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Vertebrate Physiology

by: Mrs. Mona Brekke

Vertebrate Physiology ZOOL 370

Mrs. Mona Brekke
GPA 3.9

Stephen Salek

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Stephen Salek
Class Notes
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This 105 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Mona Brekke on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ZOOL 370 at Fayetteville State University taught by Stephen Salek in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/221580/zool-370-fayetteville-state-university in Animal Science at Fayetteville State University.

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Date Created: 10/12/15
The Adrenal Glands Chapter 14 Overview 2 separate glands Cortex Steroids cortisol and aldosterone Release of stored fuels and NaK balance Medulla Sympathetic nervous system Epinepherine cardiovascular ansd pulmonary functions Slide 2 Epinepherine Epi neprhrine nephron Adreneline Ad renaline kidney Adrenal gland Zona glomerulosa Cortex Z quot fasciculata Zona reticularis g 144 pg 434 cum amycmcrmmmms 57112 3 Anatomy and Function Diagrammann Repmsenwllun on me was m Ina 0 adrenal annex and ma uiia medulla Zona glomerulosa Zona fasciculata Zona reticularis c I I outermost region middle region innermost region Dsue p Q E g cells arranged in cells in fascicles or form a network or Zn 394 e cm whorls cords reticulan mm 9 ac v roduce produce roduces QEBEE mineralcortjcoids glucocortjcoids androgens Weng I b6 3 53 n9 Znnl mam Sex smoms Fl 6 5 5 1 09 Mmquot Eamchulamlml Slzde A Zona glomerulosa ona fasciculata Zona reticularis lPaired organ 80 cortex 20 medulla Separate blood supply from the kidney bllde J Controls of the adrenal cortex ACTH from the pituitary ACTH controlled by CRH from the hypothalamus CRH and ACTH relationship called hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal axis has tropic and steroidogenic effects on adrenal cortex cells Slide 6 Circadian rhythms ortisol decreases CRH release Cortisol decreases sensitivity Hypothalamus of corticotropes to CRH CRH less effective in stimulating ACTH release Leads to decreased cortisol secretion and ACTH itself exerts negative feedback on hypothalamus to reduce CRH secretion Recall negative feedback Hormones produced in the cortex CH20H 20 by OH HO CH 0 o Cortisol W Latawmigejd Produced in greatest amount CH20H O CO Aldosterone mineralocorticoid Produced in least am ount O HO f Dehydroepiandrosterone andro Weak androgen that can be converted into testosterone more powerful g 144 pg 435 We 3 Zona glomerulosa Steroid syntheSIS i the cortex J Zona fasciculata 170HPregglenolone 711397 if 7 7 Zonareticularis g 145 pg437 Slide9 u an 0 mm mm Cholesterol i 0 1mmumg Regulation of cortisol Circadian 2n Occurs 1n 24 hour period circadian rhythm related to sleepwake cycle 10 highest in morning lowest at midnight Regulation of cortisol Stress Induced secretion Occurs in addition to the normal circadian rhythm secretion Caused by physical or psychological stress Slide 11 Physiological effects of glucocorticoids Exerts primary effects on three tissues LWH Increases gluconeogenesis Increases glycogen synthesis skeletal muscle Decreases protein synthesis Increases protein degradation Decreases