery populations age profile sex profile etc high youth mortality rate high old mortality rate says nutritional profile Humans Were hunting cape buffalo maybe with disease etc young and old more so catastrophic demographic patternsevery age represented Seen at klasies river mouth elands getting these thru driveshunting groups push animal into restricted area then spear them Nelson Bay Cave 10000 years ago changed faunal demographic pattern improved hunting addition of bow and arrow bush pigs Tusks shell middens 6 ft depositfull of shell waste in south africa similar in middleklasies and late nelson stone age similar use of space devoted to trash similar systematic food collection Carbonized plant remains in south africa similar across the middle and late stone age Ancient DNA nucleotides building blocks of DNAcan tell us about population difs genes noncoding regions of genetics shared with same people in a population molecular clock how different groups and dif Populations separated by comparing genomes Polymerase chain reaction PCR takes advantage of enzyme dna polymerase makes lots of copies of this so we can see nucleotide sequence can also look at mitochondrial DNA contains its own DNA passed directly from your mother Fate of the Neanderthals can apply above aspects to figuring this out Gone between 3025000 years ago coeXistence in SW asia at Skhul and Qafzeh caves at 100000 yrs agofossil paleolithic tools after 50000 years agofossils mtDNA ancient DNAneanderthals had red hair before 2010 we were able to get neanderthal DNAsequenced whole neanderthal genome shows no inner breeding because no overlap in mtDNA neanderthal genes do not exist in africans at all today but Everywhere else carries neanderthal genes about 13 percent if from europe neanderthals also h sapiens just very different looking population of h sapiens some neanderthals have occipital bun and retromolar gaps Upper Paleolithic 4000010000 years ago in Europe bone antler ivory wood tools made of all these for first time ever accept wood Atlatlspear stickmake arm longerthrows accurately about 20 meters with lots more force bow and arrow developed dog domesticated first time ever before any other animal and domesticated nicer wolf gene variation art lascaux cave paintings entire world minus antarctica colonized demographic increase population increase goes way up Upper Paleolithic divisons Chatelperonnian 4033kyaencorporates much neanderthal components Aurignacia 3622kya perigordian saleutrian stone toolsleave shaped tools very thin high quality Upper Paleolithic Characterized by blade tools twice as long as they are thick Mass produced by indirect percussion technique also produces a blank with core and hammerstone like peeling a carrot tools can be made from blade forms bones used for first timeharpoons atlatlcounterweight attached to handle which also serves as hookatlatl spear bigger and heavierelk and reindeer prey for upper paleolithic europe Ide needle for use of tailored clothingmade of bones Wooly mammothsbig50 bigger than elephants scary mean long coat wild horses buffalo orox reindoor wooly rhinoceros long hair to adapt to ice age europe all across europe and north america Dolni vestonice Czech republic loess soil good for agriculture loose soil around glaciers this buried dolni vestonice found thru construction Tundra like siberia Soli uctionsites hard to interpret process by which ground continuosly thaws and refreezes causes expansion moves artifacts a lot Highest layers contain a campsite bones of at least 100 mammoths piled up 40X140 area other piles sorted according to bone fuel from bones of animals they have killedbones contain lots of grease construction material stones earth wod and mammoth bones used to construct structures ovalbiglattice structure from bone with wooly mammoth over it wind break 3 semi subterranean houses large hearth 3 ft deep and 10 ft across in center of site ivory figurine venus figurines highlight female attributes of women dont focus on head hands or feet Another site 250 yards away from main sitesubteranean structure 20 ft in diameter hollow bird bones with ends cut off domed clay oven hearth 2300 small clay figurines oldest example of fired clay head feet fragments of animal figures fired lumps of clay bearritual or nah ethnographyuse of other civilizations that have already been discovered by anthropologists Dolni vestonice contczech republic may be ritualistically important site year round occupation lived here in summer and winterroof vs no roof Variety of gravettian toolscategory of upper paleolithic tools artifacts and skeletons weird carved bone mask left eye slightly drooped and so is left side of mouth reps person or dieties Ivory carved individual left mouth also drooped down and left eyemaybe stroke suffererpartial face paralyzation older adult aged women in a exed burial positionalso facial paralysis on left side reasons for this buried pattemfetal positionsymbolic beh Send someone out same way they came inleave more room for other bodies dig a smaller hole Important cave painting sites Lascaux cave chaveux altimira Lascaux kids in 1940 windydropped rocks in holefound it went far in upper paleolithic cave artover 6000 gov of france built a giant replica cave so that real cave would be conserved reindeer vs mammothsonly one reindeer in cave Upper paleolithic art Mural art protable art lascaux 17000 yrs ago magdalenian period black charcoal and manganese oxide yellow and rediron oxide white clay and calcite scaffolding would have had to be built in there at some pointrope was found pine torches and oil lamps also Cave paintings cave interior were not living spaces mostly represent animals humans more common in engravings human hands frequently outlined on cave walls often without fingers or knuckles 102017 complete hands at gargas cave meaning Looks like things wearing animal skins ivex buffalo reindeer meaning who knows shamanstotems of their clansearly hunting camo ouge Engraving in LascauX dancers on rock wall places hands complete hands extra finger polydactaly royal trait of royal fams cave paintings rendered in outline colored in monochrome or polychrome animals usually in profile located on high ceiling in darkest aras of cave rope pine torches stone bowl oil lamps at lascauX large herbivores in large open areas reindeer only depicted once the only human painted is in a small shaft wooly rhino with tail raisedsurrounded by little checkerboard dots across crevice a multicolored bison is wounded by a spear stuck in stomack with end trails spilled out next to human to the left a human stands nearby with a bird like face with barbs laying nearbypenis onelegged bird stands nearby looks like a amingo meaning No ideamaybe man killed by bison after spearingmember of bird clan One legged bird may be important symbol What are the meanings of cave paintings Fertility of nature and replenishing herds Concern with killing animal for meat Art Temples People of all sizes entered the caves new discoveries chauvet cave36000 yrs ago oldest evidence of paleolithic cave artfrench spellunkers were lookingcleared hole out cosquer cave 18500 yrs ago Discovered by scuba divers1010 ft under waterlocated on shore of mediterranean during ice age Portable art begins about 35000 yrs ago venus figurines around 25000 yrs ago engraved on cave walls carved from ivory wood stone modeled in clay female features exaggerated pubic triangle often outlined some are prego Porable art 80 from magdalenian period art quality depended on the use life of object more common in large settlements art and rituality Unusual decs awareness of seasons counting abri blanchard 24 tools to make 69 marks moon phases over 6 months astronomical awareness in upper paleolithic kept track of phases of moon on polished piece of bone at abri blanchard The peopling of the americas sometime before 15000 yrs ago new world north central and south america across the bering land bridgeberingia by 8000 bc all of the americas are occupied bering land bridgedid have glaciersbut there were the ice free corridor would have opened up before 14000 yrs ago Ppl could have went right into americas before could have went to canada and alaskasss beringia is ice free and openall pleistocene megafauna traveled in boats along beringia taken advantage of food no sites found on area of ice free corridor beringia all under water today The peopling of americas whengt 1600014000 yrs ago when was bering dry land 60000013000 yrs ago in ice free corridor 40000 21000 yrs ago and just after 14000 yrs ago
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