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General Biology II

by: Giovanna Schroeder

General Biology II BIOL 130

Giovanna Schroeder
GPA 3.74

Stephen Salek

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Stephen Salek
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This 175 page Class Notes was uploaded by Giovanna Schroeder on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 130 at Fayetteville State University taught by Stephen Salek in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/221589/biol-130-fayetteville-state-university in Biology at Fayetteville State University.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
Cytoplasmic Movements Ameboid cortical gel Movement uid cytoplasm extending pseudopod Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells microfilaments in cell l 00 a 143 o h Campbell Fig 727 Eukaryo re Locomo rion All is based on con rr39ac rile fibers mi ro ric spindle and cen rr39ioles eukaryo re flagellum and cilia ameboid movemen r and cy roplas l g streaming W 9 2 double brils Campbell Fig 418 Flagellum Cilia Dman or mammnf Dlmum an my n1m39 mm rmrm W Knx l um v huhan 139 W In umlw rrnvxr m In Kingdom PlanTae Cellular Charac rer39sTissues Phylogeny and Life Cycles Pop quiz Wha r Eukar39yo ric kingdom has no mitochondria and flagellar39 mo rion Lis r The 4 basic animal Tissue Types Wha r is a plan r Surrounding water Leaf suppons me alga photosynthesizes Cuticle Whole alga prevents water photosynthesizes loss stomata allow gas absorbs waterl exchange 02 and minerals from the water Slam supports plant and may photo Holdfast synthesize anchors the 33993 Roots anchor plant absorb water and minerals from the soll aided by mycorrhizal fungi mnmmn Wesley Lnngmam Inn Compare a typical plant and alga Plan rae Pho roau ro rr39ophs by chloroplas rs a few are absor39p rive he rer39o rr39ophs Cellulose cell walls Locomo rion r39ar39e Some green algae ar39e flagella red Male game re is flagella red in many plan rs mul ricellular39 A Composite Plan r Cell Campbell Fig 458 t a quot1 PlanT Tissues and organs Leaf 39 Leaf Tissue STem Tissue RooT Tissue Campbell 316 1 quot Epidermis Ground 39 tissue system Vasc laf tlssue system Plon r Tissues and organs Upper epidermis Leaf Tissue Mesopan Upper epidermis Eigsrg gd Lower epidermis system Mesophyll quot03quot Func rions n i 7 I r I epidermis Photosynthesis xylem 3quot Cuticle Vain Phloem quot Vleln LOWEI Gas exchange 7 surface Mdistm Wesley L39III39IQITIEII39I In Campbell 316 Plan r Tissues and organs Campbell 324 Stoma Guardwae sm Preven r water loss Con rr ol gas exchange Plan r Tissues anorgans P WI Phloem S rem Tissue Func rion Conduc rs wafer and nu rrien rs beTween roofs and leaves Vascular bundles xylem wafer and phloem sugars Xylem Epidel Vascular r Pithv Cortex bun e GPO u hCl l39l ue 160 Tissue systerils in young stem 39 Ground tlssue System epidermis Campbell 316 Plan r Tissues and organs Vascular cyHnder Cortex Epidermis Campbell 324 Roo r Tissue Conduc rs wafer and nu rrien rs rofrom s rems and leaves Vascular Tissue xyler wafer and phloem sugars sugars Meris rem grow rh i HG l g l e a l Root hair i ll l 139 I i l Cellulose 5 5 fibers lt quot 39l lI39 Apical meristem region ELL VISION ELONGATIOM Root cap i n lSCn Wesley Lnngman Inc 01 O D I PALEOZOIC Campbell 173A Millions of years ago b to N O O O a a Q I I I MESOZOIC O icano zmc 100 Origin of plants Charophytes a group of green algae Bryophytes 99 masses Seedless vascular plants 8 eg ferns horseiails 5 J 3 Early vascular plants Gymnosperms eg conifers 3 WA l 59 6 a perms l ll First seed plants Radiation of flowering plants Evolu rionary His rory of Plan rs Al rerna rion of Generations sporophyTe Diploid Two of each chromosome Produces haploid spores or game res by meiosis Sporangium produces spores Spores haploid cells rha r develop in ro haploid mul ricellular adul rs game rophy re Haploid one of each chromosome Produces game res by mi rosis Al rerna rion of Generations Fig 174 fa Gametnphyies a 09 male and female 2 K 0399 I n 3 J z I Gammas sperm and eggs a F n 0 HAPLUIID Fertilizati n DIJPLDID quotat Zy ganta Ifquot 2n 39 Sporophyta Qquot 2n SAleimn Wesley ngmsn Inc Pr39imi rive vascular Plan rs probably evolved from Green Algae Evolved from Sporangia 172 Branched uprigh r s rem Tissue Sporangium Spor39e Cooksonia 400 WWWWCooksonia mybp C39qqequotpa 7 v Green Algae mul ricellular39 seaw d Campbell Fig 16256 Game rophy re usually dominan r AAosses e Mitosis and Sperm n released development from their gametan Spores O ff gium n a 0 Gametangium conialning the n remains within Gametophytes n gametophyte Spuranglum x I Stalk HAPLOID Meiosis IPLDID Sporophyte 2n mnalmn Weaie39 Lnngrnan Inc Campbell 175 AAoss compare Campbell Fig 175 spores spores F m sporophyTes quot 1 gameTophyTes nonvascular game rophy re dominant Fern compare Campbell Fig 176 1quot e Mitosis and sperm in development t 3939 if 1 L 7 a quot7 a Spores 3 f Z n l o GametOphyte n 39 39 39 underside quot Sporangia HAPLOID MeIOSIs I r r V7 DIPLOID Mitosis and v 5 development I H 39 s New