glucose uptake adipose tissue Decreases glucose uptake Increases lipid mobilization Slide 12 Plasma Glucose Glycogen synthes s 21003 amvmqmmmmg g 746 pg 439 3741 15 Cortisol in tissues Liver Skeletal Muscle Adipose Tissue Increased blood Decreased protein Decreases glucose glucose Inhibits muscle protein uptake stimulates synthesis Not all adipose activity of Cortisol increases tissue equally enzymes of urea degradation of existing effected cycle muscle protein promote formation of liver glycogen Slide 14 Plasma mum Em isCnicr39nlwn nuL mmg g 749 pg 440 1112 15 Glucocorticoid effects on target tissues Enhances responsiveness of blood vessels or vascular reactivity Cortisol decreases number of eosinophils and basophils increase number of neutrophils red blood cells and platelets in blood Slide 16 Pharmacological Effects of Glucocorticoids At higher concentrations effects are magni ed and can be used for medical purposes Pharmacological effects 2 most important antiin ammatory and immunosuppressive effects Slide 17 Angiotensinoge Angiotensin converting enzyme Angiotensin II Aldosterone m 100 EWCMWHLWS g 1440 pg 442 114212 18 How is aldosterone secretion controlled Aldosterone is principal mineralcorticoid 2 primary determinants of secretion are angiotensin II and potassium ion Regulation by angiotensin 11 see g 1410 Regulation by Potassium Ion aldosterone and the kidneys make up 2 components of feedback loop that regulates plasma potassium and sodium concentrations Slide 19 Effects of mineralocorticoids Net effect of aldosterone is to increase extracellular uid volume indirectly affects blood pressure and blood ow Slide 20 Excess Glucocorticoids Cushings syndrome hypertension suppression of in ammatory and immune system osteoporosis de ciency in insulin Slide 21 Insuf cient Secretion a Adrenal Cortex steroids Adrenal insuf ciency Addison s disease hyperpigmentation of skin and gums vomiting loss of appetite low blood glucose Slide 22 Adrenal Medulla Seeretes epinephrine and norepinephrine sympathoadrenal system functional unit is ohromaf n cell analogous to postganglionio neurons good test question Slide 23 g 1442 pg 445 114212 24 Epinephrine Primary hormone secreted by adrenal medulla synthesis outlined in g 1413 packaged and concentrated Within chromaf n cells into chromaf n granules signals response to ght or ight table 144 list actions stimulates lypolysis in adipose tissue Slide 25 fg 74773 pg 4416 c1200 BreaksCu hmuon Learning side 25 mm Em uanrYlmmLunnng g 7444 pg 448 511412 27 Nervous sysTem Membrane po ren rials and Synap ric Transmission Quiz Friday Read pages 159171 abou r cell signaling 10 poin r quiz firs r Thing Friday Ion channels Ion channels Membrane po ren rials Gener39a red by unequal dis rr39ibu rions of posi rive and nega rive charges across The membrane Channels Tr39anspor39Ter39s and ion gr39adien rs cr39ea re This Na K Cl39 Ca 2 cr39oss only Thr39u channels Ion channels Passive 39 Ligand ga red chemical ga red On dendr39i res and soma Operated by neur39o rr39ansmi r rer39s and neur39omodula ror39s Vol rage ga red On axons CLOSED OPEN 5 9 guns Hmnks nia Thamam L garnalng 0 Ion channel fig 07100 pg 219 1quot IIH39 I 39 l l jn 139quot oquot n G 2mm Emn ksfcma s Thorrisen ILearndnn b Voltagegated channel fig 0740b pg 219 9 W