Medical Anthropology Honors
Medical Anthropology Honors ANHH 371
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Santino Farrell III on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANHH 371 at Ferris State University taught by Krishnakali Majumdar in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/221608/anhh-371-ferris-state-university in Child Development at Ferris State University.
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What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/12/15
Stress From Chapter 11 and 12 Stress most widely used metaphor See page 300 301 0 What are some ofthe major stressors 1 U PSNN Prolonged major changes in the patterns of people s ivesunempoyment bankruptcy Presence of paradox values Gender roles Diagnostic labels Social political and economic factors What is role played by culture in the response to stress Culture helps to shape the FORM of the stress response 1 Cultural values that are protective Family structure strengthen social and social cohesion and mutual support world view placing individual suffering in the wider context of misfortune fatalistic divine will karma fate meaning shared sense of meaning and coherence for eg value meditation and contemplation vs competitiveness and material achievement are probably less stressful rearing of children is shared Culturogenic stress Nocebo effect what are those cultural values beliefs expectations and practices that are likely to increase the number of stressor that the individual is exposed to Values of success belief of being hexed or cursed competitiveness war like activities inequality in economic culturerelative social inequality accompanied with loss if control over one s life and work Belief kills belief heals Kleinman Some examples of culturo genic stress Magical death Givingupgivenup Social death precedes biological death AIDS cancer Effects of Diagnostic labels Affect patient s symptoms behaviour social relationships prognosis and selfperception as well as attitude of others towards them Depends on the lay beliefs about the origin significance and severity and prognosis of the label TypeA behaviour pattern CHD psychosocial patterns display marked agressiveness ambition and competitive drive workoholic and chronically impatient The setting quotwhite coat hypertension white coat hyperglycemia Individual stress VS Collective Stress When an entire community is suffering Example war civil unrest terrorism hostage taking Migration refugees and stress most commonest form of collective stress What is the effect of collective or social suffering on the individual Cluster of symptoms non specific and vague Cultural bereavement sense of security and continuity diffuse Globalization Migration and Health issues 0 Define Globalization Inter dependence and diversity Coming together of political social cultural and economic factors Giddens quotthose processes that are intensifying ww social relations and interdependence Migration of people services idealogies money objects and belief systems forms of healing Resisting the hegemonic forces of globalization Glocalization one way of confronting globalization integrating global and local concerns by localizing indigenizing global forces and influences and there by quottamingquot italternative medicine in the us and western medicine in other cultures Returning to a focus on the local and sometimes traditional worldview and ways of doing themmay involve a return to extreme religious fundamentalism or to extreme national xenophobia Eg of benign aspects of traditionalisman emphasis to more quotnaturalquot forms of treatment or food Migration most important form of globalization Types of Migration 1 2 3 4 5 External or internal within national borders Voluntary and involuntary Temporary VS permanent Illegal or undocumented migrants Static migration Trends in migrations Feminization of migration More in developed than in less developed Most live in Europe 56 million Asia 50 million and NA 41 million Search of better improved access to education job and quality of living And there are those who flee their homes due to war political upheaval persecution economis distress or natural distressfor security and survival African slave trade Involuntary Migration Refugees Asylum seekers Internally displaced persons Returnees Stateless persons People displaced by their governments large scale eco development Aswan Dam in Egypt Urbanization PRC 100 150 million have moved from rural to urban in search for work Static Migration 2types 0 Migration socially and economically without actually movingsomeone says who wins lottery Long term residents of an urban area when it becomes settled by large numbers of migrants from a different country region or ethnic groupmay find themselves feeling increasingly foreign in their own homes The Age of Diasporas 20th and the 21st century Almost all countries have a large of citizens often in millions living scattered abroad in other countries Eg British 14 million Chinese 30 40 million NRIPIO 20 million Russians 25 million Have formed new identities in their own right often keep links with their country of origin and sometimes invested in independence movements and civil warfare in their homelands Composition of Migrant population Migration of men Women and Children Migration of health professionals Migration of tourists Migration of healing systems Migration of pharmaceuticals Migration of micro organisms and environmental risks Migration of cuisines Migration of religions Migration of information Migration of body parts Migration of weapons Migration of Capital jobs and debt Migration of men 0 migrate on their own jobs held are low paid low status and dangerous may return or bring their families chain migration or marry or cohabit with local women What are some oftheir health risks Migration of Women Earlier women migrated as part of family unit An increasing trend is women who are migrating independen y 70 of migrant workers were women Domestic service area hospital workers and as carers of children and elderly or as labourers in farms and local factories Subjected to social and economic exploitation and even sexual harassment prostitution human trafficking Internet brides mail order Even when theyjoin their husbands as part of chain migration they are at a disadvantage as their husbands are more acculturated and their children rapidly assimilate And in later years when husbands die and children set up their own home and family it might lead to isolation and even depression Migration of children Unaccompanied by adults 16181967 quothome children Destitute and orphaned children with quotgood white stock were sent to the US canada and Australia to solve farm labor shortage 1938 1940 quotKindertansportquot British govt allowed 10000 Jewish children under the age of 17 from Germany Austria and Czechoslovakia Today most child migrants are adoptees child soldiers and child refugees and asylum seekers Health risks of Migrantion and migrants Each type of migration has its own specific range of health problem and risks Loss of individual identity community structures traditional healers religious authorities and local landmarks such as ancestral landmarks or religious shrines Loss of autonomy especially for refugees Find themselves living in the cities of developed world often in deprived hoods So what do you thinks the health risks are Why is migration sometimes associated with higher risk of mental illness Very complex and not fully understood Migration alone does not lead to poor mental health other factors like personality individual experiences age at migration cultural background employment status housing conditions and relationship to host community is also relevant See page 324325 1 multimigrationmultiple deprivations 2 pushpull 3Selection stress 4 Host versus migrant 5 Psychosocial transitions loss of status clash between generations 6 cultural bereavement 0 However it is equally important to note that within both the migrant populations and ethnic minorities certain groups seem to have different rates and forms of Mental illness Pathogenic and protective factors of the culture see page 327