spbrophyte growing Spomphym 2quot out of g ametophyte E Mddimn Wesley ngmsn Inc Fern compare Campbell Fig 176 haploid spor39es produced by l4 u u meiosis in spor39angia on fronds scaTTer39ed by wind and wafer diploid sporophyTes gr39ow ou r of game rophy res from fer Tilized ovules haploid gameTophyTes small no r visible in pho ro grow from haploid spor39es Fer39ns ar39e vascular plan rs bu r make no seeds Spor ophy re dominan r A Gymnosper39m conifer Campbell Fig 178 sporophyTes Fmlv ui39llnmu Ihmugh mule 1quot j i I KW u a 739 mm 139 b w Ipu JphjrlP Forms seeds wi rhou r covers quotnakedquot gameTophyTes gameTes Gymnosperms o Haploid spore cells in 1quot ovule develop into female Female gametophyte n gametophyle e 7 I lt a Male gamelophyte which makes egg PI pollen grows tube 7 to egg and makes J Eggr an and releases sperm HAPLOID Male gametophyte quotLei liiL 7quot 1 mpLom pouen gram Es iz em I Scale 39 lntegument Seed coat 0 Pollination HAPLUID if 7 s Pollen grams 9 lg oFemaLe 39 male Era cone ear eZygote develops 39 1 into embryo Seed and ovule u 0 Seed falls becomes seed to ground and germinates and embryo grows into tree a Male cone produces spores by 7 3 melosus spores develop into pollen grams modem Wesley megmen Inc Angiosperms Haptaid spore in each 7 Stigma omvula develops into Egg 1 Pollen temale gametophyte fquot V 39139 which produces egg H 97339quot V 51quot e Pollination and I Pollen OW39E 9mm m I a tube 0 Haploid spores in Imus quot33 r r A 3932 anthers develop 3 Q Q inn pollen grains l I I t t t male gametuphytes 2 L3 39 M J I 1 Sperm Fallen 1 HAPLOID M EiGSiS Fertilization f h DIPLOID quoti a 39 Em bryo Sparaphytek l j I n 0 l ruit Angiosperms flowering plan rs Campbell Fig 1711 Game rophy res ar39e 39 pollen and ovules plan rs form mu rualisms wi rh animals for pollina rion and seed dispersal Scavenger Hun r Groupl Group 3 Spor ophy res and Non vascular plan r Game rophy res from candy and angiosper39m Group 4 39 Group 2 Sporophy res and Mushrooms game l39ophy l39es from a gymnosper39m Kingdom Fungi Cellular Charac rer39s Diversify and Ecological Roles Fungi Hyphae Mycelium Dikar39yo ric Fr39ui ring body Life cycle Lichens A rhle re39s foo r Candida albicans Ringworm Fungi en rir39ely absor39p rive he rer39o rr39ophs haploid or39 dikar39yo ric nuclei in coenocy ric hyphae Thin numerous hyphae give large surface area lack flagella excep r game res of some chy rr39id fungi chi rinous cell walls Fungal Hypha Campbell Fig 176A Hypha coenocytic hypha CGII wall nuclei V septate hypha Mycelmm mddlwn Wesley Longrnan Inc Types of Fungi Gr39ow rh forms of Fungi molds or39 mycelia yeas rs mushrooms r39us rsmidews lichens wi rh algae Absor39p rive he rer39o rr39ophs decomposer39s par39asi res mu rualis rs Fungi life cycle OFruiting body OSpures I mushroum in i remeased madam Wash LingualI In Yeas r Fungi unicellular gr39ow rh form of fungi I Lamrmngm with Yum lygospumngin Implmd nuclvi1rll Miklrvnnu y Manng lypc Ml Lyquot REPRODUCT39O Fertilization L Mann type quotII V bpumnglum tn hiyaHa 111 1 F bumund linn h 39Q v r 39 diploid nucleMZny k HI liiw Bread Mold PRODUCTION f6 CYCIZ ElLpn1d wrl xknwlu n v M Ihpimd If Kiri hwliumm 1716D A Mu funism Mycorrhzae Campbell Fig 1717 fruiting body Mushroom Campbell Fig 3190 many mushrooms are fru ng bodies of mycor39rvzae Lichen MuTualism Campbell Fig 1718AB fungal mycelium cyanobac rer39ia OR green algae wi rh fungi More Lichens Na rional Geographic 35er blueberries Too Fungi you don39T wan r Campbell 1719C Fungi you don39T wan r Candida growing in The esophagus Candida albicans Grows normally in digesTive TracT Normally conTrolled by inTesTinal bacTerial BacTerial imbalance leTs i r grow Symp romsle rhargy diarrhea cons ripa rion depression TreaTmenT dieT change and medicaTion moni roring Fungi you do wani Staphylococcus aureus Figure 172 Blue cheese Peniciilium Zone of inhibited grth CheesesRoqufor r bleu cheese Truffles fr ui ring bodies of mycorrhizal fungi Mushrooms Brewers yeas r An ribio ricsPem39clm Penicillium EukaryoTic Kingdoms Pop Quiz Wha r are The universal cell componen rs Lis r The Three Domains of life Abou r how old is The universe believed To be Classification of Humans Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chor39da ra Class Mammalia Or39der39 Pr39ima res Family Hominidae Genus Homo Species Homo sagens Phylogeny Branch of biology concerned wi rh evolu rionar39y origins and kinship Mos r zoologis rs favor39 classifications based on phylogeny Phylogene ric Classifica rion 39 Each lower Taxon is supposed To have evolved from i rs nex r higher Taxon Older classifica rions based on superficial similari ries are being revised New evidence comes from comparisons of DNA and RNA nucleo ride sequences GCAlt GCAlt G CA lt IG X A IA C A CA CA T X 5 5 ATG C C ATGCC ATGCC C X 1 1A A TAXON A A TAXON B A TAXON C Phylogeny of Domains compare Campbell Fig 1514B prokaryofes Domain Domain Bacteria Archaea Domain Eukar39ya Campbell pg 312 How many kingdoms are There Domain Eukarya 8 Kingdoms Archezoa Rhodophy ra Euglenozoa Plan rae S rr39amenopila Fungi