iei39i I P I Q c 2M3 Em mcma 139an Laarmlnag c Ligandgated channel fig 0710 pg 219 Lanna swamCm drum Lamina o Volfmzfa vLL r7 0711 1 220 Cy139osol quot1 2m Emmymma P g 07120 P9 221 a Low conductdnce if Extracellular fig 0742b pg 221 ElecTrical properTies of neurons Membrane po ren rial Unequal dis rribu rion of ca rions and anions across membranes Elec rric po ren rial E Ne r charge across The membrane Measured in vol rs Usually 60 mV inside nega rive Pressure analogy Curren r flow movemen r of ions I ionic curren r A amperes Elec rrical proper ries of neurons Conduc rance Siemens 9 Ease of ion flow Thru The membrane Resis rance R G1R 39 Fac ror39s De rer39mining Conduc rance of channels size of channels dis rr39ibu rion s ra re open or39 closed Elec rrical proper ries of neurons Ohm39s law Rela res ionic cur39r39en r and elec rr39ical po ren rial To conduc rance Ig x E Membrane conduc rance A sum of These fac ror39s Variable wi rhin cells How are membrane po ren rials generaTed Sodium po rassium pump Variable from one Poison elimina res Res ring po ren rial Er Rp 75mv Ion Ou r In Po r mM mM mV cell To ano rher39 This po ren rial K 55 150 90 Gener39a red by The imbalance of ions in Na 150 15 60 The in rr39acellular39 and ex rr39acellular39 spaces Cl 125 9 7O Nerns r equaTion Describes The membrane po ren rial Tha r preven rs diffusion of an ion in ei rher39 dir39ecTion ENa 6O mV EK 90 mV ECI 70 mV Ac rual 70 mV EMF mV log CinCou r Er7075mv we 2m anksrcalg Jhnmsan LeannW g 01 13 pg 222 Cell I 2 Oe I Elf 0 Developing membrane potential is 39Iu 1 9 2003 BrooksCole Thomson Learning In 395 1 1 fig 0714a pg 223 b Electrochemical equilibrium 11 EDBS BTDDKSJ39C IB Thurman Lemming fig 07J4b pg 223 Ac rion po ren rial Depolariza rion75 mv 30 mv incr39 in gNa Threshold po ren rial 55 mv Repolar39iza rion 30 mv 75mV her in gK Hyperpolariza rion more nega rive Ac riva rioninac riva rion ga res s ra res Open closed Refrac ror39y period Depolarization After hyperpo larixa39ion T Time msec applied fly 7715 pg 225 m 2m swarmscm 4an mea Na channels Activation gate Inactivation gate pen or39 closed Action potential Resting state Activation state Inactivation state icimim niamm mua r Voltagegated sodium ion channel Po rassium channel one ga re openclosed I u39gwwrwqh W JWW l Iquotj 39gigllBJ UJ C i I 0 en Closed c 21103 Romania Thnmsan LEE fig 0716b pg 225 Voltagegated potassium channel Ap vs channels g o71z p 227 5 Hyperpala izafion z anus bankLaw r Thurman WW RefrocTory period In rervol of rer an AP during which The neuron conno r respond Absolu re phase 1 No AP possible No channels closed gNa low Relo rive phase 2 Lower ampli rude possible some No open low 9 NA No r propago red De rermines firing frequency Maximal response STimulus musT bring membrane To Threshold All or none noT dependenT on sTimulus size above The Threshold Coding is in The frequency and odopToTion of nerve cell firing Sensory recepTor cells are on excepTion graded no second Ap possible req great st39m for Ap gt Absolute Refractory Period ADP elative Refractory Period RR gt Nonrefractory 30 period 9 E E o 5 Note the 7 changes in t threshold 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 potential E an anplitude g Th reshold quot Sh 39d f Y ll l l l l l x l Stimulus s39imulus mmBNDWCaEV