Medical Anthropology Honors
Medical Anthropology Honors ANHH 371
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Santino Farrell III on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANHH 371 at Ferris State University taught by Krishnakali Majumdar in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/221608/anhh-371-ferris-state-university in Child Development at Ferris State University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
CrossCultural Psychiatry Studying mental Illness in context Local Global or Universal Why is there a difference between how we organize label explain and treat Physical health and Mental health Culture Personality Power structure What is the relationship of culture to mental Health Normality vs abnormality Abnormality versus mental illness Culture bound illnesses How symptoms are clinically presented How mental illnesses are organized by those suffering and the health professionals U PWN Dimensions of Social Behavior Refer to page 246 figure 101 Normality Controlled abnormality Uncontrolled Abnormality Uncontrolled Normality These categories are not static but a series of fluid categories a spectrum of possibilities that change with time circumstances and particular perspective of the observer Normality Vary widely throughout the world Multidimentional concept Appropriateness of Individual behavior to certain context and social relationship Never uniform within a population A cluster of attributes that is appropriate for a particular type of context work leisure personal or social occasion Controlled abnormality Individual or collective inversion of normal roles symbolic inversions Codes are deliberated inverted flouted and becomes the temporary norm Tightly controlled when it happens how it happens and for how long It lasts Letting off steam Religious states Possesion cults or the trance state for a shaman or glossolalia Uncontrolled Abnormality Abnormal behavior as defined by the culture or society occurring without a reason Not controlled by social norms The extremes of uncontrolled abnormality largely overlap with western psychiatric classifications Uncontrolled Normality Behavior that is classified as bad or criminal Question is if the behavior is recognized by the subject as wrong knew right from wrong What is classified as bad or criminal changes over time from bad to mad or mad to bad What are some of the advantages of controlled or uncontroled abnormality Sick Role Festivals and carnivals Manic style highly desired by corporate America TABP type A behavioral pattern Is the TABP as pathological as the medical texbooks suggest The Comparison of Psychological Disorders Are there aspects of normal and abnormal behavior that are universal Not culturally bound Panhuman Are the western nosology transcultural Determine whether mental illnesses can be adequately diagnosed and treated crossculturally Approaches to the study of crosscultural Psycihatry The Biological Approach The Social Labelling Approach The Combined Approach Biological approach Despite local variations caused by cultural factors there is a biological basis to psychiatric disorders Content of delusions and hallucinations are influenced by cultural factors but what causes those delusions and hallucinations have an organic origin Diseases are universal entities Fallacy of the biological model Attempts to fit exotic illnesses into a universal diagnostic framework Same mental illness may play different roles in different societies does not address the social cultural or political contexta psychosis episode may play a role in revealing an underlying socialgroup conflict Kleinman category fallacy the reification of a nosological category developed for a particular cultural group and then applied to members of another culture for whom it lacks coherence and its validity has not been established Kirmayer and Miner increased biologization of psychiatry only lip service to the role of culture The Social Labelling Approach Developed by social scientists Mental illness as a social rather than a biological fact Society designates what behavior is deemed deviant or abnormal and does not appear until it has been designatedLabelled as such Waxler mental illness is only defined relative to the society culturespecific Labelling though culturespecific there are certain contingencies what are those Labelling is the first stage Then they are subject to a number of cultural cues about that tell them how to play their role Once labelled it is the society that delabells them and releases them from the sick role Value of this approach is that points to the social construction and maintenance of the symptomology of mental illness I Fallacy of the Social Labelling approach Ignores the biological aspect of mental iHness Ignores some extreme psychosis which seem universal in its distribution Since mental illness is a relative concept there fore crosscultural analysis in not possible The Combined approach Medical anthropologists use elements from both the biological and social labelling perspectives There is ethnographic evidence that disorders arising from organic brain diseases seem to be organized in all societies including similar conduct thought or affect and constitutes disorders perceived as uncontrolled abnormal Clinical presentations are usually influenced by the local culture Medical anthropologists suggest that instead of trying to fit the symptoms into western diagnostic categories focus be put on symptom patterns Cultural pattering of Psychological Disorders Types of explanations for mental illness personalistic or naturalistic factors Culturally specific Idioms of distress Cultural repertoire of symbols and imagery Symbols and imagery used are similar in nature to other rituals of symbols with polarization of meaning somatization An Idiomatic expression of distress the main language across so many cultures Speaking with the body Within the same culture differences found among different classes and educational background somatization versus psychologization expressing distress and anxiety in purely abstract psychological terms and concepts Is this distinction real See the example on page 261 Our understanding of somatization is in itself a reflection of western cultural ways of thinking Why do some people somatize while others do not Somatization in china HongKong and Nanjing TCM listen with their body Illustrates the importance of understanding from a holistic point of view Cultural Somatization Selection of a particular organ as the main focus of all symptoms and anxiety Organ chosen has a symbolic or metaphoric significance for the group Becomes the embodiment of core values and themes of the society Different from the more personal idiosyncratic forms of somatization where certain physical symptoms are unique to the individual Psychosomatic Implies a mindbody dualism Assumes there are two classes of phenomenon psychic mental and somatic Part of western folk culture suggests that the condition is not as real and somehow that the origin and course is the patient s fault If it is not in the medical textit must be psychological Theories dualistic multicausal systemic physiological Anthropological theories holistic role of context whether cultural social political or economic all blend together in its origin interpretation presentation and management of the condition Role of context in psychosomatic conditions Poverty and deprivation Cultural construction of body and self Concept of placebos and nocebos Illness and disease Stress Ritual healing Culture bound Psychological Disorders Culture bound versus context bound time place and social circumstances Are a group of specific cluster of symptoms signs or behavioral changes recognized by its members and responded in a standardized way Can you name a few western culture bound syndrome