Alveola ra Animalia Eukarya Kingdom Con rms rs Mode of nutrition Pho roau ro rr39ophic Absor39p rive he rer39o rr39ophic Inges rive he rer39o rr39ophic mixo rr39ophic Uni or39 mul ri cellular39 Special organelles or39 locomo rion Uni and Mul ri Cellular A unicellular organisms may be 1 celled g colonial many cells living Toge rher39 aH iden rical excep r r39epr39oduc rive cells A mul ricellular39 organism is composed of several differen r kinds of cells besides Those involved in r39epr39oduc rion Archezoa Campbell Fig 162 Pr39oper39 nucleus No mi rochondr39ia a ofver eukaryo fes have mifocvondra o o 639 d Unlcellular39 Inges rlve and absorp39nvear 390 he rer39o rr39ophs Locomo rion ameboid and flagellar39 cpr39e Campbll ig 1625 AB dia39l39oms Kingdom y 7 kel brown seaweed Campbell Fig 1626A pho roau ro rr39ophic dia roms sea weeds mixo rr39ophic goldenbrown algae absor39p rive he rer39o rr39ophic wa rer39 molds mosle unicellular bu r kelps ar39e mul ricellular39 flagellum if present hairyu Gymnodlnium compare Campbell Fig1622 D Amphi 39 in rer39nal layers of vacuoles alveolae A cilia flagella or39 ameboid locomo rion i nges rive he rer39o rr39ophs cilia res ixo rr39ophs dinoflagella res absor39p rive he rer39o rr39ophs malaria organism main agellum Euglenozoa organelles or39 piTs close To flagellum 39 agellum 2F contractile food reserves 1 I v I vacuole nuTr39ITIon var39Ied u ll meoTr39ophs Eugena7 nm ingesTive heTer39oTr39ophs g k739r parasn es Trzgcmosoma i39rj d Eu some amebas enTir39ely unicellular noT colonial k 39 A A Campbell Fig 1622 A RhodophyTa no flagella pho roau ro rr39ophic doublemembraned chloroplas rs reddish pigments Campbell Fig 1626 b Plan rae pho roau ro rr39ophic cellulose cell walls unicellular ones ca l I green algae 1 l39 mul ricellular39 ones called plan rs compar39e Campbell Fig 173 C Fungi mul ricellular39 coenocy ric absor39p rive he rer39o rr39ophs wi rh chi rinous cell walls mos r lack flagella Annnaha mul ricellular39 inges rive he rer39o rr39ophs wi rhou r cell walls many have flagella and cilia Phylogeny of 10 Kingdoms Fungi Animalia Choano I Plamae flagellaTes STr amenopila Rhodophym AlveolaTa Euglenozoa Archezoa 3 I Archaea chmn cilia 35 w cellulose cell wall mulTiceIIuIar39 53 chloroplasT miTochondr ion y flagellum Q feaTur39e Ios r nuclear39 membrane phagocyTosis PlanT NuTr39iTion and TransporT Chap rer39 32 Real Quiz Closed book 10 minuTes 10 poinTs Draw a GENERAL diagram ThaT describes how a planT undergoes aITernaTion of generaTions In your diagram include all The differenT phases ThaT The planTs 90 Through and The processes ThaT lead from one phase To anoTher IndicaTe which phases have The full chromosome number and which have half The chromosome number ObjecTives Iden rify The needs of plan rs and The entry poin rs of ma rer39ials Fig 321A inorganic ions UpTake and TranSporT of planT nuTrienTs 39 C02 enTers planTs Through The leaves WaTer minerals and some 02 enTers Through from The soil Through The rooTs All oTher maTeriaIs are produced Through mixTures of These Energy is obTained from The respiraTion of sugars Leaves produce 02 for This rooTs absorb iT from The soil SoluTe upTake in The roo rs Epidermis Cortex Pihlinem Hoot hair 7 i rquot 7 7 Hquot F i quoti quot i 39 liar quot 39 39Casparian yvani sum Endadermis EXTRACELLULAR ROUTE via cell walls stopped by Caspairian strip INTRACELUULAH quot ROUTE via 39 cell interiors Pilasmodesma L 52quotquot through v 3 39 pil asmodiesmata Epidermis Cortex E ndod ermis rimjizjirfnjr i 39v39u39lissiay LgtLji v31ri7lr39l I v3 SoluTe upTake in The rooTs Roofs have large surface area Mycorrhizal fungal in rerac rions supply nu rrien rs and wafer To The plan r Subs rances en rer roo rs bo rh infracellularlly and exTracellularly confrol over subs rances occurs a r The cell membrane Infracellular roo r hair membrane plasmodesma racor rex cells endodermal cells xylem Ex rracellular porous cell wallsaround casparian s rrips To xylem Proper es of WOTBI 5 Hydrogen bond V xivmmzon Wesley L ngr quot3 hquot g 2 o 9 Xylem sap Mesophyll cells Air space within leai quot 39 Sloma vWater molecule Outside air ransPiraTion E E g 0 a F I9 3 23 3 2 Ev u an I 3 o I Xylem an CDHESNON cens a AND ADHEQQN Cohesmn 1 3 IN THE XYLEM hydrogen J 0 b Onding 3 397 Water molecule k5quot Ruot hair I Soil particle WATER UPTAKE FROM SOIL TronspiroTion WoTer39 cohesion diffusion osmosis How do plonTs lifT oner39 from The r39ooTs To Theleoves RooT cell membranes pump soluTes inTo The xylem Then oner39 follows Tr39onspir39oTion adhesion cohesion EvaporoTion of oner39 from leaves Thr39u sTomoTo Cohesion of oner39 molecules in The xylem Adhesion of oner39 To cellulose Stama closing aliubfiijlltiill l thrjiay szl39rggm n Am High sugar PHLOEM concentration and water pressure Low sugar concentration and water pressure Sugar Transpor r Sugars are made a r sugar sourcesquot Sugars Travel To and are used a r sugar sinksquot Osmosis is responsible for genera ring pressure differences fha r move The sugar Proof Aphids Sugar sink Fig 3268 Complete Solution solution lacking containing