mm z quotWmquot Time milliseconds y 0115 W 325 defer mines frequency of normal Ap39s PPOpGgG HOH of The action potential No r The whole membrane Membr ane pof Reduced To Threshold 5in creafed Repo Ear y repo dept node new source I mmm Mum Lu dw Ac rion po ren rial Veloci ry Diameter larger less resis rance Mylena rion Heel Toe vs large s rep analogy Myelin required for speed poor conducfance Sal ra rory conduc rion manna awncm nmnmm Lemma Node of Rnnvicr v H IJ Sink S uru H 44 l 1 7 W 5 3 4 at I39 L2 Mysuuneu AXPN g 0720 P9 230 Jumps inquot m v m EIecTr ical synapses Connexins Can be bidir39eTional A pr39oper39Ty of cardiac and smooTh muscle Connexin GAP Presynap l ic Posfsynap c membrane membrane 34 431 EDDIE anksfcme Thumson Learning Synapses Chemical Synaptic clef r Named by s rr39uc rur39e Axodendr39i ric Axosoma ric Axoaxonic Neur39omuscular39 Synapse en passan r Presynap39ic call 39ann39 Postsynap39ic call vesicles fig 772211 y 232 qzanaamwcm mm mm a Synapse Types Based on neuroTransmiTTer Cholinergic ACH Adrenergic noradrenaline FasT vs Slow chemical Transmission synapse Larger TransmiTTer furTher from The clefT G proTein in posT synapTic membrane DiscreTe AcTive zone release 39 Diffuse VaricosiTy release FasT Presynap ric Terminal Posfsynap39l39ic cell a Ligand ga139ed ion channel Small synaptic vesicles c 2333 Brnoksfcme Thumsun Laarnlng fig 07230 pg 232 Slow Postsynaptic cell Presynaptic terminal Ion channel I Activated synaptic FZE Iquot u A a subunit 6 protein vesicles Receptor 0 EDGE Emuksi39 ma Thurman Learning fig 0723 pg 232 SynapTic mechanisms Synthesis and seques rer39ing Depolariza rion and exocy rosis EPSP IPSP Termination Neur39o rr39ansmi r rer39 recycling SynapTic Mechanisms Pr39esynap ric Axon endings for39m Terminal bou rons Con rai n vesicles wi rh quan rum N r39s 10000 Vesicles sequestered in cy roskele ron Synapsi n 1 rr igger39s vesicular release CaCalmodulin dependen r Influx of Ca a r rer39minal bou ron rr39iger39s This fusing vesicles Ca SynThesis and acTivaTion Vesicles Synthesizing precursors A an 7 zza r p Vol39l39a e ga39redg Ca2 Ad39ve channels zones Ila 3 EDGE Emuksfcme Thomson Learning fig 07240 pg 233 release M c 2033 i m k l s Thnmsnn Learnin fig 0724b pg 233 reupTake Transmitter r39eup39rake Repackaged in39l39o vesicles 2 a g i I as E a c 21303 Branksf39Gnle a Thumsnn Learning fig 0724 pg 233 PosTsynapTic Recep ror39s on pos rsynap ric membrane opened by NT Ions flow in To PS membrane Resul r IPSP EPSP Single channel cur39r39en r one channel Synap ric cur39r39en r sum of 605 UPSP The r39esul r Membrane potential mV 1E 3 anks cme Thurman Learning Resting membrane potential Unitary synaptic potential Excitatory postsynaptic potential conf next sI39a e g 07 25 09 235 Unitary synaptic potential a E 6C l 6 SE 61 quot70 1 2003 Brunksu39Cula Thumson Learning Resting membrane potential Unitary synaptic potential Inhibitory postsynaptic potential fig 0725c0n7 pg 235 Termina rion Reup rake mechanism Ex ACH Recycling Ach AchE ace ra re choline Neulmmnxm nu I h Slrucwr Au ly a runnzunal class Secretion 5 as v I NSwnchrrllc quotMary H wmhmc cs I sunml nultltlclt 2m wry museumh nu Nolupllmphmm nr mmwa 39m mhusucs nwmmusulquuncumI mum or Inhlbhar ms ms Dopam a CcnemH39ucInwlyima Minimum Isnmnsnts CNSJ NS Semwmn GemraHymhlbuory