General Biology II
General Biology II BIOL 130
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This 67 page Class Notes was uploaded by Giovanna Schroeder on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 130 at Fayetteville State University taught by Stephen Salek in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/221590/biol-130-fayetteville-state-university in Biology at Fayetteville State University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Senses and sensory organs 39 NosTrils on each side of The head of The salmon allow waTer39 To flow i nTo one and ouT The oTher Sensory cells in The nosTr39ils deTecT specific chemicals in The waTer39 These cells aid The salmon in iTs homing abiIiTy 291 Sensory inputs become sensations and perceptions in the brain Sensation Awareness of sensory stimuli action potentials reaching the brain Perception Brain39s full integration of sensory data Sensory receptor cells conv err stimuli im o electrical energy Sensory transduction A SenSJary ca converts a stimulus into an electrical signal called a recapfar pafemiial s Occurs as a change in The membrane potential of a receptor T quot5u Tagquot PM 00 005 6 sugar Mollculc on chann ls Iquot 5950 I Pot n I F pr a c H N m quotanquot imp m4 I S 5950 umquot w y r r If Ann rotu als b 53m H Action potentials representing the stimul i are to The CNS Via sensory neurons The brain distinguishes different of stimuli These different i39ntemeurons in ue brain sfr39engfh af 1 sWimu39lus alters The rate of action poferrrial transmissian This communicates information about the imenst ity of a sensa on In sensGry adnpm on sensary neumns become senSir l39ive when 39i rnulqted Sensory mm N sugar f e a a A u H AI 0 quot r In MAM y hauling mumquot 1min mm ha39nr 1lt Specialized sensory recepfo rs dated five categories of stimuli 9 Pain receptors Sense stimuli 9 Thser39morecepfor39s Defect hear or cold 9 Mechanareceptors Respond to mechanical energy touch pressure and sound Epidcrrnis Dennis H an QM Pain Cold Hair L39ght T uch T uch pressure Sfr e rch receptors and hair cells are Two Types of mechanor39ecep rors 9 1 air5quotof Mclptor ii Nlurotransmi lr s a s mum Mon transmitter 55 nuno nlurotransml cr 4 1 hccptor all at mi 2 Fluid moving in a divcation a Fluid moving in onquot divcation L i in J i Chemorecepfors Respond To chemicals in The body fluids or external environmen r A male silkworm mo rh has chemorecepTors on his anTennae That can deTeCT The sex aTTracTan r produced mm by fhe female silkworm mo rh 39 Electromagnetic receptors Respond to electricity magnetism and light Photoreceptors sense light They are the most common electromagnetic receptors Figute 0 l 294 Three different types of eyes have evolved among invertebrates Eye cup Simplest type of photoreceptor Senses intensity and direction of light Found in flatworms J gt quothgg y l LV39 Wi iii hquot Singlelens eye Works on a principle similar to that of a camera Found in vertebrates and some invertebrates such as squids Figure 29 W 295 Ver rebr39a res have singlelens eyes Scler Chorfid Musc Refi Ligamc If I 1 3 a Fov a c 39 39 39 an r39 0 quotquot visual field Iquot o e Pupil P 1 Aqueo Arfer39y and ein Blind spof mama Eye parfs Salem outerquot Surface 39 Cornea Transparem sclem focusing Charaid pigmented layer Iris 6 eye color muscular 39 Pupil opemng in iris disk lligamems o Fem center of focus on re m o Blind spot st where ap c nerve humow laurgg jelly filled chamber v smaller fluid fillled chamber 0 39 Human eye Carma and lens focus light on photoreceptor cells in the retina Photarecepfors are most concentrated in fhe fem Two eyes with overliuppirg fields 01 View compensates for the blind st The blind sf isvwhere ue op c nerve Through The retina 296 quotTa focus a lens changes pasi on ar shape Focusing occur in Two Moving The Glaser quotto or further away from an abject is one focusing mefhod If is similar 1390 focusing with a glass occurs in squid some fishes Accommodafion or changing fhe shape of fhe lens occurs in fhe mammalian eye Thick and round for near vision Thin and fla i for distance vision FEAR ACCOMMODATION Can39n ecfion Ar l39ificial IenSes or surgery correct focusing problems Corrective light rays to compensate far focusing problems There are three cammon vision problems is a condiment involving a diisi39orfi an of The lens or canned In nearsighfedness myopia fhe focal point is Iocafed in fron r of The retina 39 In farsigh redness hyper39opia The focal poin r is loca red behind The refina 298 Our pho ror ecep ror cells are rods and cones Human photorecepfor cells are named for Their shapes Rods Cones Synaptic knob 5 containing viIual pigmnvs Rods Funcfion in dim light 1 camai n a visual pligsz called rhodo39psin There