potassium all minerals Soil particle surrounded by file of water Kquot 39Kgf xw XX Air space Eelniiiil 39njr39l 0quot39v g Lamgmafm lug WhaT par39T of The leaf releases gasses and waTer39 vapor WhaT are The Two paThways by which waTer39 enTer39s r39ooTs Birds Amniotic eggs scales on legs keratin Feathers Reduced skeleton and large muscles for ying Special lungs and circulatory system Endothermic make their own heat Archaeopteryx rst bird fossil late Jurassic Period like dinosaurs in claws tail vertebrae teeth at sternum new derived Characteristics feathers furcula Cretaceous Mesozoic Jurassic Triassic Feathers f ltf 1 ul L Lquot f i 11 k but strong tubular air barbs lled molted and replaced periodically insulation Water proo ng signaling camou age touch sensitivity Flight Muscles White meat Air Sacs and Breathing posterior air sacs anterior air sacs lung 7 L I L r postenor breathlng V v39 air sacs in1 Hachea breathing quot39 out breathing inwZ breathing out Mammal Adaptations endothermy hair sweat and scent glands varying teeth heterodont epiglottis improved olfaction larger nasal cavity 4chambered heart diaphragm more coordination acute senses and learning ability Endothermy maintaining constant body temperature by using extra energy insulation by fat hair large body size cooling by sweat heat radiation panting allows activity at low temperatures Hair manufactured by epidermis for insulation for signaling and camou age for sensing touch and air motion especially Whiskers Mammalian Skin Glands sebaceous glands condition waterproof skin and fur sweat glands cooling communication by odor mammary glands milk for offspring Mammalian Teeth Heterodont a standard four tooth types Incisors Canines Premolars Molars OViparous Mammals 3 species in one order Monotremata all live in Australia or New Guinea lay eggs but have hair and nurse young ducilled pl rpu mo rher nursing Ca Fig 1822 a Marsupial Mammals fetuses do not fully implant in the simpler uterus adult females have a belly pouoh marsupium newborns stay inside attached to nipple for months Marsupial Mammals Campbell Fig 1822B SouTh American Air 1quot 1h 39 a Tree opossum Placental Mammals true placenta formed by fetus and mother Joins the embryo to the mother Within the mother s uterus Embryo is nurtured by blood from the mother 95 of all mammals Placental mammals Muslelids weasels otters skunks mink RBOCOOHS Bears SOME MAJOR ANIMAL PHYLA A REVIEW Porifera Cnidaria Platyhelminthes Nematoda Mollusca Annelida Arthropoda Echinodermata Chordata Sponges Hydrasjellies sea anemones corals Flatworms planariansflukes tapeworms Roundworms Snails slugs bivalves such as clams sq uids octopuses Segmented worms earthworms polychaetes leeches Horseshoe crabsarachnids such as spiderscrustaceans such as lobsters insects centipede s millipedes Seal stars sea urchins La ncelets tunicates lampreys fishes amphibians reptiles birds mammals 1 I 1 39 fi k 39 l lmjl quot POHIFEHA PLAWHELMINTHES M L U CA ARTHEOPODA elicit DATA 39Q Prmnt day SNIde Wf e y ngnan Inc Ancestral protlsts Pop Quiz What produces mucus HCl and pepsinogen in the stomach List a water soluable Vitamin What is a ruminant stomach Respiratory System Review 02 COZ BREATHING 1 Muscle cells carrying out Sugar 02 gt Energy 002 CELLULAR RESPIRATION mamaquot Wnsley Lcnqmam m Cellular respiration obtain glucose and oxygen get rid of wastes and carbon dioxide Review Highenergy electrons carried by NADH 39 NiABll and FADH2 GchbLYSIS quot quot quot Glucose P r Vic KHEBS ELECTRON V l CYCLE TRANSPORT CHAIN aCId 39 AND CHEMIOSMOSIS Cytoplas flill zliii Mitochondrion I 002 002 f thdlmn Wesley Lcngrnam Inc Cellular respiration Exchange occurs in the In ochond a Gas exchange breathing gas transport servicing cells 02 rig gt 5 r Circulatory 39 39 7 quot x system C02 quot r 1 i i K oBreathlng A i 39 Lung f 0 Transport of gases by lhe circulatory I 39 system Servican of M ochondrla cells within Damn wasy ngnln rm Gas exchange Breathing involves inhaling O2 and eXhaling CO2 Transport involves diffusion hemoglobin and occurs in RBC s Blood supplies every cell with O2 and picks up waste CO2 CO2 and 02 are exchanged over moist body surfaces Crass V l T section 01 quot resuruil39atum39yr 39 Hau aca the r 3quot skin cover quot lng the body Respiratory surface 9W Capillariaa 39 Capillaries Body milks no capilllaries CO2 and 02 are exchanged over moist body surfaces Surfaces must be thin and extensive Gasses dissolve in water before the diffuse in or out of cells Fish have gills that project from the body worms exchange across the skin insects have trachea terrestrial vertebrates have lungs Gills achieve gas exchange in aquatic environments Gills achieve Gas exchange in aquatic environments Gill J xgn39 t I a uquot I Direction of water r 8r Gill39squot Blood vessel K filaments Blood L ll ame a ow mddsun Wesley Long39nan In Gills Advantage Gills are always wet DisadvantagezO2 is less abundant in water Inhale close opercula and expand mouth exhale open opercula and ush water over the gills with the mouth closed Gas is exchanged across the gill