Medical Anthropology Honors
Medical Anthropology Honors ANHH 371
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Santino Farrell III on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANHH 371 at Ferris State University taught by Krishnakali Majumdar in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/221608/anhh-371-ferris-state-university in Child Development at Ferris State University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Culture and Pharmacology Drug a multivocal symbol Wide variation in how different people respond to the same drug More than pharmacological action Nonpharmacological factors Mix of many influences Hahn beliefs can make us sick as well as healthy Claridge s model Factors responsible for the total drug effect Attributes of the drug Attributes of the recipient Attributes of the prescriber Physical setting in which the drug is prescribed or administered Helman s model Critical medical model Microcontext Macro context Can be used to understand all forms of drug use and abuse addiction habituation alcoholism approaches to reducing abuse and addiction therapeutic effects of healing rituals Macro context Social Values and expectations Example Normalization of drugs in western cultures as in chemical road to success Medicalization of everyday life Socioeconomic conditions Profit motives advt and Mgt role of Pharmaceutical industry Subculture of the users Effect of Drug on users PlaceboTotal drug effect with or without the presence of a drug Not just the effect of phamacologically inert substances administered as part of a doubleblind trial Shapiro The psychological physiological or psychophysiological effect of any medication or procedure given with therapeutic intent which is independent of or minimally related to the pharmacologic effects of medication or to the specific effects of the procedure and which operates through a psychological mechanism Can cause side effects or psychological dependencethese are examples of the Nocebo effects Dependence and addiction Placebo effect Culture bound Participants take part in a shared cognitive system rationalistic or religious or mystical worldview Makes life understandable Gives a sense of security and meaning to people s lives Healer is a culturally sanctioned parental figure emotional dependence and mutual confidence dictates therapeutic potency An essential component in all forms of heaHng Polyvocality of drugs Manifest functions expected physical effects pharmacological Latent functionssymbolic Normal part of life Tacit approval Drug dependence and Addiction Sleeping tablets Prozac and Zantac are most common drugs prescribes by psychiatrists Studies show that these drugs lose potency with in a few months of continuous treatment Symbolic meaning of the drug power of the drug lies in the ritual of prescribing and signify many different things for the patients and those around them Role of social and cultural factors in Drug dependence and Addiction Definition of what is dangerous addictive or immoral Tea coffee soda are different from Hard drugs Sociocultural matrix in which drug taking occurs Larger socioeconomic conditions Treatment and Prevention Significance of nonpharmacological variables a mix of sociocultural Economic geographic and personality factors Solutions are therefore not solely on the individual Examples US servicemen returning from Vietnam Crack cocaine subculture in Harlem searching for respect Positive use of the cultural milieu involvement of traditional healers Alcohol Use and Abuse Explain how and why some cultural and social groups drink more than others Complex mix of social cultural and individual factors At the individual level physical psychological and socioeconomic stress The cultural setting in which the drinking takes place and the attitudes of the cultural group towards drinking Models Of Alcoholism Moral models Personal choice Sign of sinfulness bad immoral poor self control weak Disease models medicalization treating it as a disease Political and Economic models inequality role of poverty political instability insecurity discrimination Sociocultural models SocioCultural Models Mostly derive from anthropology and other social sciences Cultural meanings cultural beliefs and behaviors related to drinking Rules and norms how and when it should or should not be drunk Role of Alcohol in creating and reinforcing identity Ethnic Religious and Cultural Variables Role of community or subculture Social Learning Model role of family Family structure and Family drinking Personality variable Spousal drinking behavior drinking environment social ritual or festive Drinking Rules and Norms O Conners classification Abstinent Cultures Ambivalent Cultures Permissive Cultures OverPermissive Cultures Role of Alcohol in creating identity and relationships The setting the micro context and the social function it performs values associated with it has its rules and norms how much and who drinks with whom private or public male or female space laboring men s bars gender identity collective unit meaning depends on the setting example given on page 215
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