are 125 million in he human m na Cones S mula red by brigh l igh r Enable col ar vision Do mt functien in night visi an There 6 million in We human refine v Cones contain visual pigments called photo39psins There are bres types of cones blue men and rede for We color absorbeby their phota39psin nuba Photomcpnrx Optic mm films htina Fovca V Optic n vl vg nr it 299 The ear conver rs air pressure waves in ro ac rion po ren rials Tha r are perceived as sound The basic funcTion of OUTER EEAR Mail E INNER EAR The ear Is I f 1 39 2 hearing I 3 The ouTer E r w n i quot t ear channels 7 v j sound waves F 39 39 T0 2530 fEuljmchiun eardrum The eardrum passes vibra rions To The chain of bones in The middle ear Semicircular canals funcfion in balance Skull bones Anvil r V Audifory nerve to ra39 Oval window behind sfimip Eustachian tube The bones Van39smi vibmfions fo uid in the cochlea whi ch houses the organ of Carri Vibrations in cochlear fluid move hair cells mechanorecapfors the ovarlying membrane 39 Bending hair cells quottrigger nerve signals 1390 rhe brain Via the audifar39y nerve Auditory nerve a cross if sectio rhrough cochlea Overlying membrane Hair cells To auditory nerve Fmngt a v Louder sounds generate higher amplitude WGVBS quotTheserwaves result in The vigomus v ibm on of cochlear fluids There is than a more pronounced bending of hair cells Thus more ac an potentials are generared OUTER EAR MIDDLE EAR INNER EAR A A A Y r Auditory Ear Hammcr Cochlcar canal P om Irma canal drum anvll shillup window quotPP and 4 hm v I 0 Amp Inna Organ of Corti vibration stimulant wquot y 39 Pi tch depends n The frequency mquot sound High sounds garnerrte high frequency saund Low sounds genemare low sound waves Saunds of different pitches stimulate hair cells indifferent of The amen of Cor 2910 We inner ear hous es our organs of balance quot Organs of balance are located in quotThe inner Semicirc u lar canals 39Ufricle Succu le Defect ion of body pasi on and movement undetermined by stimulatian of hair cells in the semicircular ufr39ic le an Saccule Equilibrium s rr39uc rur39es in The inner ear Cochlca Utriclc Succu I Flow of fl 39d Nerve films Dircation of body mmmm 21911 Connecfion Whaf causes mof ilon Motion Sickness is a result of The brain receiving signals from equilibrium receptors in the inner conflict w i l39h visual signals from The 29112 Odor and fas39re receptors defec r categories of chemicals 39 Smell and taste depend on f chemorecepfors sending nerve signals quotto the brain Specific malecules binding to chemoreceptors denr39mi39he signals Olfactory smell r ecepfor39s are sensory neurons The line The upper39 par f of The nasal cavi ry 39 Taste receptors are neurons 39loca red in The back of the Throat and on the Tongue Taste buds 39 There are several fy pes of fasfe recepfors Sweet sour salify bifferz Insecfs have Tas re recep ror39s loaded in sensory hairs on Tth f Tas re food by simply stepping on if 0 Receptor potential is generafedf specific chemical molecules bind with ol faci l ary or faS l e recepi39ors Recepfor39 potential chars the rate of action potentials passing info the brain various adors and tastes we perceive result from The integration of input from a combina l ian of necepfors Review The cen rrdl nervous system couples stimulus with respmse Coupling of stimuli To reSponse by The nervous sys l em Recepmr cells receive s imulius Sensary neurons send informmasn to the is The CNS infggrnfes infarmmrion from receptor celiJlis The CNS sends commands To effecfor cells Via mater neumns 1 Response is carried out Salsay nullens 39 w fmqmion m w Choanocgte in fg et yte Multlcellular llfe Ts Pores Water flow Evolution of multicellular life Choanocyte Anlmal tlssue types Amoebocyte stan Wast Long39nan Ir 4 C39s L E 013 Campbell F1g11 COMMUNITY LEVEL All organisms in rain forest l POPULATION LEVEL Grnup of flying squirrels ORGANISM LEVEL g Flying squirrel w c Brain Rf ORGAN SYSTEM LEVEL 5 a Nervous syslern Ira 3 i ORGAN LEVEL Brain l l TlSSUE lLEllEL MOLECULAR LEVEL Molecule of DNA muumn Wesluy Langmal l In 1 Cellular level muscle cell 2 Tissue level muscle tissue Campbell 3 Organ level Flg 202 heart 4 Organ system level cardiovascular system 5 Organism level consisting of many organ systems tnessquot Wasey Longnan Inc Animal tissue types What is a tissue A cooperative unit of many very similar cells that perform a speci c function Examples Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous Review What are the major characteristics of the plant animal and fungi kingdoms Sketch basic plant cell and compare it to an animal cell What are the basis tissue and organ types in plants What is the function of each What special cell are found in each type List the major groups of plants