laments and lamellae then into capillaries Countercurrent exchange 7739 e 7 Water flow 7 over lamellae V Blood flow through Iamelilae mason wedey woman Inc Countercurrent exchange Efferent V Gillfilament artery Afferent b A x x Countercurrent exchange Found in many animal systems thermoregulation and in the kidney The transfer of a substance owing in one direction to another moving in the opposite direction Ef cient gill can remove 80 of O2 Insect tracheal system Tracheae Air sacs 39 5754 W Opening for air E A dim Wesley ngman Inn Body new Trac39henle Eddy wall Insect tracheal system Air contains more 02 than water air is easier to moveterrestrial vertebrates use less energy in ventilating their respiratory surfaces Tracheae branch extensively bringing air directly to cells Air sacs pumped by muscles move air in and out Insect tracheal system System consists of Spiracles openings Tracheae branched tubes Tracheoles uid lled and reach all cells Airsacs enlarged chambers that work like bellows Terrestrial vertebrates lungs Nasal vagm39 39 1 cavity rich quot bland 339 5 Left lun 391 3 Pharymt t f xygenapaar V A 5 blood Esophagus Larynx quot V 7 Trachea quot S a 1 RI ht 43 r39 mag W gift REESE Bronchus I A 2 Bronchidla IQquot 4quotE l 391 f 3 39 tquot quotr 39 Ff Blood Alveuli capillaries Diaphragm Heart a dlaa Waslay Longman In Terrestrial vertebrates lungs Restricted to one part of the body circulatory system required to transport gasses tofrom the cells Human respiratory system Nasal cavity lters warms humidi es an d senses odors Pharynx conducts air and food LarynX vocal cords muscular cords which can be tensed or stretched to generate sound as air rushes by Trachea Windpipe Terrestrial vertebrates lungs Lungs Bronchi forked tubes leading to the lungs Bronchioles smallest tubes leading to the alveoli site of gas exchange Diaphragm muscular moves air inout of lungs 0 Breathing Smoking and lung funcion Normal function Mucus and cilia trap and move pollutants and sweep them out of the respiratory system Macrophages kill bacteria Tobacco smoke Figure 227A Healthy lungs irritates epithelial cells 1 Destroys cilia and macrophages Toxins reach the alveoli coughing results Emphysema brittle alveoli that eventually rupture Smoking leads to cardiovascular Figure 2278 Cancerous lungs Respiratory diseases Upper respiratory system infection viral infection in ammation of mucus membranes Lung Cancer Linked to smoking Pneumonia Viruses fungi or bacteria in the alveoli Fluid in the lungs prevents gas exchange there Tuberculosis Caused by T ubercle bacilli Symptoms cough fever weight loss infection Nodules and scars form preventing normal alveoli function Pulmonary embolism Breathing g 228A xquot Rib cage Fliib cage gets lrj expands as f quot smaller as II rib muscles a A rib muscles I Aquot contract Inhaled relax l 39v exhaled Lung Diaphragm INHALATHDN EXHALATIOM Diaphragm contracts Diaphragm relaxes moves down moves up Md lson Wesley ngms Inc Breathing ventilates the lungs Inhalation Ribcage expands diaphragm contracts chest expands lungs increase in size air ows into the alveoli from higher pressure outside Exhalation Rib and diaphragm muscles relaX chest contracts lungs decrease in size air forced out Birds have highly ef cient ow through lungs g 228B Posterior air sacs INHALATION 39 ExHALATIDM Air sacs fill quot Air sacs empty lungs filii mddlmn Wasiey Longmrm Inc Birds have highly efficient ow through lungs One way air ow through the lungs Air sacs ventilate respiratory surface in the lungs Inhalation posterior sacs ll with fresh air anterior sacs ll with stale air Exhalation both sacs de ate forcing air into the lungs and out of the system No alveoli parallel tubes countercurrent exchanger 5 more efficient than mammalian lung Control over breathing Brain Cerebrosplnal fluid C02 A BREATHING Ponsgt e CONTROL 5 quot CENTERS Medulla stimulated by Nerve signals 02 Increase l pH decrease trigger inApIood Carbonlc aCld contraction Nerve signal of muscles indicating 02 1 decrease Lowered blood pH l Medulla increases respiratory rate 0 sensor 39 in artery Dlaphragm Rib muscles maason Wesley Lcaguan Inc Control over breathing Autonomic control centers in the brain regulate breathing It ensures coordination between the circulatory and respiratory systems Breathing control centers monitor pH C02 and remote sensors monitor 02 in the blood Control centers signal rib muscles and diaphragm to alter breathing rate CO2 is the major signal controlling the respiratory rate Transport of gases in the body our spaces Alveolar epithelial cells Alveolar capillaries of lung COZrlch 02poor blood Exhaled air Ozrich 202poor blood E Tissue 39 Tissue cells throughout body capillaries Transport of gases in the body Blood transports the respiratory gases hemoglobin carries the oxygen Heart has 2 pumps One pumps 02 poor blood to the lungs One pumps 02 rich blood to the body O2 dissolves poorly in uids hemoglobin in RBC s increases ability of cells to carry 02 Hemoglobin Heme Iron group atom 02 loaded in ungs 02302 unloaded in tissues Polypeptide chain