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Sensation & Perception

by: Marlene Abernathy DDS

Sensation & Perception PSYC 420

Marlene Abernathy DDS
GPA 3.97

Thomas Cantfort

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Thomas Cantfort
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marlene Abernathy DDS on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 420 at Fayetteville State University taught by Thomas Cantfort in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/221599/psyc-420-fayetteville-state-university in Psychlogy at Fayetteville State University.

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Date Created: 10/12/15
Sensation amp Perception PSYC42001 Dr Van Cantfort FAYErrEVILLE STAJ UN vnzsmr Vision Light What are the properties of light Light is one of electromagnetic radiation Electromagnetic radiation refers to all forms of wave produced by electrically charged particles AC circuits FM radio Radar nfrared rays U Itraviolet rays s Gama rays etc The visible light that humans see occupies only a small portion of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum Light Other organisms respond to other portions of the spectrum Pit vipers and boa constrictors have sensory organs that are sensitive to infrared rays which are to the right of the visible spectrum These animals can therefore form heatsensitive images of their potential prey Bees have receptors that are sensitive to polarized light and bees and birds have receptors for magnetic fields Human visual system cannot detect wavelengths as long as those of infrared rays Our visual system also cannot detect short wavelengths Such as ultraviolet rays And Xrays Light Light is made up of waves We can describe light in terms of it wavelength Wavelength is the distance the light travels during one cycle that is the distan two peaks Wavelength is typically measured in nanometers A nanometer nm equals 1 blllionth of a meter The shortest wavelengths that we can see are represented by violet Which has a wavelength of about 400 nm The longest are represented by red Which has a wavelength of about 700 nm Visual Short wavelengths around 400 nm is seen as violet Long wavelength around 700 nm is seen as red Median wavelength around 540 nm is seen as green Amplitude is the height of the light wave The perceptual correlate is brightness Wavelength is the peak of one wave to the peak of the next wave measured in nanometers nm The perceptual correlate of wavelength is color or hue Spectral purity is the degree of mixture of other wavelengths of lights Light The perceptual correlate of purity is saturation Example of spectral purity Pure blue saturated Baby blue unsaturated more white light You may have noticed that we mentioned three pairs of attributes Wavelength and hue Purity and saturation And amplitude and brightness The first member of each pair describes a characteristic of the physical stimulus Where as the second member describes what we perceive a psychological reaction Light Unfortunately forthe sake of simplicity there is no simple onetoone relationship between the physical and psychological dimensions for light For example the perceived brightness of light is in general related to the lights intensity in that increasing the lights intensity will make it look relatively brighter But the actual brightness that is perceived would be greatly influenced by the lights wavelength if a number of wavelengths had identical intensities The wavelengths near the middle of the spectrum in the 530 560 nm ran e Those wavelengths that normally look green or yellowishgreen Would appear brighter to us than wavelength near to either end Light Another problem in relating physical and psychological dimensions of light concerns the association 0 wavelength with hue When different wavelengths of light are combined together The difficulty here is thattwo perceptually identical hues can result from two totally different wavelength combinations For example Color mixture of specific red 650 nm and green 495 nm monochromatic wavelength can produce a yellow hue A yellow hue identical to the yellow produced by a single wavelength of 578 nm Light The perceived saturation of the redgreen mixture may be less than the perceived saturation of the single wavelength light That is it may appear more washed out But the hues of both stimuli would be judge as the same Somehow the physical characteristics of light are transformed into the psychological characteristics of light By the informationprocessing structures of the visual pathway The complex relationships of intensity to perceived brightness And of wavelength to perceived hue are only two of the major challenges for perceptual psychologists studying the visual system Light We said that wavelength is typically measured in nanometers but there are numerous ways to measure amplitude of light A frequent measure used in psychology journals is candelas per meter square cdm2 A measure based on how much light is reflected from the surface of the stimulus Light reflected from the page of a book is approximately 32 cdmz Under the best of condition you can detect a light that is only 0000003 3 millionth cdm Light can also be considered to be composed of individual and indivisible particles called photon ProxiJnal Visua stimuli can be broken down into two categories Distal stimulus And proximal stimulus Distal stimulus Distal stimulus is the re ected light from an object outside the retina That is a stimulus located at a distance from the rver For example reflected light from a tree Proximal stimulus Proximal stimulus is the image on the retina That is the image of the reflected light from a tree on the re Ina ProxiJnal l l x Proximal stimulus is on the retina Distal stimulus is a distance from the observer Visual stimulus on the retina Is visual angle The visual angle is determined by extending one line from the nodal point of the observer s eye A point nearthe center of the lens To the top of the object and another line from the bottom of the object A term that is often use to identify the size of proximal The visual angle is the angle between those two lines It is extremely important to realize that visual angle depends not only on the object s physical size But also its distance from the observer Visual angle is therefore determined by both an objects physical size and its distance from the observer Visual mum r7 4 w u


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