ch Ammn Adds G gaunm vaml N N mw nlubnon cm mmcbmr Immobul11r am ncummuscular lmmon about lnhvbnmy ms 51mm Exnamry CNSJmmchmlc mummumlhuumum Aqua ch Ncuxaptpndls a wry Ilvwrs gmup nnly ma nhrhvch am 5mm SLIM wan m4me M i pha m m w mpvnkm winker n mman mu mummy CNS M5 N5 ACh Then In 192 7 he 6ermanAmerican pharmacoogsf 07 7 0 Loewi 18731961 de Vsed a me7 h0d for 7 es7 ing 7 he idea Born In Frankfurf amMain 6ermany In 1873 Loewi received hs medica degree from 7 he Universify of Sfrasbour in 1896 and 7 hen faughf and did research in London Engand ienna Ausfria and 6raz Ausfri Wifh 7 he rise of Adof Hifer 7889 1945 Loewi ef7 6ermany firsf for Engand and 7 hen in 940 7 he Unifed Sfcn es where he became a facufy member 617 7 he New York Universify 6390eqe 0f MedCine In his 192 experiment Loewi found 7 ha7 when he sfmuafed 7 he nerves affached 7 0 a frog 39s hearf 7 hey secre 7 ed a7 eas7 7 w0 chemica subsfances One subsfance he 7 h0u h7 was adrenaine whie 7 he second he named vagussfo fe affer 7 he vagus nerve in 7 he hearf O r ro Loewiquot Experiment on frog hear r 1921 vagus nerve Otto Loewi 18731961 v electrical stimulation 3 secreted chemical messenger quotVagusstoff acetylcholine HEARTRA TE SLOWS HEART RA TE SLOWS Awarded 1936 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine anmag I u a a u A a O a P g 0729 pg 239 Recep rors Nico rinic 5 subuni rs D By5 20 a co 2 binding si re 2 bind ga res open 39 Muscar39inic 7 TM G protein Transduction M1 dec gK PLC M2 incr39 gK adnyl cyc Biogenic Amines Dopamine Tyrosine is subs rr39o re TH DA DOPA Recep ror39s D1 Gs pr39o rein coupled D2 D3 Gi coupled I Presynap39ric Terminal Postsiy ap c membrane fat52quot xix1V 0L1 recep39l39or atquot 235 Sync 39l39ic vesicle a s Tyrosme u r O 602 ffquot 2373 2 opamine l 1 quot Channel HO Dopa Dopamine f 02 quotIr f of a n H04 Aroma hc a 2 II amino acid quot xquot NE Q r decarboxylase quot39522 39 h Transporter c E Bruuksl39cme Thomson Leaming M fig 07304 pg 241 Presynap c Terminal PostsynaprPmembr ane 391 Inhibitory ocsubuni r fquot a2 receptor Presynap c Terminal Pos rsynap rrllgi i membrane Cazinflux j I Synaptic vesigle i fusion with i H membrane quot 39 3 Jr Ca2 c 2013 ErDU39kSI39C39DIB Thnmmn Learning b FEEDBACK INHIBITION fig 0730b pg 241 Presyna39p c Terminal Pos rsynap ri f I If Inhibitory 0c wbuni r Niprofei V embrane Presynap c Terminal 602 fie ing s O A 9 i Cazhlnflux gr w 5ynap39ric vesiclgf 39 fusion with 39l 1 gelV i 0 j 39 I r membrane YTQQQPJQI c 2003 anksi39cme Thnm un Learning c FEEDBACK EXCITATION fig 07305 pg 241 Sero roni n Aka 5HT Synthesized primarily in The brains rem Tr39yp rophane based Recep ror39s 1A CAMP IC Ip3 IPSP 2 3 IP3 EPSP 80 recycled MAO degrades The r39es r Msynnp ic terminal P39s39synP39i manhun swac quotupquot 0 mm A Hymywymm nunnan 5quot mm xmmm quotY Yl s39 dun nylon 02 s n sunz quotmm swa quotmm Transplrhr g 0131 pg 242 GluTamaTe 39 Forms from alpha ke roglu rar39a re kr39ebs Po ren r exci ra ror39y rr39ansmi r rer39 Recep ror39s Kaina re Quisquala re EPSP increase K and Na conduc rance NMDA EPSP Ca conduc rance Ligand and vol rage ga red Mg Inac riva rion by r39eup rake and scavenging by glial cells Prsynup39ic 39crminul Pos39synup39ic when 7 m u y N Ami39avgvSIEESEJ mogmame gt gamma 1 summing I Ghmmim as sum Jar symth