ITOAIddIIsn qulsy Lnngman In Hemoglobin Transports both 02 and CO2 Helps to buffer the blood by carrying CO2 HCO339 generated can bind H and keep blood pH stable Reverse process occurs in the lung so CO2 is given off S UEQELL Rx co iaauced 39 f 39 I jiiiTE STITIAsL FLUID CD2 f Pf quot 39 aquot 2 Capillary ALVEDLAR SPACE IN LUNG Hco 39muason Wesley Lehman Inc Hemoglobin A multipurpose molecule Transports oxygen Transports carbon dioxide Buffers the blood Tissue cells forms carbonic acid bicarbonate and H Lungs the reverse reaction occurs off loading carbon dioxide to the alveoli Fetal respiration Placenta containing maternal blood vessels and fetal capillaries Umbilical cord containing fetal blood vessels Amniotic fluid Fetal respiration Fetus is in the amniotic uid Capillaries from the fetus umbilical cord and the uterus combine to form the placenta Countercurrent exchange occurs between the capillaries of the fetus and the mother Fetal hemoglobin attracts 02 better than maternal hemoglobin Placental transfer stops at birth the umbilical cord is cut respiratory center is stimulated from decreased blood pH Pop Quiz Write the chemical reaction for generating bicarbonate from carbon dioxide State one reason that a bird lung is more ef cient than a mammalian lung Review Cellular respiration vs breathing Respiratory surfaces Lungs gills bird lungs epithelial exchange Respiratory illnesses Anatomy of the system Transport of gases Fetal circulation Nutrition and Digestion P 428429 Susensionfeedin a baleen whale 1gtiilill IiHiH 1rdquot Ingesting food Omnivores ingest plants and animals Herbivores plant eaters Carnivores animal eaters Suspension feederseat particles in the water column Substrate feeder live in or on food source Fluid feeder suck nutrient rich uid from host Bulk feeder eat large pieces of food 211E Bulkfeedinq a python r C 39 v 39 t r LFV LQKU HULIVEa V Nquot39 II114 7 t q VJ Food processing 4 stages 5 Mechanical I I u Fao breakdown quot quot393 v Pieces 39 395 LIndIgested 039 Enzymatlc quot a Nutriemmnlewles material fDDd hydrolysis languages enter body cells OIMGESTION GDIGESTIIOM OABSOHPTION OELIMNATION 1 Eating 2 Breakdown of food into small molecules for absorption 3 Cells in the lining of the digestive tract absorb nutrient molecules 4 Undigested materials pass out of the digestive tract Food processing 4 stages Ingestion eating Digestionbreakdown of food into small molecules for absorption Absorption cells in the lining of the digestive tract absorb nutrient molecules Elimination undigested materials pass out of the digestive tract Digestion occurs in specialized compartments Tentacle Food Daphnia a 1 Gaetrovascular awater 391 cav39ty flea weddlson Wealey Langman Inc Simple animals have a mouth and gastrovascular cavity Fig 213A Hydrolytic enzymes Flagella Food I particle Engulfment quot quot of food r particle Digestion in food vacuole More complex animals have an alimentary canal crop Gizzard TypthSOIC Esophagus eve Intestine Omnivorous Phawnx KAN 39 Mouth k EARTHWORM Esophagus 310mmquot 1 Wall of intestine Gizzard A Anus Interior of intestine f 39 7 Esophagus Stomach 5 Glzzard 39 quot Crop Intestine 7 KNntestine Mouth Gastric pouches v M j 3933 f quotrf GRASSHOPPER a Anus Herbivorous BIRD gt2 ddleen Wesley Langman inc Mouthpharynxesophaguscrop gizzardstomachintestineanus Human digestive tract Mouthv J Oral cavity Alimentary Canal Tongue quot 17 Pharvquotx Main parts A Lquot Y Esephagus Mouth0ral cav1tyt0nguepharynx gtv esophagusst0machsrn pqu c all 1ntest1ne large Gall re quot Spl lncm 1 intestine rectum anus bladder i r 39 7 fl r s 1 Accessory structures s 21 39Smal I I xRJ fjigsti ne I Intestme Sallvary glands arge intestine pancreas llver Rectum Anus Peristalsis sphincters Emddsun Waqu Longnan m The oral cavity TEETH Incisors Canine 4 1 Sa wary JUICeS Premolars 11quot V Lubricate buffer kill Molars 39 I I I i a bacteria begin digestion Wisdom t Mechanical and Tongue Chemical digestion Salivary TOOth types glands Tongue Opening of a Manipulates food salivary gland duct Iquot md san Weslov Lmnan m Food and breathing passages open to the pharynx Epiglottls dawn F39hsarynit 5 r 7 V E30 k a phageal Lawnquot sphincter Trachea Esophagus Esaphagus Sphincter Sphincter Sphincter contracted rellaxed contracted Wadingm Wesley ngr an Inn Pharynx open to Windpipe most of the time During eating the epiglottis closes off the WindDiDe Esophagus squeezes food to the stomach Circular muscle layer Longitudinal muscle layer 1 Helaxed 39 muscles contract constricting Bolus at Passageway tow and pushing Longitudlnal bOI US dDWn muscles 7 contract 1 shortening passageway ahead 01 bolus Stomach mddimn Wesley Longman Inc 7 Relaxed muscles Two muscle layers circular and longitudinal Peristalsis moves the food along No digestive function hiatal hernia Stomach stores food and breaks it down lnterim surface of stomach PiIS o x J 4 ElPithelium 9 39 1 39quot fquot 39 D 9 active Mucuu3 Hm enzymE Iquot Fylorlc sphincter v v 3 STDMACH Gastrlw w gland 39 26 hours Pa rialall nnllg Involves acid and digestive enzymes Can store 