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Remote Sensing of Environment

by: Favian Legros

Remote Sensing of Environment GIS 4035C

Favian Legros
GPA 3.68


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Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Favian Legros on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GIS 4035C at Florida Atlantic University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/221636/gis-4035c-florida-atlantic-university in Geographc Information Syst at Florida Atlantic University.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
GIS 4035C REMOTE SENSING OF THE ENVIRONMENT MIDTERM EXAMREVIEW GUIDE BE SURE TO REVIEW YOUR LABORATORY EXERCISES LECTURE NOTES AND REQUIRED READINGS THE EXAM MAY INCLUDE CALCULATIONS HOWEVER A SELECTION OF FORMULAS WILL BE PROVIDED STUDY HARD 1 Intro and History of Remote Sensing 1 RS De nition Evelyn Pruitt 2 Types ofRS a Source of energy sensed Passive vs Active b Height of platform Airborne vs Satellite c Processing approach Analog vs digital 3 The Remote Sensing Process a Statement of the Problem b Data Collection c Data to Information Conversion d Presentation of the Information 4 Requisites for obtaining RS data a Theory of light and Color i Isaac Newton 1666 prism experiments ii Thomas Young XIX c Trichromacy b Light recording instrument i Camera obscura c Light sensitive emulsion i 1826 Joseph Nicephore Niepce rst photo ii Evolution Collodion wet plateH dry plateH paper roll d Aerial platform i Hot air balloons 0 First aerial hoto Gas ard Felix Tournachon NADAR 1858 0 First US aerial photo King and Black Boston 1860 ii Kites 1906 San Francisco earthquake iii Rockets and Pigeons 1903 iv Aircrafts 1903 Kitty Hawk NC Wright Brothers 5 WWI 66 ie 23 of all information obtained or checked with RS 6 WWII Prevented German invasion of England 7 Cold War a Open Skies Doctrine b Secret surveillance i GenetriX 448 drift balloons ii U2 aircraft Cuba Missile Crisis iii Corona Satellite KeyHole Camera KH lm parachuted back 8 Satellite RS a Sputnik USSR 1957 nonimaging b TIROS gTelevision Infra Red Observational Satellite US 1960 video camera N Electromagnetic Radiation 1 What is Electromagnetic Radiation a Sources i Changes in the energy levels of electrons ii Acceleration of electric charges iii Decay of radioactive substances iv Thermal motion of atoms and molecules b EMR waveparticle duality wavelength frequency Maxwell photons Einstein c Regions of the electromagnetic spectrum Know range for VISIBLE 47 and primary colors d Radiation laws c7w Planck s Law StefanBoltzmann s Law Wien s Law 2 Interactions of EMR until it is recorded by a remote sensing system a Radiation budget b Atmospheric scattering Rayleigh Mie Nonselective c Atmospheric absorption C02 03 HZOand atmospheric windows d Interaction of EMR with the Earth s surface Target re ectance a Lambertian aka diffuse vs specular re ectance b Typical curves 3 Aerial Photography 1 Color theory additive BGR vs subtractive YMC and Lens Filters Haze MinusBlue BandPass Polarized Antivigneting 2 Film Emulsions a Silver halide crystals b Sensitivity of Film ISO 3 Photographic Process a Film to Negative b Negative to Positive 4 Black and White 1 layer Panchromatic and BWIR 5 Color 3 layers Natural Color and Color IR 6 Advantages of particular types of lm and aerial photo lm 7 Vantage points vertical oblique high and low 8 Cameras a Singlelens Metric aka frame cameras focal plane focal length fstop and shutter intervalometer FMC i Product 9X9 in annotations b Multilens frame cameras multiband multispectral c Strip cameras d Panoramic cameras e Digital cameras 9 Photographic Products Contact Prints 7 eXposed photo paper 9 X 9 in Diapositive 7 positive transparencies Orthophotos 7 geometrically corrected Xy for roll yaw and relief displacement Recti ed Prints 7 only roll and yaw geometrically corrected Mosaic 7 assembly of aerial photos Enlargements 7 reproduction at a scale larger than the original og057 4 