Gliul cull 0742 pg 242 GA BA Po ren r inhibi ror39y Transmi r rer39 39 Fr39om glu rama re Recep ror39s A IPSP Thr39u ligand ga red CI channel benzodiazapenes B IPSP k G Pr39o rein reupTake Postsynapvic membrane Presynapvic terminal GABAE mcepwl Irsr39s Transport Kawglummm slm39amafe39 decarboxylase Glial cell A Succ c NJ seminldehyde Succnm V A wglumm e a y a 733 pg 243 Transmitter r39eup39rake Repackaged in39l39o vesicles 1 1 4 c 21353 Brcmksmnle a Thumsun Learning fig 0724 pg 233 Ach cycling Posfsynap c cell Presynap39ric Terminal Chollner39glc Synaptic vesicles l O 0 o 391 Choline agr1 Ace39l39ylcholineqo 3 Ace39l39ylCoA COA 0 i 3 35 l I 7 quotv r 7 Ace39rylcholidrrle Choline c 21103 Bmo cstole Thomson LEEThing fig 0726 pg 236 NorEpi cycling Postsynaptic cell Presynaptic terminal Receptor 7 in 35 Tyrosine COZ Po f fh 39 E l l Ti i l 1 Kleleiict H D P D P mme m NE0 to o channel I i 02 111 u pl 1 1 o 39 l 7 Activated if r f subunit 5 390 Gprotein quot5 NE39 if Deactivation by 9 Circulation methylation c 2013 Bmokslcme Thomson Learnlng COMT Adrenergic fig 0727 pg 236 Types of chemical synapses 39 Diffuse Tr39ans No r limi red To ac rive zone Discre re Tr39ans limi red To ac rive zone Discrete synapse activate localized area Presynap39ric c 2W3 ank sf nl e Thamsnn Lemming Discrete Terminals fit 07280 00 237 Diffuse Terminals activate large area Varicosi39l39ies 3 2103 EFDDkEu39CMB Thumsnn Lemming fig 0728b pg 237 Neuro roxins Endoexo roxins Te rr39odo roxin Ba rr39acho roxin Dendr39o roxin Bo rulinus Toxin Cobra roxin Cur39ar39e oubain cocaine amphe ramine Neural In rergm rion Decoding Temporal summation Spa rial summa rion Decoding Temporal summaTion MulTiple EPSP39s IT The same Time SpaTial summaTion Same Time buT differenT locaTions on The neuron Encoding Frequency coding Information in impulsesuni r of Time Pain receptor PNS Inh ibi39ory intarnauron fAn39arolinaral pat hway Presynap39ic inhibition F W CNS 7 0734 pg 246 Temborul summation Aw 1W w shrnmcnsn E C3 by ima gt Lang Time Constant illck mv Mmhmnu pnhn d at Threshold E i 4 5 l L at 4 Time 7 17735 0 24a 0212003 swam Thomsm Learning W Ti Iquot quotl 1 quota Threshold Membrane potential at axon hillock mV 1 l 7 r 4 39 39l Time f Single excitatory postsynaptic potential fig 07360 pg 247 G 2mm Bmahsicmar Thurman Learning f xv 239 Threshold Membrane potential at axon hillock mV A Q Time gt Single exci39l39a39l39ory posfsynap39l39ic po39l39en39l39ial lb fig 0736b pg 247 a was Branksicm Thomson Learning spahal summaho n x x H In 3quot I V 1 Threshold 39ia Axon 39 lI hillock L591 1 Membrane potential at axon hillock mV M I Time Simultaneous excitatory l 1 postsynaptic potential fig 0736 pg 247 Neuro rmnsmi r rer Dis rrubu rion Type or39 name Transmi r rer recep ror39 Soma ric mo ror39 Ach nico rinic Au ronomic Pr39e gang Ach Nico rinic sympa rhe ric Pos r gang Nor39epi oc B Au ronomic Ach muscar39inic Par39asympa rhe ric Excep rions Symp swea r ACH Fibers and recep rors Choliner39gic secr39e re ace rylcholine Nico rinic r39ecep ror39 pos r gang neurons Muscar39inic r39ecep ror39 Targe r cells Adr39ener39gic secr39e re Nor39epinepher39ine 0c 3 Adrenergic Recep rors Bo rh ac riva red by nor39epinepher39ine D on post synaptic target cells DB


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