2L of food Has Dits glands and cells which produce acid and mucus Stomach stores food and breaks it down Digestion in the stomach Pepsinogen HCl Y pepsin acitvated Proteins pepsin Y polypeptides Gastric glands secrete mucus HCl and pepsinogen External stimuli smell sight stimulate gastrin release Gastrin stimulates production of gastric juce Chyme forms from food and gastric juice mixed together Disorders of the stomach and esophagus Acid re uX back ow of acid into the esophagus heartburn Barrett s esophagus growth of abnormal tissue in the esophagus Gastric ulcersdigestive juice erodes the lining of the stomach wall creating open sores H pylori can cause ulcers also gastritis Antibiotics can cure this Small intestine major site of chemical digestion and nutrient absorption Liver Stomach Gallbladder Duodenum of Pancreas small intestine madlmn Wesley Lcngrnan Inn Small intestine major site of chemical digestion and nutrient absorption Pancreas secretes 9 different enzymes that break down fat protein carbohydrate Also produces an alkaline secretion that neutralizes acid chyme Liverproduces bile that emulsi es fat Bile chemically emulsi es fat Gallbladder stores bile salts that emulsify fat Duodenum site of absorption Small intestineStructure Nutrient Blood vessel absorption INTER39OR OF39NTEST39NE Nutrient 39 Wlth blood Mlcro absorpn en route to villi the llver Muscle layers Circular folds Villi Nutrlem Epithelial cells absorptlon INTESTINAL WALL mddlson Wesley Lnngman Incl ElNZ I39MlATIlC DIGESTlIDH IN lI39HE SMALL WTESTINE CARBOHYDRATES Pancreatic amylase Starch Maltese a disaccharide a polysaccharide PROTEINS Trypsin Chymotrypsln Polypeptides Smaller polypeptides NUCLEIC ACIDS Nucleases DNA and RNA Nucleotides FATS Bile salts Fat globules lFat droplets emulsi ed mddlmn Wesley Lnngman Inc Dlsaccharides Maltase Sucrose Lactase etc Aminopeptidase Carboxypeptidase Dlpeptldase Small polypep tides and dipeptides Other enzymes Nucleotides Lipase Fat droplets Monosaccharldes Amino acids Nitrogenous bases sugarsanld phosphates Fatty acids and glycerol Tests Starch Maltose 0 Place a sample of Add benedicts to solution to be tested in solution remaining in the dish each test tube 0 Add a few drops of Heat and observe IKI color Test for Starch With IKI Before After w quot quoti m A dark brown color indicates the presence of starch Hydrolysis of Starch to Maltose i T l 17 3 l r i m Total hydrolysis No hydrolysis Partial hYdTOIYSiS Test for Maltose With Benedicts solution 0 Blue is negative 0 Orange is positive Large intestine Cecum blind pouch that stores bacteria Appendix immune function Main function water absorption creates feces which become harder as water is absorbed Vitamin production from E coli Rectumterminal portion of the colon Diarrhea constipation Gall bladder w pf small 1 Intestine Small intestine Large intestine Anus Copyrlgm 1 Pearson Educallon Inc pubquotsiting as Beruamlh Cummings Adaptations of the digestive system Carnivore short alimentary canal Herbivoreomnivore long alimentary canal Special chambers to digest cellulose Cow the extreme herbivore Ruminant 4 chambered stomach extracts maximum nutrients 3quot Small intestine Small intestine Stomach Colon large intestine Slll39l39l Esophagus i D umen DAhamasum I 12 prokaryotes digest cellulose in rumen and reticulum Regurgitation and more chewing Swallow again omasum absorbs water Abomasum cow s own enzymes complete digestion Nutrition If you nd honey eat just enough too much and you will vomit Nutrition Macronutrients Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Nucleic acids Provide fuel for energy Micronutrients Vitamins and minerals Kilocaloriecalorie BMR 13001800 kcal per day Liver makes and stores glycogen which is stored in muscles as well Excess energy is stored as fat lFOODEEXERCISE ENERGY EQUIVALENTS Speed 9 minfmi 30 minmi KcaIkgmin 0173 M 32 Big Mac 560 kcal 47 min 1 hr3 min Cheese pizza 11 slice 450 kcal 38 min 50min CocaaCola Classic Ho 02 144 kcal 12min 16 min Whole wheat bread 1 slice 86 kcal 7 min 10 min 20 minmi 0039 3 hr31 min 2 hr50 min 54 min 32 min These data are for a person weighing 68 kg 150 lb stnn W er Lat man In Essential Amino Acids ESSENTIAL Your body Ammo ACIDS makes many Twptophan amino acids but Methionine not all of them Vanna Some AA s must Histidine be Obtained from Threonine fOOd essentlal Corn and Phenylalanine 7 AA S other grains Leuclne Beans and lsoleucine other legumes Lysine K ddlmn Wesley Lcngrhan Inc Vitaminsminerals Chemical nutrients other than 0 H N H All minerals are essential Too much of some can cause high blood pressure An organic nutrient that is essential but required in smaller amounts Coenzymes part of the metabolic reactions in the body De ciencies cause speci c sets of symptoms 39Wnurthd hh Earning Ullanin B I iihlamdne Wanin Ez iribdlliavl39m Niacin Vilamin Ed Inwfddxrne Pamoll39lemic acld Fdli acid Iidlacin Vitamin i 1 Bib11m Vilanin C iasmmic acid Park legumes walnuts whale grains Dairy madam mealsenm rich grains vegetables Hul39L meals graln Meatmegetal ez whale grains Must funds meals