and describe each How does each group reproduce What is alternation of generation Draw a diagram that brie y describes this process Which type of generation is dominant in each major plant group What are fungi Describe the basic body plan of a fungus What are the major groups of fungi How do they reproduce What are lichens and mychorrhizae List some harmful fungi and the conditions that result from them List some bene cial fungi and their effects Review Terms decomposer mutualism parasite Spore sporangium mushroom lichaen hyphae mycellium athlete s foot ringworm Candida albicans dikaryotic fruiting body sporophyte gametophyte N 2N haploid diploid photoautotrophic cellulose epidermis mesophyll stomata guard cell meristem leaf root xylemphloemground tissue vascular tissue algae moss fern gymnosperm angiosperrn vascular plant nonvascularplant Review List the major animal phylums and describe the distinguishing characteristics of the animals in each Give several examples of animals in each phylum Describe the four tissue types nervous muscle epithelial connective How did tissues and multicellular animals evolve How do animals develop Terms Zygote blastulagastrula larva De ne choanocyte ameobocyte radial symmetry bilateral symmetry cephalization dorsal ventral anterior posterior cnidocyte gastrodermisepidermis gastrovascular cavity polyp medusa hydra acoelomate psudocoelomate coelom true body cavity Planarians ukes tapeworms proglottid scoleX trichinellaredula mantle muscular foot segmentation earthworms polychaetes leeches Hirudo medicinall s exoskeleton cuticle molting head thorax abdomen incomplete and complete metamorhosis water vascular system tube feet What are the basic chordate characteristics Notochord etc Tunicate amphioxus lamprey swimbladder operculum coelocanth Review How did the first amphibians arrive on land Salamander metamorphosis frog aquatic adaptations terrestrial adaptations What are the major adaptations of amphibians birds reptiles and mammals What are the different types of animals in these groups Anmiotic eggplastron carapace snake lizard turtle feathers How did jaws evolve Ectothemic endothermic acheaoptreX mammals placental oviparous marsupial heterodont teeth Epithelial tissue Covers and lines the body and its parts One surface free the other bound to basement membrane Tissues are named by Shape of cells Number of layers of cells Free surface of Basement membrane epitheliun extracellular vii t ix V W 39 US 5116 Campbell Fig 204 l s Underlying Cell tissue 39 Simple single layer Strati ed multiple layers Squamous at tiles Cuboudal like dice Columnar like bricks Simple Squamous Simple Cuboidal Campbell Fig 204 Simple cuboidal cell Basement membrane Simple squamous epithelium Connective ssue Simple cubuidai epithelium I John Wiley 8 Sons Inc In the kidney tubules Lmes the lungs Strati ed Squamous Epithelium Campbell Fig 204 Stratified squamous epilhelium Lines the esophagus I321 Jolm Wiley amp Sons Inc Stratified squamnus epithelium Fla ened squamous surface cell at apical surface Easement membrane Connective tissue Ciliated columnar epithelium Cilia Campbell Fig 204 Goblet cell Ciliated simple columnar epithelium Basement membrane Connective ssue Ciliated simple columnar epithelium 01 Jd39in Wiley 3 Sons Inc Lines the air ways in the respiratory system Connective tissue Binds other tissues an provides support matrices Few cells in a nonliving matrix Three ber types Collagen bers Elastic bers Reticular bers Fibroblasts cells that produce connective tissue Loose connective tissue Amour Campbell Fig 205A Holds other tissue in place A binding material Other Connective tissues Cell quot Cell Collagen quota quot 39 Claus fiber 39 11 Other 39 39 39 Qellagen Flg fibers f39 fibers Loose Fat quot5 droplets I r Cell r 3 M nucleus f If r g x 3quot x a Adipose White blood V cells jal CentIal V cana glee blood 7 jg JI 3 Matrix Plasma 39 a i 5 Gene mddlm W Y LD Ql I i B n Llflood 0 e 0 J0 IWBV a sane Inc Periosteum covering the bone Tendon Deep fascia Skeletal muscle Epimysium Perimysium Fascicle Endomysium Muscle fiber cell Endomysium Nucleus Striations Sarcolemma Sarcoplasm Myo bril L Filament Tendons Dense connective tissue that Attaches muscle to bone Like Campbell Fig 307 Bone Tissue Osteo blaat Osteocyte forms bane maintains tissue bone tissu Osteocytes Haversian canal Campbell Fig 205D Lamelle matr1X a I PrOXima Articuiar canila e epiphysis g a Spongy bone e Compact bone I d Compactbone Boo vessel N39Iedullaa39yr cavity Endosteum Diaphysis c Osteonah lamella lnterst39nia lamella Compact bone Spongy bone trabecuia 1F Distai epiphysis Blood vessel in Volkmann s canal Voikmann39s canal Blood vesseis in osteonal canal
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