Photogrammetry 1 Geometry of aerial photography a Fiducial marks nadir PP CPP isocenter 2 Image coordinate systems Digital images rows columns vs analog images X y 3 Measurements using aerial photography SCALE length perimeter area height tone 4 Sources of Error a Measurement bRadial cTilt d Relief Displacement tops away from PP 5 Scale of aerial photographs a Kinds verbal RF graphic b Large scale greater than l20000 small scale less than 1100000 6 methods for scale determination a Level terrain i comparing to source map scale PDMDmap scale ii comparing to real world features scalePDRD iii using ying height above ground level AGL and focal distance scale FLH b Variable terrain Using adjusted ying height H AMSL 7 h above datum and focal distance 5 Mission Planning 1 Terms and de nitions intervalometer endlap 60 sidelap 2030 2 Navigation and camera setup problems too much overlap insufficient overlap drift crab 3 Mission planning Flight Altitudes and Focal Lengths b Determining photo coverage c Seasonal considerations d Time of day considerations e Technical speci cations for new photography 4 Availability of eXisting aerial photographs a USGS 9 i NHAP 19801987 l80000 BW l58000 CIR ii NAPP 1987 l40000 BW or CIR Department of Environmental Health LABINS DOQQs 20042005 Florida Department of Revenue Cadastral Mapping Florida State University System s Aerial Photography Florida USDA 1930 7 2 Fquot 99 e Florida Department of Transportation 1940 s to present Sources Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service ASCS US Department of Agriculture USDA private survey rms 5b Rectifying Photographs And Orthophotomapping 1 Map Planimetrically correct vs Imagery relief displacement multiple scales tilt sensor error a Orthographic perspective vs conical perspective 2 Recti cation assigning Xy coordinates to image 3 Orthorecti cation removing the errors scale sensor tilt sensor error associated with images a b Triangulation report c Calibration report 4 Orthophotographs a Digital Orthophoto Quadrangle DOQ 75 topo map b DO Q 6 Multispectral remote sensing De nition and terms pixel digital numberbrightness value Raster format row column band Sensor Resolution Spectral Spatial Temporal Radiometric angular information a BDRF bidirectional re ectance distribution function b Goniometer 5 Analog scanned HardCopy vs Digital acquired as SoftCopy Image Acquisition Digital Sensors a Whiskbroom discrete CCD or Linear Arrays of CCDs scanning landscape with a mirror b Pushbroom Linear or area arrays of CCDs seeing the full swath at once only moving forward c Advantages of each type JawNH 9 GB Identifying Targets In Different Spectral Regions 1 Vegetation a Spectral characteristics i pigments VIS spongy mesophyll NIR water content MIR ii Additive Re ectance More biomass a More re ectance in NIR b Temporal characteristics Phenology 2 Water a LL1LSLVLb b Re ectance in Blue and Green Penetration c Re ectance in NIR and MIR Absorption d Lv f wc SMcm Chlo DOMcM contaminants and dissolvedsuspended matter increase re ectance e Cloud and snow 3 Soils a L L1 Ls LV b soil teXture percentage of sand silt and clay ne teXture more re ectance c soil moisture content eg dry moist saturated dryer soil more re ectance d organic matter content More organic matter less re ectance e ironoxide content causes greater re ectance in the red 0607 pm 7 Elements of Image Interpretation 1 Activities of Image Interpretation DetectionID Measurement Problem solving 2 Analysis approaches Analog Visual vs Digital 3 Elements of Image Interpretation a PRIMARY x y location tonecolor b SECONDARY size shape teXture c TERTIARY shadow pseudoscopic illusion pattern Heightdepthvolumeslopeaspect d CUATERNARY Sitesituationassociation 4 Techniques of PhotographicImage Interpretation a Collateral Material maps reports metadata interpretation keys eld work b Convergence of Evidence c The Multi Concept d Methods of Search random vs logical search


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