Week 1 Notes: Psy 201
Week 1 Notes: Psy 201 PSY 201
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dorinda Williams on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 201 at University of Oregon taught by Dassonville P in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Mind and Brain >3 in Social Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Psy 201 92915 Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology History of Psychological Science 39 Psychological Science the scientific study of mindbrain and behavior The use of objective measure to determine the natural laws that govern the activities of the mind and the behaviors to produces Objective Measures those that are repeatable publicly observable Natural laws 39 The mind and brain problem Are the mind and brain separate and distinct or is the mind simply the physical brains subjective eXperience Dualism belief that the world is composed of 2 distinct categories of substance The Soul physical substance Monism belief that all of the world can be eXplained by only one category of substance Hippocrates 460 322 BCE Brain is the seat of thought and emotion Aristotle 3 84 322 BCE Heart is the seat of emotions brain just cooling organ 39 Philosophical debate in the 1600s Descartes Formulated an argument for dualism thought that the external soul controlled the body through an interface w the pineal gland Hobbes Argued for the type of momism called materialism nothing eXist except for matterenergy All human thoughtbehavior can be eXplain through physical process Modern psychological is based on a materialist view of the mind 39 Phrenology study of the structure of the skull to determine a person39s character mental capacity 39 Assertions The brain is the organ of the mind The mind is composed of distinct innate factuality Each factuality must have a distinct seat organ in the brain Size of the organ other things being equal is a measure of its power The shape of the brain determined by the different organsregions Because the skull takes shape of the brain the skull can be read as an accurate indeX of psychological attitudestendencies 39 Modularity of mental functions it is a commonly accepted principle that mental functions can be divided into separate categories independent processes 39 Localization of function although bumps on the head are not the tell tale signs phrenologists thought they were there is still good evidence that various cognitive functions are carried out by independent parts of the brain 0 Broca s Aphasia Some of the 1st good evidence for localization of a compleX cognitive process come from Paul Broca 1861 Damage to a particular area on the left half of a patient39s brain prevents him from saying anything other than the word tan Although language comprehension was normal 0 Wemicke39s Aphasia is called jargon aphasia because patients can produce speech uently but content of the speech is relatively meaningless Associated w damage to a more posterior brain region 10115 History of Psychological Science Cont 39 Psychology began as a formal field of scientific study in the mid 1800s in the lab of Wilhelm Wundt Reasoned that mental events take time and these can be measured 39 Introspectionism Wundt The study if conscious mental events by introspecting or looking within observingrecording one39s own thoughtsexperiences 39 Structuralism Titchener Uses introspectionism to break apartexamine the individual components of conscious eXperience 39 Problems w Introspectionism Variability One person39s impressions are often very different from another39s Verification Lack of public access to introspection misperceptions can never be detected disagreements cannot be resolved Reliance on Consciousness Many interesting mental events are unconscious e g Memory retrieval decision making visual processes Provides access to products of thinking rather than processes that underlie it 39 Problems w Structuralism Consciousness is not to just the sum of its parts 39 Gestalt Psychology attempts to understand the laws of our ability to acquiremaintain meaningful perceptions in an apparently chaotic world assumes that the whole of eXperience is more that the sum of its parts 39 Behaviorism emphasizes the study of observable environmental effects on behavior was a backlash to the introspectioniststructuralist idea of effects study unobservable mental Environmental cues stimulus Environmental Behavior Response Cues Stimulus The mind behaviorists argued is like a blackbox The content cannot be observed scientifically Thus we should concentrate our efforts on understanding the relationship between stimulus response 39 Behaviorism was founded by John Watson in 1913 as a way of establishing the credibility of psychology as a scientific discipline Popularized by BF Skinner his Skinner Box 39 Problems w Behaviorism Insufficiency Cannot fully account for things like creativity e g thinking outside the box or the diversity compleXity of human behaviors e g language Narrow scope Limiting science to only observable things is a bad idea 39 Cognitive Science uses behavior to infer what is going on inside the blackbox uses knowledge of what is going on in the black box to help understand the constraints on conscious eXperience behavior considers mental processing the software of the mind 39 Cognitive Neuroscience uses behavior to infer what is going on inside the brain uses knowledge of what is going on in the brain to help understand the constraints on conscious eXperience behaVior consider the brain as the hardware of the mind 1042015 Zapps 39 Congruent Trials Wordscolors match 39 Incongruent Trials Wordscolors don39t match 39 Semantic Interference being distracted by the meaning of the words 39 Neuroimaging directly Visualize the processing of info by specific parts of the brain