airy pmdummhalie gramme Ereen vegetabies mangas riml legumes whole grams Madmen dairy madmh Legums other Hegem bias meats Fruits and newtables espdtialiy citrus Fruits bir f i ahbag tama tnes gseen peppers Edensz used in Itemsluring ICU Ham urganln compounds Commnem di madam FAD Canlament ui cue1W HAW and wow Denim used in mind arid mafabdlism Campunen l dl menzynu A Caenzyrne in nucleic acid and amino add metabdn lisrmessential fur normal neura tube dmhp mam in Inmath DENIM In nucleic acid mtl ahullim needed in mura ddn a red Hand mils benzyme In synmesls of an glwdgm and amino acids Usedin colhqgn smthe s tag for band mhiagt gum5 unmi dxidantmids in detdxi catidn imanawsimn abmlp m Ecrihed heme lmrims ema aiatiun anemia Sldn lesidns such as muck M turret Bf mdmh Mn and gmrdlntestinal addn1 nerwm dimmden Fluslivng 0i a and hand liver damage Irnnabilim dnvulslarm muscular twitchingpmem ia Unstable gait numb feet pour rourdlnarlon Fatiguei numbness Elng llng DJ hands and feet Anemia gashaintestina l lamb lam Masks de cienzy cf vitamin EH 2 Anmnla nemus system dimmers Scabquot 5km in ammtldr mum muxular murders 5fan idegenmtldn of stun teem blend Markhmknes delayed wuund healing impairEd immnlw Gastrolnleninal upse ts lu f mln Vilamin Dark graen and mange wegmhhs and fruits dam mudutu Vitamin D Daiir p39 produhcueug ynlk aha mdtin human skin in pregame at sun igh Vila mnin PE tncuphamllj Vegetable oils nuts seeds 1uI39itaIrnirII K El n UEQE39tib39 tea 55 qu a1 eunmurtmu 9mm in v I In Eumpunenx nf xviweal pigmemzir needed 1hr minnmmcn af mnhellall tlssm Mdsinanhmmti n and use af ml cium and phasphnrus pruv mates banne gmath An uxidam prawrm damage In llpldlsul cell memblawgs an lambany olher rml zules Immmant in blood clotting Vision pmblfa ms dry scaly 39Mn ilrz adacl39na 39ir rimbil ily wry um mu IUE3 a1rr21waftquot iwr and han dam13 chk z than defammie in Ehiidrcmbune m enlng in adults Bran card maawler and unduey damage None w l documented Defective blond rming Lava Luvpage and anemia Calcium ta thpharu Sulfur m Potade Ill Ehlu m I Cl Stadium Nail Magntslumildgk Iran Fri Dairy pmdum dark gram wgera eaiegumes Dairy nmdutta mean gralns Pl39 l i39l mm 36qu WIRES Meals dairyproducts mam ruins and wgmhlu grains Table salt Table salt Wl39m r grins gram leafy vegma es Mun wgkregumet whole gains gran leafy vegetable Bane and math fun39natian blluud clot tlng new and muscle funnlun ame and math fumian acidnbasae balancemudeu de synthesii Cnmponem at attain amim acid Amidbase bal ancewater balance nirw hm iun Acidme bal ancegauric Juice Midbase Wanamaker halarncE nerve Functiun Cmpumnt uf certain enzymei Cmpumnt al39 hemaglnh n and all ectrun carriersin energy mbu sm Smntedl growlh pussiny la a bone quot1355 Weaknaesi lass a MIDmils lru 1 hm calcium loss SW IWL HI IS at jjmwm de cla cf Mumarvmtnesa paralysis Muxb rampareduced ammlm Muir cramps Teduted appHim Hermu system distunbums Hunde ciency anemia when fmpaimd Immunity NUTRITION FACTS Serving size 1 slice approx 349 ingredients water wheat enriched flour flour malted barley flour niacin reduced iron thiamine mononitrate vitamin Bi riboflavin vitamin 52 honey raisin iuice concentrate salt butter raisins wheat bran partially hydrogenated soybean oil wheat gluten yeast wheat germ vinegar mono and diglycerides Servings per container 20 Calories 90 Calories from Fat 10 AmountlServing Daily Value Total Fat lg 2 Saturated Fat Og 0 Cholesterol 0mg 0 Sodium 1mm 7 Total Carbohydrate 17g 6 Dietary Fiber 29 7 Sugars 39 Protein 39 Vitamin A 0 Vitamin C 0 Thiamine 6 Riboflavin 2 Niacin 6 Calcium 0 Iron 4 39 Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000 calorie diet Your daily values rivalr be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs Calories 2000 2500 ToialFai Less than 659 809 Sat Fat Less than 209 25g Cholesl Lesslhan 3 0mg 300mg Sodium Lessrhan Zilng 24001119 Total Cam 3mg 3759 Fiber 259 309 Behaviuram MannMable risgtjagtms risk factors High Lack of bland exercise mulesterul Family history Smuan third lm Wasley ngman Inn Evaluations mremgiy lowcarbohydrate diets 55 than 100 g of carbohydrates per day namely lawfat diets ss than 20 of kiiacalories frum fat mina an of most or all animal protein urces and all fatsmuts and seeds irmula diets lEE d un formulated Dr packaged pmducrs any are very low in kilocalories amed diet of 12110 kcal or more ion Waslay Longrnan Inc initial loss of weight is primarily water Problems may include fatigue and headacheaLongterm use of diet may be associated with muscle loss May be inadequate in essential fatty acids pf teil i and certain minerals May decrease absorption of fatsoluble vitamins May result in irregular menstrual periods in women livery law in kilocalories less than 800 kcal per clay may result in lass 0 body protein and may cause dry sicirir thinning hair constipation and salt imbalance Usually weight is regained when diet is ended if carefully chosen such a diet can meet all nutrient need 5 Weight loss is usually 12 lb per week dieter may become discouraged


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